Assessment, Internal and
Introduction of Assessment.
Definitions of Assessment.
Purposes of Assessment.
Characteristics of Assessment.
Principles of Assessment.
Functions of Assessment.
• To introduce the topic.
• To define the topic.
• To explain the purposes and characteristics
• To describe the principles of assessment.
• To illustrate the functions
• To describe the formative and summative
• To discuss the internal and external assessment.
The word ‘assess’ comes from the Latin
verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’.
Assessment is a systematic process of
gathering, interpreting, and acting
upon data related to student learning
and experience for the purpose of
developing a deep understanding of
what students know, understand, and
can do with their knowledge as a result
of their educational experience.
Assessment in education is the process of
gathering, interpreting, recording, and using
information about pupils’ responses to an
educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot,
Evaluation means the systematic examination of
events occurring and consequent on a contemporary
Cronbach et al(1980)
Evaluation is an act or a dynamic process that
allows one to make a judgment about the
desirability or value of a measure.
Evaluation is essential and never ending process or
cycle of formulating goals, measuring the progress
towards them and determining the new goals which
emerge as a result of new warning.
Chlara M. Brown
Evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes
or outcomes of a programme are examined to see
whether they are satisfactory with reference to the
stated objectives of the programme.
Purposes of evaluation
To make provision for guiding the growth
of individual pupils.
To diagnose the weakness and strength of
To locate areas where remedial measures
To provide basis for a modification of the
curriculum and course.
To motivate pupils towards better
attainment and growth.
To test the efficiency of teachers in
providing learning experiences and the
effectiveness of instruction and classroom
To improve instruction.
For guidance and counseling services.
For the purpose of promotions to the
To provide basis for the introduction of
experiences and to meet the needs of
individuals and group of pupil.
For reporting students progress to their
For the purpose of selecting students for
For the awards of scholarship and merit
To certify that a student has achieved a
particular level of performance.
Evaluation is a continuous
academic and non-academic
Discovering the needs of an
individual and designing
Evaluation is purpose
Evaluation is a procedure
for improving the product.
Principles of Evaluation
Clearly specifying what is to be evaluated
has priority in the evaluation process.
An evaluation technique should be selected
in terms of its relevance to the
characteristics of performance to be
Comprehensive evaluation requires a
variety of evaluation techniques.
Proper use of evaluation techniques
requires an awareness of their
Evaluation is a means to an end, not an
end in itself.
Evaluation technique should be selected
according to purpose served.
FUNCTIONS OF EVALUATION
Functions related to instructional process
Guidance and Remediation.
Assessment of the final output.
Classification and placement.
Diagnosis, prediction and selection.
Functions related to
Improvement of inputs and process of
Maximization of output.
Values and Attitudes about Assessment
1. Teachers value and believe in students.
2. Sharing learning goals with the
3. Involving students in self-assessment.
4. Providing feedback that helps students
recognize their next steps and how to
5. Being confident that every student can
6. Providing students with examples of
what we expect from them.
Factors Inhibiting Assessment
A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and
presentation of work rather than quality of
Greater attention given to marking and
grading, much of it tending to lower self esteem
of students, rather than providing advice for
A strong emphasis on comparing students with
each other, which demoralizes the less successful
Implications for classroom practice
Share learning goals with students.
Involve students in self-assessment.
Provide feedback that helps students recognize
their next steps and how to take them.
Be confident that every student can improve.
• formative evaluation is used
to monitor learning progress
during instruction and to
provide continuous feedback
to both pupil and teacher
regarding learning success
• Taken at varying intervals
throughout a course to
provide information and
feedback that will help
It is conducted to monitor the instructional
process to determine whether learning is taking
place as planned.
R.L. Ebel and D.A. Frishac 1986
It is concerned with judgment made during the
design and development of a program which are
directed towards modifying, forming, or otherwise
improving the program before it is completed.
A.J. Nitke 1983
Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time
and monitors student’s progress.
Characteristics of Formative
Provides the students with on his progress or
Must be continuous starts with comment of
program until the time be complete it.
Informs students about extent of learning needs
to reach the education adjective.
Enables learning activities to be adjusted in
accordance with progress made or lack of it.
Useful in guiding the students and
prompting him to ask for help.
It is carried out frequently whenever
the student/teacher feels it as
Provides teacher with qualitative and
quantitative data for modification of his
Activities of formative
•Day to day
STRATEGIES USED IN FORMATIVE
Criteria and goal setting
Self and peer assessment
Student record keeping
Key Elements of Formative Assessment
1. The identification by teachers & learners of
learning goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria
for achieving these.
2. Rich conversations between teachers & students
that continually build and go deeper.
3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to
enable students to advance their learning.
4. The active involvement of students in their own
5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs
and strengths by modifying their teaching
Black & William, 1998
• Its designed to determine the extent to
which the instructional objectives have
been achieved and is used primarily for
assigning course grades or certifying
pupil mastery of the intended learning
• Generally taken by students at the end
of a unit or semester to demonstrate
the "sum" of what they have or have
• "Good summative assessments--must
be demonstrably reliable, valid, and
free of bias“.
Summative evaluation describes judgment about
the merits of an already completed program.
Term summative refers to assigning a grade for
student’s achievement at the end of a term, course
or instructional program.
To conduct at the end of instructional segment to
determine if learning is suffer complete to warrant
moving the learner to the next segment of
Characteristics of summative
Certifying evaluation is designed to develop
competent personal from practicing.
To place students in order of merit.
Justifies the discussion as to whether they should
more up to the next class or be awarded a degree
Carried out less frequently at the end of a period
Types of Summative Assessment
Open Book Examination
Multiple choice tests
Essay or report
Types of Summative
formative and summative
•‘… often means no more
than that the assessment is
carried out frequently and is
planned at the same time as
teaching.’ (Black and Wiliam,
•‘… provides feedback which
leads to students recognizing
the (learning) gap and
closing it (Harlen, 1998)
•‘ … includes both feedback
•‘… is used essentially to feed
back into the teaching and
learning process.’ (Tunstall
and Gipps, 1996)
•‘…assessment (that) has
increasingly been used to sum
up learning…’(Black and
•‘… looks at past achievements
… adds procedures or tests to
• … is separated from teaching
… is carried out at intervals
when achievement has to be
summarized and reported.’
• Internal assessment refers to the process
evaluating students or staffs by the people who
• No external authority or office is liable to
interfere with the test given to the members of
the institution. The only governing body is the
head of the institution.
Need for internal assessment
To give credit in final assessment.
To reduce tension associated with final
To provide link for feedback in teaching.
To evaluate sphere of activity this cannot be
alone through public exam.
To provide opportunity to the teacher to evaluate
To induce students for continue learning.
Basic principles of internal
Should be continuous and made by subject
teacher, it does not replace exam.
It uses suitable evaluation tools and techniques.
Fix proportion of marks according to hours of
instructions and importance of subject to
Used as a feedback to improve teaching.
Students should know their internal assessment
marks before their final exams.
Give opportunity to students to improve their
internal assessment grade by additional tests,
Results must be studied statistically.
Improve a number of components.
Procedure for internal
Internal assessment should be
comprehensive evaluating all the aspects
of student’s growth. Eg- academic
achievement, personality traits etc.
Internal assessment should be kept
Through internal assessment teachers
can change attitude of students favorable
towards day to day program.
Internal assessment should be objective,
unbiased and based on all the records of
unit test, practical tests, home work, class
work, observational scales and
inventories, participation in group
Components of internal assessment
• Subject wise
• Assessment of
• Assessment of
Validity of internal assessment
The tool of internal assessment is very powerful
if objectively and free from bias.
It becomes invalid if the teacher is biased has
prejudice against a particular pupil.
No undue weight age is given to annual or external
Students will be engaged in study throughout the
They will be more regular, alert and science in
Eleventh hour preparation in exams will be
reduced to minimum.
Internal assessment helps to reduce anxiety and
prevent nervous breakdown in students.
A teacher may misuse it.
It can cause a great harm in the hands of an
inexperienced, insincere teacher.
It will lose its validity if favourism, personal
prejudice and subjectivity.
An evaluation carried out by evaluators
external to the entity evaluated.
An evaluation which is performed by
persons outside the organization
responsible for the intervention itself.
To make distinguish.
Comparison of abilities.
To evaluate the progress.
Selection for higher education.
To get employment.
Popularity/standard of educational
Selection of intelligent students.
Evaluation of teacher’s performance.
Evaluation of objectives and curriculum.
Creation of good habits in students.
Satisfaction and happiness of parents.
Classification of results
50 % pass in each of the theory and practical
50-59 % second division.
60-74% first division.
75 % and above is distinction.
For declaring the rank aggregate of 2 years
marks to be considered.
Process of external
Selection of paper setters and reviewers.
Setting and moderation of question papers.
Printing and packing of question papers
confidential nature of printing work.
Selection of examination centers.
Appointments of superintendants and
invigilators and staff for the fair conduct of
examination at centres.
Supply of stationary to centres.
Distributing of question papers to examinees under
the supervision of the centre’s superintendents.
Posting of police personnel at the centres.
Packing of scripts and sending them to board’s
office or examining body office.
Deployment of special squads for checking unfair
Assignment of fake of fictitious or secret roll
numbers to answer books at the board’s office.
Minimum marks shall be 50 % in each of the
theory and practical papers separately.
A candidate must have minimum of 80%
attendance in theory and practical in each subject
for appearing for examination.
A candidate has to pass in theory and practical
exam separately in each of the paper.
If a candidate fails in either theory or practical
paper he/she has to reappear for both the
All practical examination must be held in the
respective clinical areas.
One internal and external examiner should
jointly conduct practical examination for each
A person will be able to know his/her performance
For most people exam may encourage them to work
It can create competition which pushes the
competitioners to do their best.
It helps in developing one’s own personality and
If a person passes the exam and got good result, it
helps to get a scholarship which will bring to have a
• Use of unfair means in examination hall.
• Just pass the exam to get degree.
• Partial curriculum is covered.
• In complete evaluation of personality.
• Unreliable results.
• Use of helping books and guess papers.
• Exams without specific objectives.
• Negative effect/impact on the students.
• No attention over research.
• It is time consuming.
• Pet questions are respected.
• Standards vary from board to board and
universities in the same year.
• Marking is not up to the standard.
• For same people, exams make them
stress. This is because there too much
pressure of their parents and teachers.
• During the exam a person may also have
problems with questions.