Definition of Ageing• Can be defined as a progressive, generalized impairment of function resulting in a loss of adaptive response to a stress and in a growing risk of age- associated disease. (Kirkwood, 1996).
21st Century Phenomenon of Global Ageing• 20th century – saw a global phenomenon of longevity – a triumph and a challenge• Average life expectancy at birth- increased by 20 years since 1950• Is expected to increase another 10 years by 2050• By 2050, the population of older people will exceed that of children (0-14 yrs)• Is a social phenomenon without historical precedent• In 2002, number of persons > 60 years was 605 million; expected• By 2050, number is expected to reach almost 2 billion
When Does Aging Begin?• Aging begins the day we are born• No single measure of how “old” a person is• Aging is highly individualized• Aging proceeds at different rates in different people, and within different systems of the body
Why Do People Age?Many theories to include:• Hereditary Factors• Loss of cellular mass and ability of cells to divide and replicate• Accumulation of waste materials that clog cells and cause them to die• Changes in structure of connective tissueNo single theory adequately describesthe aging process
Normal Changes of Aging• Physical changes related to “Normal” aging ARE NOT disease• Changes occur in most body systems to include: Sensory System Brain and Central Nervous System Muscles and Bones Digestion Heart/Circulatory System Respiratory System• Some of the changes start in 3rd decade• 25 to 30 maximum heart rate decrease by one beat per minute per year
Good AgingWhat is successfulaging? – Is it aging without physical or mental ailments? – Maybe it is making the best of what we have. – No one can stop the clock but everyone can slow its tick
Bio Marker of Aging• Physical – Wrinkle, elasticity of skin• Biological – Vision, Hearing, Teeth, Bones• Remaining life expectancy – DHEAs, Hand grip strength, Forced vital capacity• Disease Susceptibility – BP, glucose-tolerance tests, P/R
Ideal Biomarker of Aging• It must predict the rate of aging & life span• It must be able to be tested on regular basis• It must work on human & animals both.• Clear association with aging
HOW TO SLOW DOWN AGING• Eating lively food, diet• exercising to stress muscles• learning new things to sharpen our memories• avoiding stresses and ultra-violet rays of the sun,• developing an inner optimism, hope and faith Money to spend in preventive medicine then treating elderly
SLOWING THE AGING PROCESS• It’s never too late to take the first step towards a longer and healthier life, through regular exercise.• Physical inactivity increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, high blood pressure, obesity, osteoporosis, muscle and joint disorders, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.• Walking is an easy, low risk mode of incorporating physical activity into daily life.
AGEING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY• The lowered level of physical activity and the growing number of chronic illnesses that follow with increasing age, frequently create a vicious circle.• A more active life style can help to prevent many of the negative effects ageing has on functional ability and health.• Physical activity is also the best way to break the vicious circle and move on to a path of progressive improvement.
The mystery of your futureis hidden in your daily routine
Exercise to slow down aging• ↑ Exercise - ↓ Aging• Exercise preserves the length of Telomere• Telomere is a repetitive standards of DNA at the ends of our Chromosome• Exercise increases life span by 25%• Lack of exercise is better predictive of death than smoking.• Not the fountain of youth but a drink of vitality
Aerobic And Anaerobic Exercise• Aerobic Exercise • Anaerobic Exercise• Involves the use of oxygen to produce energy • Makes the body to produce• Simple exercises and are energy without using oxygen performed for a longer time, at • High intensity workouts that moderate intensity are performed for a short time• Requires more endurance • Duration for exercises is two• Performed for about 20 minutes minutes or more • Anaerobic exercises make use• Oxygen is used to break down of phosphocreatine, stored in the muscles glucose by aerobic exercise • Build strength and muscle• Strengthening and the muscles mass, stronger bones and involved in respiration increases speed, power• Examples: Fast Walking, • Examples: Sprinting, Sprint Swimming, Jogging, Cycling, Cycling, Interval Training, Cross Country Running Heavy Weight Lifting, Any Intense Physical Activity
Optimum Exercise• Heart Rate 60-80% of maximum heart rate (training zone)• 220 – age = MHR• H.R. should return to normal within 10 minutes• Talking test
Cardio Exercise• 30 minutes of moderate Intensity cardio activity• It is any activity ↑es heart rate & respiration while using large muscle group repetitively & rhythmically• Improves – Heart – Lung – Circulation.
Types of Cardio Exercise• Low Impact Exercise – walking, hiking, long impact, aerobic dance• High Impact Exercise – Jumping the rope, Running, Jogging• No Impact Exercise – Swimming, Bicycling, Cardio in water
Diet is the KING Exercise is the QUEENOnly if we please them BOTH Then we can enjoy the kingdom of HEALTH
Nothing beats walking• Walking is not just one of the earliest forms of exercise to learn, it is rather efficient as well.• Walking is the best overall exercise.• If done correctly, this low-impact exercise has several long-term benefits.• The good news? No one is too old to get started.• However, one must be patient, it takes a lot of time to see its benefits.• “Walking is man’s best medicine”: Hipocrates
Walking for a Healthier You• Best, safest, and most natural form of exercise• Effective form of exercise for all ages• Effective form of exercise for all states and levels of health• Increases our sense of well-being• We are actually designed for lengthy, regular walking• Need not be strenuous to reap significant health benefits• Don’t have to feel the burn
How can one go about walking to slow Aging• Specific Target – Weight loss, CVS training, long term health• Pedometer – Motivation tool• Sedentary life – 5000 steps/day – At least – 10,000 steps/day – 1 Km = 1,200 steps – 1 step = 0.8 meter
Steps to Optimize Walking• Before you start consult doctor• Invest in good shoes• Warm up, Cool down• Pay attention to heart rate & breathing• 10,000 steps /day• Use good walking posture• Variety – place, more on weekend• ↑ in speed or time• Include – Jogging, Stretching
Types of walking• Fittness walking• Power walking• Race walking• Hill walking• Nordic walking• Chi walking, yogic walking• Treadmill walking
How fast should one walk?• Strolling walk – walking in a relaxed way, good posture, shoulders down, arms swinging naturally• Brisk walk – fitness, pace or aerobic walking, stepping up pace and pumping arms• Power walk – for a very fit, younger, experienced walker; walking with weights (carrying them in hands and or strapping them on waist and ankles)
Treadmill walking Burns as many calories as walking outdoorsPros:• Convenience• Climate control: No rain, wind, cold, heat• Safety: No traffic• Multitasking: Read, watch TV, listen to music, monitor familyCons:• Does not train balance muscle• Boredom factor is higher Treadmill Hill workout Treadmill Mill High Intensity workout Treadmill Mill High Intensity Interval training
Brisk Walking Pace of 3 miles/hour or 20 minutes/mile or 12 minutes/km• Moderate Intensity Exercise – 50-70% of maximum heart rate• Heart rate 120/minute• One cannot sing but still can talk
WALKING IS AN ART• Avoid long strides using gluteal muscle• Bend arm slightly, swing while walking• Walk heal to toe• Stand straight with abdominal muscles tucked in• Maintain a pace at which breathing deeply still can converse
YOGIC WALKING• Stay aware of sensation in body• Maintain tadasana (mountain alignment)• Let your arm bend• Relax• Take quick steps then long strides• Take care of shin• Rhythmic breathing• Walk at appropriate rate
What are the health benefits? • Fittness • Extend your life • Helps control weight • a brisk 1 hr walk burns @ 400 calories for the average person • Prevents osteoporosis • builds strong bones and slow bone loss • Lowers LDL cholesterol levels and raises HDL cholesterol levels – Stimulates circulation – Strengthens the heart • Helps reduce stress and depression • Keeps you emotionally healthy and enhances your well- being • Develop and maintain better coordination
What are the health benefits – Reduces high blood pressure – Can help ease back discomfort, and artharitis – Improves your muscle tone • leads to lean, toned muscles, keeping you flexible and active – Develops strength, stamina and endurance • slows down the ageing process, keeping you fit, agile and mobile – Boosts your energy level – Lower your incidence of illness (boost immune system) – Increase your metabolism – Improves sleep – Decrease the chance for fall – Best exercise for the brain • does not call for blood sugar for energy like in aerobic exercise
Healthy Walk• Benefits: Physiological, psychological and social. “if physical exercise could be dispensed as a pill, it could be the most valuable prescription to prevent diseases” (Edward Staneley)• Duration: Brisk walk for 20-60 mts for 3-5 d/week “morning walk better as she is fresh, walks with her whole body; in evening she walks only with her legs”1.WHO. The Heidelberg Guidelines. JAPA 5: 2-8, 1997; 2.Vinod Kumar. JAPA 6: 205- 6, 1998
Weight Management• Physical activity such as walking helps in weight management.• Together with a healthy, balanced diet, walking helps in long-lasting weight control by maintaining the energy balance of the body.• Reduces obesity
Calories Burn While Walking• Average weight and walking at a speed of 3 miles an hour, will burn calories at the following rate:• 130 to 140 pounds - 3.5 calories burned per minute• 145 to 155 pounds - 4.0 calories burned per minute• 160 to 170 pounds - 4.5 calories burned per minute• 175 to185 pounds - 5.0 calories burned per minute – 30 minutes of walking will burn 150 calories – 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, will burn about 750 calories per week.• 190 to 200 pounds - 5.5 calories burned per minute
Improves Bone Health• While walking one carries his own weight. This is called weight bearing exercise.• This type of exercise helps to strengthen bones and helps to prevent osteoporosis. – In children, exercise helps to build strong bones – In adults and elderly, it helps to maintain bone mass.
Reduces the Risk of Chronic Diseases• Walking helps to reduce the risk of: – High blood pressure – Heart disease – Stroke. • It does this by lowering the levels of LDL cholesterol, which reduces the risk of arterial plaque formation and, thus, arterial narrowing and blockage.
Cardiovascular Disease• Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease because of physiologic changes occurring during menopause• Exercise can prevent and/or alleviate these health problems• It can do so by lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, & by helping individuals reach an optimal blood pressure level• Moderate activities, such as walking 30 miles (48 km) per week, required 3 months to observe a significant rise in HDL.
Cardiovascular Disease• Physical activity can help prevent CHD due to its favorable influence on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure.• At a minimum, women should walk 2 miles (3.2 km) briskly most days, which is the energy equivalent of running 5 to 7.5 miles (8 to 12 km) per week.• Larger improvements in lipid levels were observed when women ran 10 to 15 miles (16 to 24 km) per week or walked 30 miles (48 km) per week.
Decreases Stress• Walking allows to get away from the things that stress.• It gives time to think and sort out problems.• Talking to a partner whilst walking and having a laugh is also great to reduce stress.• Being outside and breathing fresh air helps to improve mood.
Improves Sleep• Stress, anxiety, and depression can cause insomnia• Most common causes in seniors are a poor sleep environment and poor sleep habits.• Walking helps to decreases the stress hormones and increases endorphins which can boost mood and reduce stress, depression, and anxiety.• This relaxes the body, helping to sleep better.
Decreases Depression• Walking and exercise can help to manage depression and anxiety.
Walking May Slow Mental Aging• Research suggests walking may slow cognitive decline in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease.• Investigators from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine found that walking five miles per week protects brain structure over 10 years in people with Alzheimer’s and MCI.• “Alzheimer’s is a devastating illness, and unfortunately, walking is not a cure,”• But walking can improve the brain’s resistance to the disease and reduce memory loss over time.
Cancer• Exercise initiated early in life appears to protect against breast cancer, cancers of the reproductive system, non-reproductive system cancers• Among women not using HT, heavier women (BMI >31.1) are at greater risk for postmenopausal breast cancer• Overweight women who increased physical activity 1.25-2.5 hours/week of brisk walking reduced their risk of breast cancer by 18%.
Tips for healthy walking• Drink water before and afterwards. – If very thirsty, stop to drink during walk.• Don’t walk right after a meal. – Leave at least 45-60 minutes after eating before taking a brisk walk.• Avoid the hottest midday hours (noon to 3pm). – The ideal time is morning or late afternoon.• After a good long or brisk walk, it is a wise idea to eat some form or carbohydrate within a couple of hours to restore glycogen.
How Grandchildren Can Keep Us Young• We can really escalate our aging process just by the way we think.• Sure one may not be able to run a relay race with the grandkids but think about it one can walk many miles right along beside them.• Again the benefits that derive from this are immense.• Let grandchildren play an active role in keeping mind, body and soul young.
Walking for Women Over 65Walking, is incredibly beneficial.• It prevents the onset of arthritis• It improves balance which helps reduce the risk of falls• It decreases the risk of heart disease• A 20 minute workout can offset fatigue• Consistent walking is a mood elevator and can help offset depression associated with aging• Walking can be a time for family bonding and social excursions. Or just enjoy the outdoors.
When you must stop & consult doctor• Extreme tiredness• Shortness of breath• Chest pain• Palpitation• Joint swelling• Infection or fever• Foot or ankle sore• Undiagnosed weight loss• Pain or irregular walking gait after you have fallen• A bleeding or detached retina, eye surgery or laser treatment• Hernia• Hip surgery• Any undiagnosed problem
11 recommendation to slow down aging• Add anti-aging chemicals (antioxidant) in diet• Take brisk walk every other day• Low fat diet• Maintain BMI• Build bone density & functional strength• Stop smoking• Drink lot of fluid• Manage your stress• Practice relaxation• Avoid UV radiation• Detoxification
Lets get going!!!! Walking is free,you can walk practically anywhere, with family or friends or by yourself. All you need is a pair of comfortable walking shoes.
If you cannot fly then run If you cannot run then walkIf you cannot walk then crawl But whatever you do Keep moving