Lex bài tập

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Lex bài tập

  1. 1. Lecture II: WORD STRUCTURE AND FORMATIONI. Word structure Morpheme Root M Affixal M( bound )free M bound M gram/functional M derivational Mboy terribletable terror (inflections) prefix infix suffix terrorize girl open unkind salesman kindly include girls opens mislead fisherman leader exclude sportsman conclude washerwoman doomsday Word Simple Derived Compound (R) ( R+A ) ( R+R ) heart hearty sweetheartII. Word formation AFFIXATION1. PrefixationClassification of prefixes:Prefixes Meaning Examplesun-, dis- negative unhappy .unlucky, uneven;dishonest, disunion,non-, il- disaffection; non-stop, non-party, nonsenseim-, in-, illiterate, illegal, illogical; impossible, improperir- inactive, inaccurate, incapable; irregular irrational, irresponsible.un-, dis-, reversal, unlock,undo,unpack;disagree,disappear,de-, re- repetition decentralize, demobilize, decontaminate; rewriteanti-, opposite, review, retell; antiwar, antiaircraft, antithesiscounter- meaning counter-attack,counter-weight,counter- revolution 1
  2. 2. anti-,ante relationship antechamber, anticipate; ex-president, ex- championex- fore-, in time, ex-manager; foresee, forecast, forefrontpre-, pre-historic,pre-war, precondition; postwarpost- post-graduate, postposition;up-, sub- place upstairs, upgrade, uplift; subdivision, submarine,trans- subtitle; transplant, transatlantic, transcontinentalinter-, manner international, interlace, interrelation, extraordinaryextra-, extramural, extranuclear, withstand, withdrawwith-, co- co-exist, cooperate, co-chairman; endangeren-, em- enable, enclose, embed, empower, emplacement;super-, degree superman, supernatural, supersonic;over-, overflow, overcoat, oversleep; outweigh,out", outcast, out-distance; undergrowth,under-, underestimate, undersized; ultraviolet,ultra ultramodern, ultraradical; polysyllabic,poly-,bi- quantity polysemantic; bicycle, bilateral,dis-,duo- dissyllable; duodecimal, duologue,,mono- state monologue, monosyllabic, monolingual.a-, evaluation awake, afresh, anew, aloud, alike, alone,mis- afar, misunderstand, mislead, misbehave+ Productive and non-productive prefixesNon-productive a- : arise, apathy, anonymous; amphi-( on,both): amphitheatre,amphibious; ab-(from, away): abnormal, abstain; ad-(to, toward): admit, admonish; ante-anti-: antechamber, anticipate; con-, co-(with, together): confrontation, cooperate; de-( down, away): decrease, depart; dis-, di-: disyllable, diphthong; duo- : duodecimal; en-,em- (in, make) :enact, encircle, embark, embargo; fore-: forearm, foretell;forth-:forthcoming, forthright; in-: inmate, insight; on-, (onset, onslaught), per-(thoroughly): perfect, persuade; poly-: polysyllable, polyglot; re-: retract, return; with-withstand, withdraw+ Living (still in use) and dead (out of use) prefixesDead prefixes : a- :aware, awaken, ashamed; circum-(around): circumstance,circumference; op- (against): opposite, oppressVII Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases (a) a pseudonym : the name that ab author/writer uses instead of their real name ( bí danh , bút danh) Tip : nym~name (b) arch-rivals: the highest-ranking rivals (đại kình địch) 2
  3. 3. (c) maladministration : inefficient administration ( quản lý yếu kém , k hiệu quả) (d) out-size clothes: extra-large clothes (XL) ( quần áo ngoại cỡ) (e) malnutrition : poor nutrition ( suy dinh dưỡng) (f) pseudo-religious:pretending to be religious ( giả danh/ lợi dụng tôn giáo) (g) an arch-villain : ??? (h) to outstay your welcome: stay somewhere too long so that people want you to leaveVIII. a- (not, without) hyper- (extremely, too) fore- (before, in front of) neo- (new,revived)(a) The British Museum was built in the middle of the last century in the neo-classicalstyle popular at that time  tân cổ điển(b) Who can ………..tell what the future holds for us?(c) Its no use asking him about the political system or the parties. He didn’t know or care.Hes completely apolitical ( không quan tâm chính trị , k đảng phái)(d) Its quite normal to complain if you think something is wrong, but I do feel that youare sometimes ……….critical.(e) The authorities are concerned at the activities of a small ………-Nazi movement.(f) You must be very careful what you say about her poems. Shes a…….sensitive person.(g) She didn’t know the difference between right and wrong She had no conscience of all.She was simply ……….moral(h) The police claimed that she had some ……….knowledge of the murder attempt andcould have prevented it(i) He was standing in the middle, in the ……….ground of the picture.(j) Young children can sometimes be ………..active, which means that they can’t keepstill.IX Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases. (a) neo-imperialism : the modern form of imperialism ( CNĐG kiểu mới) (b) an atheist: s.o who believe that God doesn’t exist ( vô thần) (c) a foretaste : indication of what is to happen in the future (d) a hypermarket : extremely large supermarket like Melinh Plaza (e) hypertension : very high blood pressure ( chứng vô cùng cao huyết áp) (f) a foregone conclusion : a conclusion which was known/expected before (g) an asymmetrical shape : not symetrical/ irregular shape ( bất đối xứng) (h) a neo-Fascist: the modern/new form of Facist or s.o who support this form.X uni-, mono- (one) duo-, bi- (two) tri- (three) quad-, quart- (four) pent-, quin- (five)sex- (six) sept- (seven) oct- (eight) non- (nine) dec- (ten) cent- (hundred)Complete the words in the passage below 3
  4. 4. George Willis was born in 1900 and was too young to go into uniform in the First WorldWar, which took place in the second decade of the century. Instead he finished hisschooling and went to university. Like most Oxford colleges, his college was built rounda quadrangle and a photograph of him there shows him wearing a monoglass in his eye,one of his many eccentricities-điểm lập dị. He rode a tricycle, declaring it to be safer andmore stable than a bicycle. His subject was zoology. Initially he studied biology, but soontired of two-legged creatures and took an interest in quad…….., developing a specialaffection for elephants. However, all animal life fascinated him and he was often to beseen in the Oxfordshire countryside, observing wildlife through his bi…….. or setting uphis tripod to record it in photographs. Marine creatures also attracted him, especially, forsome reason, the octopus . He was also creative in such diverse fields as engineering (heproposed a scheme for monorail transport in London) and music (he formed a jazzsextet , which later became a quintet when the drummer joined the navy, a quartet whenthe violinist was run over by a bus and a tritet when the trombonist was imprisoned forbigamy). He travelled widely and spoke French so well that he was completely bilingual.He was a fine sportsman and won many prizes in the pentagon. In 1972, although by thistime a septuagenarian, he wrote his first play, a strange piece which consisted of adueloge between Shakespeare and Churchill. He is still active and talkative, althoughconversations with him tend to be monolog. He talks and others listen. Always optimistic,he looks forward to continuing his busylite as a nonagenarian and to becoming a centuagenarian. He lives with his wife, alively octagenarian, and has two sons and a daughter, whose birth as tri in 1927 hedescribes as the happiest event in his eventful life.Bigamy /ˈbɪg.ə.mi/the crime of marrying a person while already legally married to someone elseEx: In court, he admitted that he had committed bigamy.Compare:MonogamyPolygamyXI Explain the meanings of the following words. (a) bicentenary: a 200 anniversary of an event (b) pentagon (c) centenary (d) tricolour: flag with 3 colors ( cờ tam tài) (e) monotonous (f) decathlon (g) sexagenarian (h) quintuplets (i) bisect: cut, divided into 2 parts (j) cent: a hundredth of a dollar (k) biplane: aircraft with 2 pair of wings 4
  5. 5. (l) bicameral: lưỡng viện ( House of Lords : thượng viện vs House of Commons : hạviện - UK)In US : + + +King-maker state : bang lập vuaSwing state : bang dao động (i) unicycle: cycle decided with 1 wheel (n) quadruplets (o) unicornPractice:Decide which following statement are T or F. If T, give an example. If F, give anexplaination 1.The morpheme realization “er” is a derivational morpheme but some cases it is not simply derivational.  T( Hình vị được thể hiện / được nhận ra bằng er là hình vị phái sinh nhưng trong nhiềutrường hợp k đơn giản chỉ là hình vị phái sinh)Example :+villager  grammar morpheme (person living in a certain place)Or fast-faster+washerman  derivational morpheme ( infix –trung tố) 2.The morpheme realization “s” is a derivational morpheme but some cases it is not simply derivational  TCompletely similar to the 1st statementExample :+girls+salesman , sportsman , spokesman ( người phát ngôn) , statesman/stateswoman ( nhàchính khách, chuyên gia có uy tín lớn của 1 tổ chức ) 3.All root morphemes occur in isolation and function as independent words  FRoot morpheme is divided into 2 types : free morpheme and bound morpheme. A freemorpheme like boy, table could be a independent word but bound morphemes like ‘ter’ interrible,terror, terrify could not stand on its own. 4.Affixial morpheme is the lexical centre of the word  FRoot morpheme is the lexical centre of the word , affixial morpheme just modifies forroot morpheme 2. Suffixation 5
  6. 6. Classification of suffixes :a. According to the parts of speech+ Noun-forming suffixes-age (state,place,progress,collectiveness) :village,blockage;-al,-ial (act) :refusal,burial;-ance,-ence (act, state, quality, condition)assistance, appearance, existence, audience;-an,-ian (agent, follower, resident) :republican, guardian, Cambodian;-ant,-ent (agent) :assistant, student;-ancy,-ency (state): vacancy, emergency;-ard (depreciatory) :drunkard, coward;-ate (agent, function) :advocate, magistrate;-asm,-ast (state, condition, agent) :enthusiasm, enthusiast;-cy (state, condition, office) :bankruptcy, agency;-dom (state, condition, collectiveness) :freedom, kingdom;-er,-or(agent, instrument, resident) :teacher, cooker, villager, visitor;-ee,-ey,-y (receiver/object/result of action) :employee, attomey, inquiry;-eer (person,profession) :pioneer, engineer;-ess (feminine) :actress, tigress;-eur (person) : amateur;-hood (state, condition) :childhood, neighbourhood;-ice (act, quality, condition) :service, justice;-ics (art, study, science) :phonetics, linguistics;-ie,-y (diminutive) :birdie, granny-ier (agent) -.cashier,-ing (art, fact, activity) : learning, feeling;-ion,-tion (condition, state, result, act) :tension, organization, discussion;-ism,-ist (doctrine, theory, system, result, follower, specialist) :socialism, scientist;-ity (state) :clarity, similarity;-let (small, young) :booklet, piglet;-ling (diminutive) :seedling, duckling;-ment (act, state, progress, result, manner) :statement, agreement, improvement;-mony (state, condition, result) :lestimony, ceremony;-ness (state, quality, condition, degree) goodness, darkness, seriousness;-ology (study, system) :biology, psychology;-or,-our (condition, quality) :error, favour;-ry (state, condition, collectiveness) :machinery .poetry;-ship(state, condition, quality, office, profession) :friendship, citizenship;-ster (agent, depreciatory) :youngster, gangster;-th (state, quality) strength, length;-tude (state, quality) :latitude, attitude;-ty (quality, state, condition) : liberty, poverty;-ure (act, process, state, result, rank) :pleasure, pressure; 6
  7. 7. +adjective- forming suffixes-able, -ible (capable of, characterised by quality) :fashionable, possible;-al, -ar, -ic, -ile (capable of, of the nature of, belonging to) :global, classical, circular,popular; necessary, secondary; domestic, historic; mobile, infantile;"an, -ean (originated from, belonging to) :Roman, European;-ent ,-ant (quality) :independent, different;important,distant;-ese (resident) :Vietnamese, Chinese;-fold (having a specified number of): twofold, tenfold;-ish (having a small degree of like) :reddish, foolish;-vie (related to, causing) :active, effective;-less (without, lacking, unable) :useless, harmless;-ful (full of, characterised by): hopeful, careful;-like (resembling) :businesslike, comradelike;-ly (quality, character):friendly, womanly, lovely, lively, silly, sickly, motherly,cowardly, costly;-ous (causing, characterised by) :glorious, dangerous;-some (causing, tending to) :troublesome, lonesome;-ward (in the direction of) :sideward, northward;-y( characterised by) :mighty, needy, hearty, lofty;+ Numeral-forming suffixes-teen (fifteen), -th (fourth), -ty (sixty)+ Verb -forming suffixes-ate (facilitate), -fy (horrify), -en (brighten), -ize (specialize),vaccinate simplify darken legalizeliberate classify shorten fertilize+ Adverb -forming suffixes-ly (coldly), -ward (s) (upward (s), -wise (likewise), -long (sidelong), -way(s) (crossways)headlongb. According to the lexico-grammatical meaning+ Abstract nouns : -age, - ance, - ence, -ancy, -ency, -ation, -doom, -cy, -hood, -ing,-ion, -tion, -ism, -ice, -merit, -ness, -ship, -th, -ty+ Personal nouns: -ant,-an, -ian, -ee, -ent, -er, -ier, -ist, -ey,eer+ Feminine nouns: actress, heroine, suffragette, testatrix+ Derogatory suffixes: drunkard, underling, gangster, simpleton+ Diminutive suffixes: auntie, hanky, chicken, booklet 7
  8. 8. c. Productive and non-productive suffixes:Non-productive: -ade, -age, -ance, -ant, -ar, -ard, -ate, -cy, -dom, -en, -eer, -ese, - ence,-ean, -fy, -hood, -ier, -ics, -me, -ic, -ian, -ice, -ive, -long, -ly, -ment, -or, -ster,-th, -tude, -ward(s), -wise, -y+ Living and dead suffixes :Dead suffixes : -t (flight, height), -d (deed), -lock (wedlock)d. Polysemantic suffixes (a great number)-er: doer of the action : speaker, player, teacher person living in a certain place: villager, Londoner device, tool or instrument: eraser, cooker, boiler, starter, screwdriver-y : characterized by : windy, rainy full of, composed of: watery, muddy, sandy, starry intimate : daddy, mummy, dolly resembling : bushy, inky, rosy-ment: state, quality, condition: amazement action: arrangement process, manner, government, development continuance: Exercises on suffixesI. Deduce the meaning of the following derivatives from the meanings of theirconstituents. Explain your deduction. What are the meanings of the affixes in thewords under examination?reddish, a. ………………………………………………………………………..overwrite, v. ……………………………………………………………………..irregular, a………………………………………………………………………...illegal, a…………………………………………………………………………..retype,v. ………………………………………………………………………….old-womanish, a. …………………………………………………………………disrespectable, a. …………………………………………………………………inexpensive, a. …………………………………………………………………..unladylike, a. …………………………………………………………………….disorganise, v…………………………………………………………………….renew, v. ………………………………………………………………………….eatable, a. ………………………………………………………………………..overdress, v. ……………………………………………………………………...disaffection, n…………………………………………………………………….snobbish, a……………………………………………………………………….handful, n. …………………………………………………………… ………… 8
  9. 9. tallish, a…………………………………………………………………………..sandy, a. …………………………………………………………………………breakable, a………………………………………………………………………II. Explain the difference between the meanings of the following words produced fromthe same root by means of different affixes. Translate the words into Vietnamese.watery - waterish, ……………………………………………………………embarrassed - embarrassing. …………………………………………………manly- mannish, ……………………………………………………………colorful - colored, ……………………………………………………………distressed - distressing, ………………………………………………………respected-respectful-respectable………………………………………………exhausting- exhausted, ………………………………………………………bored -boring, ………………………………………………………………..touchy - touched - touching. …………………………………………………III -phobia (fear or hatred of) -cide (killer, killing) -gamy (marriage)Put each of the above suffixes in its correct place in the sentences below.(a) Those rose-bushes need protection. Spray them with insecti……. .(b) He gets very tense and nervous in enclosed spaces like lifts and the underground. Hesuffers from claustro……. .(c) The custom of having more than one wife or husband is known as ‘poly……’(d) Some people, and some animals, are terrified of water. This aversion is known asaqua……. .(e) His problems overwhelmed him and he finally comitted sui…… .(f) When he was arrested and charged with bi…….., both his wives stood by him.(g) His Anglo……. comes from some bad experiences he had in England.(h) Following the mans death, his wife was charged with homi……. .IV Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases. (a) germicide (d) a monogamous society (b) xenophobia (e) tratricide (c) patricide (f) agoraphobiaV -maniac (obsessed person) -phile (lover of) -monger (dealer in)Instructions as above.(a) A person who makes and exploits war is called a war…….. .(b) He has always been a biblio……… and has amassed a vast collection of books overthe years.(c) He has a shop selling pots and pans, tools and other metal goods.Hes an iron…. .(d) Hes unbelievably self-centred and arrogant. Hes a complete ego…….. .(e) She loved the year she spent in Italy and has been an Italo…….. ever since.(f) Some journalists are perfectly honest and well-meaning but she just makes a profitfrom gossip and rumour. She’s just a cheap scandal.…….. . 9
  10. 10. (g) A klepto……. is a person who has a compulsive desire to steal.(h) His fondness for drink became an addiction, and his doctor says hes now adipso……… .VI Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases (a) a pyromaniac (d) an Anglophile (b)Francophilia (e) a mania (a) a fishmonger (f) a film maniacVII -worthy (deserving, fit for) -like (similar to) -most (furthest) (a) To me, at 14, the film-stars I saw at my local cinema were god…….. creatures. (b)John OGroats in Scotland is the northern…….. town in mainland Britain.(c) We are pleased to present you with this award for your praise……. work among thepoor of this city.(d) In the old days it was not considered lady……… for a woman to smoke in public, ifat all.(e) Architecture during that period was very boring. Almost every building was a box-___structure, with no variation or decoration to please the eye.(f) Were looking for an honest, reliable, trust........ person to handle our legal affairs.(g) He betrayed the inner……. secrets of his countrys government to the enemy.(h) A small accident like that wont appear in the papers. It isnt news……. enough.VIII Explain the meanings of the following phrases. (a) a business-like manner (d) a noteworthy comment (b) his foremost thought (e) a life-like statue (c) a roadworthy car (f) outermost defencesIX -wards(in the direction of) -esque (like, in the manner of) -some (causing, making)(a) I have a backache which is a bit trouble………. at times.(b) He cast his eyes heaven……….. as if imploring God for help or pity.(c) Its very pictur……… here, with the trees attractively framing the view of the river.(d) From Colombia we went south…….. through Equador, Peru and Bolivia to Argentina.(e) Mans first view of the earth from space was an awe…… sight.(f) The back garden faces sea……. so you can always be sure of a pleasant view.(g) Im afraid I find her constant chatter gets a bit weari.......... after a while.(h) The architecture here is rather Roman……. . Look at the round arches and thickwalls.X Explain the meanings of the following phrases (a) quarrelsome boys (d) a downward movement (b) outwardly confident (e) a tiresome person (c) a statuesque figure (f) a Kafkaesque novelXI -scape (scenery) -scope (means of observing) -ette, -let, -ling (small)(a) Even the most powerful tele…….. does not make the smallest stars visible.(b) I watched a drop…… of rain move slowly down the window.(c) His most famous sea…. was painted in 1879 and hangs in the National Gallery.(d) A gos…….. is a young goose. 10
  11. 11. (e) The award takes the form of a silver statu……. of the Greek god, Adonis.(f) The first television picture of the hitherto mysterious moon……. was the mostdramatic sight I have ever seen.(g) His home is in the country and hes wondering if he can afford to buy a flat…. inLondon too.(h) The crew of a submarine just below the surface can see what is happening above bylooking through the peri…… .(i) Travelling by car, you have the chance to stop in the countryside to admire theland……… .XII Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases. (a) a microscopic insect (d) a kitchenette (b) a piglet (e) a marvellous cloudscape (c) a duckling (f) a bookletXIII -istMake sentences by connecting each person on the left below with the correct phrase onthe right.(a) An ornihologist …….speaks many languages.(b) A philatelist ……performs post-mortems on dead bodies.(c) A feminist ……is interested in birds.(d) A numismatist ……writes plays.(e) A philanthropist ……sets fire to property.(f) A pathologist ……is interested in stamps(g) A linguist ……stuffs dead animals.(h) A dramatist ……is interested in coins,(i) A seismologist ……believes in equal rights for women,(j) A manicurist ……hates women.(k) A pharmacist ……is an expert on China.(l) A meteorologist ……gives targe amounts of money to charity.(m) An arsonist ……is an expert on earthquakes(n) A taxidermist ……makes up medicines.(o) A misogynist ……looks after peoples feet.(p) A somnambulist ……looks after peoples hands and fingernails.(q) A Sinologist ……is a handwriting expert.(r) A chiropodist ……studies the weather.(s) A graphologist ……walks in his or her sleep.III. WORD COMPOSITION1. Definition :A compound word (compound) consists of at least two root morphemes. The componentsof a compound may be either simple words, derived words or even other compoundwords, one of which has inflections. 11
  12. 12. e.g.(n) blackboards, store-keepers, mothers-in-law, passers-by(v) handwash, handwashes, handwashing, handwashed(adj) heart-breaking, heart-broken, middle-aged, first-rate(adv) meantime, midway, wherever(pr) somebody, anything, whoeve2. Criteriaa. Phonological criterion+ Most of compounds have a stress on the first componente.g. classroom, greenhouse, "boy-friend, to whitewash, tobottlefeed, "snub- nosed,forget-me-not, mothers-in-law, passer-by, dancing-girlcf. free word groups : a green house, a dancing girle.g. A : Look at that beautiful dancing girl. B : Shes a well-known dancing-girl.If you dont drive the bluebottle away, I will throw the blue bottle on your face .+ Some compounds have double stress (even stress)eg. goodegg, bread-and- butter, gray-green, easygoing, happy-go-lucky, new-born,"self-control, All- Fools- Day, passenger train, merry-go- round.+ Stress helps to differentiate the meaninge.g. over-work (viÖc lµm thªm), over-work (viÖc qu¸ søc)bookcase (tñ/gi¸ s¸ch), bookcase (b×a bäc s¸ch),mankind (loµi ngêi), mankind (nam giíi, ®µn «ng)b. Criterion of the structural integrityCompounds are indivisible and it is impossible to insert any other words . Endings areadded to the whole word.e.g. black-markets, blackbirds, blackmail, blacklist, blacklegs, red-tape, fair- hairedc. Criterion of semantic integrityThe meaning of a compound is often idiomatic, i.e. the meaning of the whole compound isnot a mere sum of the meanings of its components like in a free word group.e.g. dirty work (dishonorable proceedings)fuss-pot (person easily excited and nervous about trifles)slow-coach (person who thinks and acts slowly)chatterbox (person who talks a great deal without saying anything important)blue-stocking woman (woman who affects literary tastes and learning)lip-service (superficial service from the lips only)lip-reading (interpretation of the motion of the lips)lipstick (a stick of cosmetics for redding the lips)d. Graphic (spelling) criterionA compound can be spelt in three ways : with a hyphen between two components, withbreak and without break.e.g. air-line, air line, airlinematch-box, match box, matchbox 12
  13. 13. Few compounds have connective elements (infixes).e.g. statesman, handicraft, savings-bank, goods-train, Anglo-Saxon3. Classificationa. Structural classification+ According to the structure of the immediate components- simple stems : handbag, film-star- derived stems : skyscraper, long-legged, ill-mannered, teenager- abbreviated stems : maths -teacher, H-bomb, X-ray- at least one compound stem: aircraftcarrier, waste paper basket- v + adv : break-down, cut-back+ According to the part of speech- compound nouns : girlfriend, greengrocer, splashdown- compound adjectives : red-hot, peace-loving, man-made, middle-aged- compound verbs : to whitewash, to carpet- bomb, to streamline- compound adverbs : whole-heartedly, shamefacedly, self-confidently- compound prepositions : onto, into, hereafter+ According to the type of composition- compounds formed by juxtaposition : backache, heart-broken, railroad- compounds formed by morphological means (with an infix}: spokesman, Affo- Asian,speedometer.- compounds formed by syntactical means:(word group —> compound ): up-to-date, forget-me-not, cash-and-carry- compounds formed by morphological and syntactical means :kind-hearted : with a kind heartblue-eyed : with blue eyesteenager : a person in his teens+ According to the relation between components- Coordinative components (both are independent) :socio- economical, brainmaster,mother-earth, parent-teacher- Subordinative components (one component dominates over the other): wrist-watch,gate-keeper, spaceship.b. Semantic classification+ Non-idiomatic (morphologically motivated): The meaning of the whole can deducedfrom the meanings of the components : door-handle, headache, rose-bush, life-boat,bedroom, sunlight.+ Idiomatic (non-motivated): no semantic relation between components:nightmare, lotus-eater, lip-service, eyewash, horse-sense, monkey-business.c. Phonetic classification:They are reduplicative compounds which fall into three subgroups : 13
  14. 14. + reduplicative compounds proper: hush-hush, pooh-pooh, murmur, quack-quack, puff-puff, fifty-fifty.+ ablaut combinations: the second basic morpheme is repeated with a different vowel:sing-song, chit-chat, ding-dong, ping-pong, zip-zag, tip-top.+ rhyme combinations: two pseudo- morphemes is joined to rhyme : walkie-talkie, willy-nilly, hotch-potch, hurry-scurry, lovey-dovey. How to make Compound wordsA compound word is formed by the juxtaposition of two or more words together to make a newone.1. Compound nounsa) Noun and noun b) adjective and noun Horse-race sweetheart Race-horse gentleman Football midnight Moonlight quicksilverc) Verb and nouns d) Gerund and noun Tell-tale looking-glass Pickpocket dotting -paper Stopcock reading -clamp Railroad writing- tablee) Participle and noun. f) Verb and adverb. Singing-bird drawback Running-hand keepsake Flying-machine send-off Moving-pictures go-betweeng) Adverb and verb h)preposition(or adverb) and noun Income afternoon Outcome forethought Upstart upland Offshoot insidei,Several words together forget-me-not note-of-hand stick-in-the-mud2. Compound adjectivesa) Noun and adjective b) noun and present participle Sky- blue money-making Homesick man-eating Airtight heart-rending 14
  15. 15. c) Noun and past participle d)noun and imitation of past participle Hand-made earth-coloured Heart-broken lion-hearted Horse-drawn long-tonguede) Adjective and adjective f) adjective and present participle Ready-made ill-smelling Red-hot sweet-smelling High-born dull-lookingg) Adjective and past participle h) adjective and imitation of past participle Ill-bred old-fashioned Ill-gotten quick-eared White-washed slow-wittedi) Adverb and present participle j) adverb and past participle Hard-working out-spoken Long-suffering well-worn Ever-lasting well-knownk) Several words together Up-to-date Up-to-the-minute Well-to-do Hole-and-glove Hand-to-hand3. Compound verbsa) Noun and verb b) adjective and verb Waylay whitewash Typewrite safeguard Henpeck dry-cleanc) Adverb and verb d) verb and adverb Upset turn over Backslide put on Overhear switch off4. Compound adverbsa) Adjective and noun b) adverb and position Midway herein Otherwise therefore Meantime hereaboutc) Noun and noun sidewards Lengthways Clockwise IV. SHORTENINGA very productive way of word building used in colloquial speech, documents andadvertisements. 15
  16. 16. Types of shortening:1. Abbreviationa. Acronyms: words built from the initials of components+ Monograms:UK: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandGB: Great BritainUSA: The United States of AmericaUNO: United Nations OrganizationUNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,UNICEF: United Nations Childrens Emergency FundUNFPA: United Nations Fund for Population ActivitiesESCAP: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificWHO/OMS: World Health Organization/ Organization Mondiale de la SanteOPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesNATO: North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationTV: televisionVIP: very important personMP: Member of Parliament, Military Police, Mounted PoliceGNP: gross national productGDP: gross domestic productSOS: Save our soulsPOW: prisoner of warMIA; missing -in-actionGPO: General Post OfficeGIs, GIs: government issues, US soldiersBBC: British Broadcasting CorporationVOA: Voice of AmericaRAF: Royal Air ForceUSAF; United States Air ForceSALT: Strategic Arms Limitation TalksF: FahrenheitC: Celsius, centigrade41BC: the year 41 before ChristAD185: (L. Anno Domini) in the year 185 of the Christian eraH: hydrogenO: oxygenCl: ChlorineNa: (L. natrium) sodiumetc.: etcetera; and so oni.e.: (L. id est) that is (to say)eg. (L. exempli gratia) for exampleibid. ( L. ibidem) in the same book, chapter, page, etc. quoted before 16
  17. 17. op.cit. (L. opere citato) in the work citedet al. (L. et alii) and othersviz. (L. videlicet) that is, namelyNos. : numbersc/o: care ofv/vs: versusw/o: withoutam: (L. ante meridiem) before noonpm: (L. post meridiem) after noonh: hourmin: minutesec:secondml: millilitrekg: kilogrammecc: cubic centimetre; chapterspp: pages, past participlell: linesff: following (pages, lines, etc.)nn: notescf: compareR.S.V.P./ r.s.v.p.: (Fr. Reppondez sil vous plait) please replyCOD/c.o.d.: cash on deliveryf.o.b.: free on boardCo.: companyCorp.: corporationInc. included, including, incorporatedLtd.: limited fax (facsimile)BA: Bachelor of ArtsBSc: Bachelor of ScienceMA: Master of ArtsMSc: Master of ScienceLitt.B.: Bachelor of Letters, Bachelor of LiteratureMBAs: Master of Business AdministrationPh.D.: Doctor of PhilosophyMFA: Master of Fine ArtsFDR: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) 32nd US President.JFK: John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963) 35th US President.I.O.U: I owe youJeep: general purpose carRadar: radio detection and rangingLaser: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiationSonar: sound navigation and ranging 17
  18. 18. Scuba: self-contained under-water breathing apparatus+ Homonymy-based acronyms: I.O.Ub. Clipping+initial: car (motor car), plane (air plane), phone (telephone), bus(omnibus) drome(airdrome).+ final: exam(examination), lab(laboratory), prof (professor), doc(document), ad(advertisement), ref(reference, referee, refund, reformer),vet (veteran, veterinarian),poppopular), prefab(prefabricated building materials), fig (figures, figurative), fan(fanatic),veg (vegetarian), gym(gymnastics), bull(bulletin), str(street), sec(second), h(hour),min(minute), Co(Company), Corp(Corporation), Inc.(Incorporated) , incl(included,inclusive), repoff (representative office), Lat(Latin), Gr(Greek), BrE(British English),AmE(American English); Jan(January), Feb(February), Nov (November) ;Hon(Honorable), Rev. (Reverend), rev.(revenue)Sen-(Senator, senior), Jr.(junior), Esq.(Esquire)+ inito-final: fridge( refrigerator), flu(influenza), tec(detective).+medial: maths(mathematics), specs(spectacles), V-day(Victory Day), H-bomb(Hydrogenbomb), fancy(fantacy), Mr.(Mister), Mrs., Mmes. Ms.(Messrs, Messieurs), Dr(Doctor),St(Saint), Rd(Road), maam(madam), secy(secretary), assn (association), dept(department), agcy(agency), ltd.(limited)+ elliptic-conversational: sit-down(demonstration), pop(popular music),perm(permanent wave, prelim(preliminary examination), coed(coeducational school orcollege), pram(perambulator), demob(demobilization).2. Blending: parts of two words merge into a new word: brunch (breakfast + lunch),smog( smoke+fog), telecast(tele-broadcast), medicare ( medical care),telex (telegrammeexpress), motel (motorists hotel), transreceiver (transmitter-receiver), fruice (fruit juice) V. CONVERSIONProcess of coining a new word in a different part of speech without adding any element(zero derivation). Reason : lack of affixesTypes of conversion :1. Substantivation of adjectives : (adj n) and verbs ( v n)- a native , a female, a relative, a daily, elastic, a private, an intellectual, a criminal, aconservative, a radical, a red, a grown-up.- the blind, the rich, the happy, the good.- a go, a find, black-out, take-over, a stand, a must, a walk, a move. 18
  19. 19. 2. Adjectivization of nouns (n adj)a silver cup, a gold ring, an iron knife.3. Verbalization of nouns or adjectives (n/adj v)to hand, water, land, pocket, arm, elbow, silence, skin, bottle, railroad, honeymoon,rubber-stamp, machine-gun, head, eye, finger, fish, shoulder, better, black, up, down,lower, narrow, clear, clean, cool, quiet4. Adverbalization of adjectives (adj adv)fast ,long, high, pretty, hard, wrong, dead5. Partial conversionto have a look/ talk/ smoke/ swim/ wash/ chat/ drink/ sleep/ dance/ restto give a ring/kick/ blow/ cry/ laugh/ whistle/jerk/jump/start/ answerto take a ride / walk/ the leadto make a move/dive/request/suggestion/ attempt/agreement6. Individual coinage in conversationHello, dear! He hello-deared everybody.Im tired of his hello-dear. VI. SOUND AND STRESS INTERCHANGE1. Sound interchangefood-feed, speak-speech, life-live, advice-advise, bath-bathe, belief-believe, proof-prove,loss-lose; long-length, wide-width, deep-depth, strong-strength, full- fill, sing-song, high-height.2. Stress interchangeaccent(n) accent(v) frequent(adj) frequent(v)conduct conduct absent absentdecrease decrease perfect perfectobject object concrete concreteHowever, many disyllable verbs and nouns have the same stress :- on the first syllable : exile, figure, preface, quarrel, focus, process, program, triumph,rivet, etc...- on the second syllable : accord, account, advance, amount, approach, attack, attempt,concern, defeat, distress, escape, exclaim, research, etc... VII. SOUND IMITATION (onomatopoeia / echoism)- Sound and movement of water : babble, blob, bubble, flush, gurgle, gush, splash, etc...- Sound and movement of things :bang, boom, bump, clash, crash, clink, hum, rattle,rustle, smack, thud, tinkle, whack, whick, whip, etc... 19
  20. 20. - Sound expressing human feelings : babble, chatter, coe, jabber, giggle, grumble, grunt,hum, murmur, mutter, smack, whine, whisper, titter, etc...Sound produced by animals, birds, insects:bee-buzz, hum tiger-roar wild goose-honkfrog - croak dog- bark, woof cock- crowcrow-croak cat-mew, purr hen-cacklesnake-hiss mouse-squeak cow/ox-moobird-twitter, chirp pig-squeak, grunt buffalo-snortwolf- howl duck - quack horse- neighlion- roar goose- honk mosquitoes-buzzmonkey-jabber VIII. BACK FORMATION/ BACK DERIVATION:Building of a new word by subtracting a real or supposed affix from the existing word:beggar to beg house-breaking to house-breakbaby-sister to baby-sit house-keeping to house-keepeditor to edit tape-recorder to tape-recordescalator to escalate trouble-shooter to trouble-shootbrainwashing to brainwash window-shopping to window-shopair-conditioner to air-condition More exercises on word formationI. Rewrite the following sentences below forming a compound adjective from the underlinedwords. 1. Then entered a man with a pale face 2. She has just bought a pair of gloves knitted by hand 3. He went hunting but returned with his hand empty 4. They have just invented a material proof against fire 5. The man was proved to be a murderer thirsty for blood 6. He behaves like a man with a mind of a child 7. The crow was stricken with panic by the storm 8. She felt sick from the sea travel as she was on the voyage for the first time 9. The southern off shore waters were found rich of oil 10. Their teacher was a man with kind heart 11. She was wearing shoes with high heels 12. This coat in expensive because it is proof against bullet 13. He only works part of the time 20
  21. 21. 14. This is a piece of work that consumes a lot of time. 15. Suddenly appeared a beautiful girl with curly hair.II. Explain the meaning of the underlined words. 1. The clerk was eyeing him expectantly. 2. An aggressive man battled his way to Stouts side 3. How on earth do you remember to milk the cows ? 4. Restaurants in all large cities have their ups and downs. 5. Ten minutes later I was speeding along in the direction of Cape Town 6. "A man could be very happy in a home like this if he didnt have to poison his days with work,"said Jimmy. 7. The desk clerk handed me the key. 8, The upshot seemed to be that I was left to face life with the sum of $ 124 9, My seat was in the middle of the row .I couldnt leave without inconveniencing a great many people , so I remained. 10, Under the cover of that protective din he was able to toy with a steaming dish which his waiter had brought.III. Replace the underlined words by one word. 1. He was nominated to be at the head of the army. 2. She wanted to be a star in a new film 3. They decided to lay the resolution on the table 4. They put up prices as inflation increased. 5. She turned a cold shoulder on him. Word FormsFill each space in the sentences below with the correct form of the word in bold printabove it.E.g. decide(a) We must come to a …….. very soon.(b) We beat them ……….. . We won 7-0.(c) He can never make up his mind. Hes very ……….Answers: (a) decision (b) decisively (c) indecisive1 beauty(a) She is very ………….(b) Shes training to be a ………….(c) Theyre going to…………… the town with more trees and parks.2 pay(a) To buy this car I made a monthly ………….of $280 for two years.(b) Please make your cheque ………….. to John Watson.(c) The person a cheque is made out to is called the ………….. 21
  22. 22. 3 receive(a) She works as a ………… at a hotel in Scotland.(b) Ask for a ………………when you buy something, in case you need to return it.(c) I made several suggestions to improve production, but the management was not very……………… to my ideas.4 hero(a) He received a medal for his ………………..(b) They fought …………. in the war.(c) She was described as a……………..5 produce(a) …………… of the new sports car has been halted by a strike.(b) China is one of the worlds leading …………….. of rice.(c) Im afraid the talks were totally…… . We didnt reach agreement on anything.6 explain(a) An …………….. leaflet is given to all purchasers of the machine.(b) His disappearance is very strange, in fact quite …………………. .(c) I think you owe me an ……………….. for your behaviour.7 compare(a) This is ……………… better than that. In fact, there is really no……………….. .(b) Scientists have made ………………. tests on the new drugs.8 advise(a) Until the situation has settled down, it is ………………… to travel to that country.(b) The government set up an ……………… body on he upc of drugs in sport.(c) I doubt the …………of drinking alcohol while undergoing that medical treatment.9 admirea) She was a pleasant, attractive girl, always surrounded by ………………...(h) I am full of ……………… for what she has achieved.(c) I approves of him wholeheartedly. He is an ………………… man.10 stable(a) To ……………… the boat in rough sea, we redistributed the weight.(b) Between 1860 and 1900 the country had a number of revolutions and uprisings. It wasa time of great …………………… .(c) The exchange rate is going up and down dramatically. Its very …… at the moment.11 economy(a) Were spending too much. We must …………………...(b) This car uses a lot of petrol. Its terribly ……………………..(c) The Chancellor (Minister of Finance) is responsible for ………………….. affairs. 22
  23. 23. 12 reside(a) Buckingham Palace is the Queens official ……………………. in London.(b) Theres no industry or entertainment here. Its a …………………….. district.(c) All ………………….. of the neighbouring houses were warned of the gas leak.13 comfort(a) In that tense situation I found the good news very ………………………(b) I felt rather ……., so I put a soft cushion behind me.(c) She sat in terrible ………………….. on the hard chair for over an hour14 dead(a) The increasing number of ….. in traffic accidents is alarming.(b) Be careful! Thats a ………….. poison!(c) The doctor gave him an injection to ………….. the pain.15 demonstrate(a) The ………………… marched through the streets chanting slogans(b) Grandfather rarely showed the affection he felt for his family. He was a very…………………. person.(c) What you say is ……………….. false. Let me show you the facts.16 imitate(a) The bag is made of …………………. leather.(b) Small children are very …………… in their behaviour. They just copy what they see.(c) His acting style is …………………. No one can copy him.17 argue(a) She had an ……………….. with her husband last night.(b) Hes s very bad-tempered, ……………………. chap. Hes always quarrelling(c) She is ……………….. the finest pianist in the world.18 repeat(a) He lost his temper and used disgusting, ………………… language.(b) In this essay youve said the same thing several times. Its very ………………….(c) I hope there will be no …………….. of this shocking behaviour.19 fall(a) She is very efficient and ………polite to the customers.(b) He considered himself a……….. He had succeeded in nothing.(c) It was difficult to see much in the ……………….. light.20 courage(a) His friends tried to ………………… him from attempting the dangerous climb.(b) She ………………… stood in the way of the escaping robbers.(c) His parents gave him a lot of …………………… in his studies.21 real 23
  24. 24. (a) I think its a bit ……………….. to hope that world peace can be gained so easily.(b) He spends all his time in romantic daydreams. Hes lost touch with ……………….(c) Ladies and gentlemen, I am a ……………. and I think we must face facts.22 false(a) She was accused of ………………….. the financial accounts.(b) It is a ………………. to say he did it when you know he didn’t.(c) The ………………….. of his argument was obvious to everyone.23 prophesy(a) I am not a ___ and I would not like to make a …………. on whether the world cansurvive this age of nuclear weapons.(b) What he wrote in 1930 was ………… . Much of what he described has come true.24 describe(a) The damage caused by the earthquake cannot be imagined. It was ………………...(b) The teacher asked them to write a ………… passage about their home towns.(c) The witness was able to give a full ………………….. of the wanted man.25 friend(a) The ………………… between the two soon developed into love.(b) In London she was ……………………by a rich woman who looked after her andhelped her.(c) The desert is a dangerous, ……………………. place.26 sense(a) He felt a strange, painful …………………… in his back.(b) Even the most …………………… person ought to appreciate the beauty of thismusic.(c) What an idiotic, ……………………. thing to do!27 famous(a) The ………………….. of the Beatles soon spread outside Britain.(b) The day of the massacre will go down in history as a terrible, ……………. day. It wasa day of …………………………….28 defend(a) I just want to ask you a few ordinary questions, so why dont you relax? Why are youso ……………………?(b) The governments policy on arms is shocking. It is quite …………..(c) We must do all we can for the ……………….. of this nation against possible attack29 agree(a) What an unpleasant, ………… old woman she is!(b) We finally reached ………………….. on the matter at midnight.(c) I liked the place. I found the people, the weather and the food very ………….. 24
  25. 25. 30 possess(a) In his will he left all his money and ………………….. to his wife.(b) She was a very ……………… mother. She gave her son very little freedom.(c) The actor playing the main part should be the ………………. of a very good voice,good looks and a very strong physique.31 different(a) Im afraid I have to …………………. . I dont agree with you at all.(b) Politeness is one thing. Real kindness is another. You must learn to ………….between the two.(c) We get along pretty well, although of course we have our ……………….. from timeto tine.32 active(a) The firm maintained that the strike was organized by a group of political …………...(b) The fire-prevention system is ……………… by any small increase in temperature.(c) It is quite safe to go near the volcano. It has been ……………… for years.33 form(a) It is especially important for children to have love and affection in their ………..years.(b) The slight ……….. in his left hand was corrected by surgery.(c) The police are considering the ……………….. of a new anti-drugs unit.34 compel(a) Military service is no longer .............. in Britain(b) Membership of the Students Club is entirely voluntary. There is no …………whatsoever.(c) All staff should attend the meeting. Only the most ……… reasons for absence will beaccepted.35 enthusiasm(a) They threw themselves ………… into the new project(b) Hes a real golf …………… . He loves the game(cj They didnt really ………… over my idea. In fact there was some opposition.36 create(a) lan Fleming, the ………... of James Bond, died in 1964.(b) Although she is very able technically, she isnt …… enough forthis kind of work.(c) The ………... of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization took place in1949.37 necessary(a) We regret that the present economic difficulties will ………….a reduction in our workforce.(b) I sympathize with his point of view, but I dont always…… agree with him, 25
  26. 26. (c) He lives very simply, with just the basic ........ of life,38 destroy(a) The control centre is deep underground and completely ……….except by a direct hitfrom a nuclear missile.(b) War plans include the immediate ………….... of all enemy military bases.(c) His criticism of my work was entirely ………... There was nothing useful orconstructive in it at all.39 manage(a) Talks between workers and ……………… have broken down and a strike now seemsunavoidable.(b) The boy was very violent and his parents found him …………………..(c) To improve his qualifications hes taking a course in …………………. skills.40 believe(a) It was an incredible story, quite …………………...(b) She is a person of very strong religious ………………………...(c) His explanation was obviously false and the judge made no attempt to hide his ……. CONVERSION1. Explain the meanings of the underlined nouns1. He is a liberal. 2. He is such a dear. 3. We are all equals. 4. You neednt go intoparticulars of the case. 5. There are two large stands for paper in the room . 6. It wasalways a must with him. 7. The night watch rushed to his help. 8. She couldnt turn theswitch. 9. The station is half-an-hours walk from our house. 10. You are still worryingyourself with stupid ifs and wheres.2. Express the following in one word :to become/make quiet to become/ make dull to become paleto make empty to make tame3. Explain the meaning of the underlined verbs:1- He cleaned the suit. 2. The bright light blinded him. 3. The trees began to thin out. 4.Their methods were bettered. 5. She busied herself with papers.4. Express the following in one word :1. to strike with a hammer ; 2. to stir with a spoon ; 3. to fasten something with buttons 4.to mark with a brand; 5. to cover something with sand.5. Explain the meaning of the underlined verbs : 26
  27. 27. a. to anger ones mother; to chair a meeting; to book a passenger; to elbow ones way; tohead a delegationb. She upped and threw a teapot at him. He upped and awayed to London. 3. He hadnever outed before. 4. They downed the tools. 5. The boy downed his drink.6. Form partial conversion with the following verbs, using the verbs to have, to take,"to give, to maketo smile ........................ to drink ...............................to kiss............................... to attempt.............................to breathe ....................... to sleep .…………………..to advice .......................... to request…………………to support...................... to suggest…………………Lecture III: SEMASIOLOGY (SEMANTICS)Semasiology (Gr. semasia-signification + sema-sign) a branch of language study dealingwith the word meaning, esp. lexical meaning only.I. Type of meaning Word meaningGram.meaning Lexical meaningfunctional words notional words Lexical meaning 27
  28. 28. Denotational connotational (denote) (how to denote)abstract things concrete thingssignificative demonstrativebeauty table emotion: daddy-fathers speakers evaluation: clique-group intensity: adore-love social stylistic colouring: sphere lay-kill semantic structureMonosemantic words polysemantic words( few ) (majority ) primary/direct/ secondary/indirect/ literal meaning derived/transferred figurative meaning (no context) (in context/combined with other words) head head table table e.g. Hes the head of the army. He did his best to keep the table amused.Motivation of words Motivation 28
  29. 29. (direct relationship)Morphological M. Phonetical M. Semantic M.(morph. structure+ (phonetic structures + (direct/literal meanings+meaning) meaning) indirect/ figurative meaning)teacher bang the foot of the mountainaircraft carrier tick-tack the head of a page(easily guess the mew the heart of the matterwords meaning) (imitate the sound) (figurative meaning)II. POLYSEMY1. Polysemy and ContextContext: - environment which helps us to understand the meaning of a word. - the minimal stretch of speech that determines each meaning of a word. Context linguistic non- linguistic (situational) lexical grammaticaleg.+ Grammatical context (syntactical structure)I couldnt make him understand a word I said.Yesterday I gave her a ring and asked her to go out with me.She went to visit her aunt in late summer.+ Lexical context (polysemy)black thoughts/despair (sad, dismal)black days/period (unhappy, full of hardships)yellow look/mood/feelings (jealous, envious, suspicious)the yellow press (unscrupulously sensational)+ Non- linguistic context (actual situation)Polysemy exists only in language, not in speech. A word can only have one meaning inspeech.eg. to set has 126 meanings in maximumI wont set my foot in his house.You must set your name to this document.The machine was set in motion. 29
  30. 30. They set the value of this picture at a sum of USD 20,000.2. Types of polysemy:a. Radial polysemy: all the transferred meanings are formed on the basis of oneliteral/direct meaning.eg: table 2 1. a thin flat piece of stone/metal/wood with four legs 2. part of a machine tool, on which the work is operated3<— 1 —> 5 3. a level area, a plateau 4. the persons seated at a table 4 He made the whole table roar with laughtereg. table 5. the food on a tableb. Chain polysemy: the second meaning is formed on the basis of the first, the third on thebasis of the second, and so on.eg. head 1 2 31. part of the body; 2. a human being; 3. a leader/chiefThere is semantic relation between different meanings (lit + fig) of a word.III. HOMONYMY1. DefinitionHomonyms (Gr. homes (similar) + onoma (name)): words identical in pronunciationand/or spelling, but different in meaning. They are not connected semantically (They haveno semantic relation). They are quite different words.eg. He ran fast (quickly)They stand fast. (firmly)Who feasts till he is sick, must fast till he is well. (go without food) (proverb)A clean fast is better than a dirty breakfast (proverb)2. Types of homonymsHomonyms are classified into:a- according to form:+ Full/perfect homonyms: words identical both in pronunciation and spelling. Theyare of the same part of speech.e.g. ball: a round object used in games.ball: gathering of people for dancingseal: a sea animalseal: a design printed on paper by means of a stamp.+ Partial homonyms: words identical both in pronunciation and/or spelling. They arehomonymous only in some of the forms of their respective paradigms. They may befound both within the same part of speech and in different parts of speech.eg. to found - (he) foundpail (n) - pale (adj) 30
  31. 31. lie, lied, lied lie, lay, lain lay, laid, laidb. according to meaning:+ Lexical homonyms: words of the same part of speech, but of different meanings andthere is no semantic relation between them.eg. match: que diªm; trËn ®Êuboard: tÊm v¸n, boong tµu, ñy banspring: mïa xu©n, suèi, lß so+ Grammatical homonyms: words of different parts of speech .eg. work (n) - work (v) asked (simple past) - asked (PII) brothers - brothers light (n) - light (adj)From a different angle, homonyms are classified into:+ Homophones: words identical in pronunciation, but different or coincidental in spelling.eg. son - sun air - heir night - knight ear - ear not - knot buy - by - bye race - race piece - peace write - right - rite+ Homographs: words of the same spelling, but of different pronunciation.eg. tear/ti∂/ - tear /te∂/ bow /b∂u/ - bow / bau/ wind/wind/ - wind/waind/ lead /li:d/ - lead / led /3. Discrimination between polysemy and homonymyIn some cases it is rather difficult to tell polysemantic words from homonyms.Different criteria of discrimination can be used.a. Semantic criterion: connection between meaningsHomonyms Polysemantic wordsgame: trß ch¬i, cuéc thi ®Êu hand: part of bodygame: thó s¨n help skill pointer of a clockb. Derivational criterion: homonyms have their own derivation.eg. air - aircraft, airfield, airlineair (suggestive appearance) - no derivativesto have an air of importanceto put on airsto put on an air of innocencec. Criterion of synonyms: homonyms have different synonyms.eg. bay (n) - syn. gulfbay (n) syn. barkingd. Criterion of combination: homonyms have different valency (combination ability) ordifferent paradigms.eg. game, games: trß ch¬i, thi ®Êu long(adj)- longer, longestgame: thó s¨n long (v)- longed, longing 31
  32. 32. IV. SYNONYMY1. DefinitionSynonyms are words (two or more) of the same part of speech, similar in theirdenotational meaning, but different in their phonetic and graphic forms, connotationalmeaning and combinability.eg. to help, to aid, to assist to succour main, chief, principalUsually in such a synonymic group, there is a synonymic dominant which is the mostgeneral, neutral word.English vocabulary is extremely rich in synonyms, mainly due to the abundant amount ofborrowings- There are about 8,000 synonymic groups in English.2. Types of synonyms+ Absolute synonyms: words having the same denotational and connotational meanings.They are few in number. This is a result of borrowing and territorial synonyms.eg. Br E - team (in a football match) Am E - squad luggage baggage autumn fall lift elevator flat apartment+ Semantic synonyms: words differing in shades of meaningeg. beautiful, pretty, good-looking, nice, lovely, fairto ask, to beg, to entreat, to ask, to question, to interrogate+ Stylistic synonyms: words belonging to different stylistic layers, differing in emotivevalue, expressiveness.eg. policeman - bobby (colloq.) - cop (sl)father - dad (colloq.) - daddy (colloq., emotional)man - fellow, chap (colloq), ladto begin - to commence (lit., official)- Euphemisms: words or expressions synonymous to those denoting unpleasant notions orprocesses and sounding pleasant or basing on the desire not to hurt other peoplesfeelings.eg. to die - to pass away, to depart this life/worlddead - late, deceased to dismiss —to sack, fire,corpse - remains poor - underprivilegedcrisis -recession, slow-down, depression drunk-merry, intoxicated+ Semantic-stylistic synonyms: words differing both in shades of meaning and stylisticaspect.eg. house - shack, slum, pad (sl.)to dismiss, to sack, to fire, to expel, to lay off, to kick out (sl)+ Phraseological synonyms: words differing in their combinability.eg. do exercises make money native tongue foreign language 32
  33. 33. to raise/lift a finger to raise prices/wages/questions to say smth (to sb) to tell sb smthV. ANTONYMY1. DefinitionAntonyms are words of the same part of speech, but opposite in meaning.Many words, especially those denoting concrete objects (chair, tree, tiger) have noantonyms. Usually adjectives denoting qualities, verbs denoting actions or state andabstract nouns have antonymseg. old - young ; give - take ; joy - sorrowPolysematic words may have different antonyms for different meanings.eg. a dull pupil - a bright pupila dull book - an interesting booka dull knife - a sharp knifedull colours - bright colours2. Types of antonymsa. Antonyms proper: words of different forms and having completely opposite meaningseg. old - young; kind - cruelb. Derivational antonyms: two words of the same root, one of which having a negativeaffix.eg. appear - disappear pleasant - unpleasant logical - illogical regular - irregular useful - useless normal - abnormalVI. DEVELOPMENT OF MEANING (SEMANTIC CHANGE)Although many words appear in the English language by means of word building proper(word derivation and word composition), a still greater number of new words are createdby means of the so-called semantic change or development of meaning.A. Main ways of semantic change.1. Extension /generalization of meaningExtension: the number of meanings of the same word can be expended, which leadsto polysemy. eg. ready - OE (be prepared for a ride) - Mod E ready (be prepared for anything) pipe - OE pipe (a musical instrument) - Mod E pipe (any long hollow tube)Generalization: not only the word widens its meaning but passes from specializedvocabulary into commonly used one.eg. camp (mil): place where troops are lodged in tents temporary quarters. greedy : hungry eager to obtain and keep boot - legger: an illegal dealer in liquor an illegal dealer2. Narrowing/ specialization of meaning 33
  34. 34. Narrowing: the narrowing of the number of meanings that a word expresseseg. meat: - OE mete (food in general) - Mod E meat (animal flesh as food) queen: -OE swen (wife) - Mod E queen (kings wife) deer : -OE deor (animal) - Mod E deer (con h¬u)Specialization : development of meaning from the more general to the more specificeg. girl: -OE gor - ME girle (child) - Mod E (female child/young woman) starve: -OE steofan (die) -Mod E starve (die of hunger/suffer from hunger/feelvery hungry).3. Degradation of meaningSome words have got less nice emotive meaningeg. knave: - OE cnafa (boy, servant) - Mod E knave (unprincipled or dishonest man)artful: L artis (art) - OE - ME - Mod E artful (of person/action; crafty, deceitful)4. Elevation of meaningSome words have got more pleasant ant nicer emotive meanings.eg. noble : L (g) nobitis - OFr - ME - (aristocratic) - Mod E (lofty)minister : L minister (servant, attendant) - OFr - ME - Mod E (head of a statedepartment/ministry)B. Transference of meaningA word is said to be used in a transferred meaning when it is meant to refersimultaneously to the object or, notion which it generally denotes and to another object ornotion which is in some way related with the first one on the basis of similarity orassociation.Transference from literal meaning to figurative meaning is expressed by the figures ofspeech.The most popular figures of speech are : metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole and irony1. Metaphor (Gr .meta = change +phero = bear)Metaphor : a figure of speech based on similarity (hidden comparison between theobject/notion generally denoted by the word and the object/notion in question.).Metaphor gives freshness and vivacity to speech.a. Types of similarity+ similarity of appearance: (like part of the body)leg of a table, needles eye, arm of a chair/a river, mouth of a river, tongues of a flame.+ similarity of shape: head of cabbage, teeth of a saw, nose of a plane, bottle neck.+ similarity of size: midget submarine, elephantine task, jumbo jetplane.+ similarity of position: foot of the mountain/hill /page, head/ tail of a procession,bottom of a page. + similarity of movement: caterpillar of a tank, to worm, foxtrot+ similarity of function: head of school/delegation/army, key to the mystery/ a problem+ similarity of colour: an orange coat, rosycheeks, lips+ similarity of sound : The room rang. The hall roared with laughter+ similarity of quality : a lion, a fox, a bee/beaver, a filmstar 34
  35. 35. + similarity of behaviour: a snake, crocodiles tears, an angel, a bookworm, a wirepuller,an Othello, a Cicero.+ Some metaphoric words are the result of the transfer of space relation uponpsychological and mental notions (relation between concrete and abstract) : to catch/graspan idea, to take a hint, to throw light upon life span.b. Types of metaphor+ Living metaphor; expression of individual vision or in poetryShe lent wings to his imagination... (J. London)Peace is our fortress... And the winds are rude in Biscays sleepless bayAnd beyond them stood the forest,Stood the groves of singing fine-treesGreen in summer, white in winter,Ever sighing, ever sighing.(H. Longfellow)+ fade (trite) metaphor: that has lost its freshness.Her voice is sweet, fruitful effortHes an Othello, golden youth+ dead metaphor: no longer felt as a metaphorto ponder : L. ponderare (to weigh) - Mod E (to think over, to consider+ sustained /prolonged metaphor: the image/is expanded /prolongedMr Pickwick paused, bottle up his vengeance and corked it down.Mr Dumbays cup of satisfaction was so full at the moment that he felt he could afford adrop or two of it contents, even to sprinkle on the dust in the by-path of his littledaughter. (Ch. Dickens)2. Metonymy (Gr. metonymia-meta(change)+onoma (name)Metonymy: a figure of speech based on contiguity (proximity) or close relation betweentwo objects or notions.Types of relation:+ Relation between container and the thing contained:eg. The kettle is boiling. He drank two glasses.+ Relation between parts and the whole:eg. Two heads are better than one. She has got good ear for music.I used to live without a roof over my head.+ Relation between the notion and its symbol:eg. Grey hair should be respected, from the cradle to the grave,the White House, the Pentagon, Wall Street, Fleet Street, Downing Street, the crown(monarchy).+ Relation between the place and its inhabitants: 35
  36. 36. eg. the town, the city, the House of Commons, the House of LordsThe hall burst into applause.+ Relation between the material and the thing made of it:eg. an iron, eye glasses, the silver, the brass.+ Relation between the instrument and its function:e.g.- to knife, to eye+ Relation between proper names and common names:- name of place and name of products made therechina, champagne, tweed, havana, bikini, morocco- name of inventor and name of the inventionsandwich, mackintosh, pullman, volt, ampere, ohm, diesel, watt, wellington, victoria.- name of the author and name of his works to read Dickens, to possess a complete Shakespeare.3. Hyperbole: a deliberate overstatement or exaggeratione.g. I beg a thousand pardons.I havent seen you for ages.Im dying of hungerId give the world to see himShes got a sea of troubles.4. Irony: Its contextual meaning is contrary to the literal meaning for the sake of ridicule,sarcasm.e.g. He speaks English so well that nobody can understand.What a nice mess !It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in ones pocket. Exercises on lecture III: Semantic1.Explain the meanings of the underlined words.make She makes 200 cakes a day. ( produces/manufactures) The news made her happy.(caused) We made a good breakfast before leaving.(had/ate) This wont really make any difference.(create) He soon made a fortune on the stock exchange. (earned/ gained)run Tired as I was, I began to run frantically home.(go quickly) I caught the bus that runs between C and B.(travels) It makes the blood run cold.(becomes) This self-service shop is run by the co-op.( operated/managed) Dont leave the engine running.( working) I cant afford to run a car.(own) Rivers run into the sea.( flow) I can run you up on to town.( take/ drive) 36
  37. 37. The car runs on petrol.( uses) Your nose is running.( liquiding)paper Give me a sheet of paper. Have you read the evening papers? Hes writing a paper on pollution. This applicant looks good on paper. The exam paper is difficult.face The stone struck him on the face. Her face is her fortune. They disappeared from the face of the earth. He was wearing a long face when I met him. They pretended to be on good terms so as to save their faces.II. HOMONYMY1. Comment on the type of homonyms.can (v) - can (n) mine (n) - mine (pr)case (n) - case (n) park (n) - park (v)drill (n)- drill (v) saw(n) - saw (past. II)fair (adj) - fair (n) train (n) - train (v)grave (n) -grave (adj) well (adj) - well (n)2. Comment on the following words, whether they are polysemantic (P) or homonymous (H)1. She is a good match for you.The match ended in draw. / /2. The bride and the bridegroom exchanged rings at the wedding ceremony.The people were standing in a ring. / /3. Dont spit in the well, you may need its water.All is well that ends well. / /4. The voting was done by the show of hands.There were 100 hands employed at that firm- / /5. He struck his enemy a heavy blow on the head.Give your nose a good blow. / /3. Give the homophones of the following:allowed........... nose .......... caught ............berry ........... principle.......... die ............blue .......... saw .......... board ............higher ........... stares ........... guest ............male ............. way ............ whether............III. SYNONYMS1. Give synonyms to the underlined words1) He merely closed the programme and held it.2) Does he realise his error yet? 37
  38. 38. 3) She felt timid at having to address the man.4) The building consisted of four tall redbrick blocks.5) He stood there so quiet.2. Comment on the types of synonymsbiscuit - cookie merry- gay-jollypair - couple house - dwelling - residencemuch - many petrol - gasoline - gasto answer - to reply gather - collect-assembleto continue - to go on strike - stay-out - walk-out.3. Give euphemisms of the following words.to die - pass away / on, be no more, go to heaven, breathe ones last, bite thedust/ground/sand (colloq.), kick up ones heel,; turn up ones heel; join the majority, gothe way of all flesh, kick the bucket, (sl),mad " crazy, insane, mentally deranged.toilet - W.C, lavatory(Am), loo, retiring room, public comfort station,go to the bathroom, wash ones hands.servant - help , maid-pregnant - in the family wayEuphemismsTo avoid referring too directly to unpleasant, embarrassing or personal matters we oftenprefer to use more indirect words or phrases, which are called euphemisms.1 Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the euphemisms, in italics, with moresimple, direct words or phrases.(a) Im afraid Mrs Wild passed away last night.(b) Excuse me, wheres the nearest public convenience?(c) Senior citizens are entitled to free bus travel.(d) Sadly, my grandmother is no longer with us.(e) In the middle of the exam I had to answer a call of nature.(f) His hat had seen better days.(g) We had to have our dog put to sleep.The following sentences are very direct. Rewrite them, replacing the parts in italicswith euphemisms.E.g. Shes very old.Shes not as young as she was/getting on/advanced in years.(a) Hes fat and ugly. (d) You were drunk last night.(b) Im going to vomit. (e) This work is very careless.(c) Shes a terrible cook. (f) Grandpa can hardly walk.2 Instructions as in the first exercise above.(a) We were obliged to dispense with Miss Fans services last month. 38
  39. 39. (b) He has been asked to leave the country due to his involvement with activitiesincompatible with his diplomatic duties here.(c) The state has an obligation to assist the less privileged members of the community.(d) The estate agent says the house needs some attention.(e) The ambassador said the talks were likely to have a negative outcome.(f) Tourists are advised to avoid the less salubrious parts of the city.(g) Mr West has shown insufficient effort in the execution of his duties.Instructions as in the second exercise above.(a) Your representative lied to us.(b) The talks were a waste of time.(c) Hes always late for work.(d) Your product is very badly-made.(e) Our relations with your country are awful.(f) It would be stupid to go on strike now.(g) You owe us money.(h) We were very angry with your letter.Lecture IV PHRASEOLOGYI. INTRODUCTION1. Definition 39
  40. 40. Phraseology is the study of set expressions called phraseological units. These "setexpressions are completely or partially idiomatic and reproduced in speech as ready-made units.2. Structural featuresSet expressions are characterized by the stability of its lexical components andgrammatical structure.e.g. red flower/pen/car/flag/tape(sing./plu)- free word groupred-tape (bureaucratic methods)- set expression.3. Semantic and stylistic featuresThe meaning of a set expression is not a mere sum of the meanings of it components- Setexpressions are said to be completely or partially idiomatice.g. to pull smbs leg (to tease him) - completely idiomaticto be in high feather (to be in good spirits) -ibid-to break the ice (to overcome formality or reserve in conversation,to get people on friendly terms) - partially idiomatic , transferred meaningto show ones teeth (to take up a threatening attitude) -ibid-- Set expressions exist in language and are reproduced in speech as ready-made units,whereas free word groups or combinations are created in speech every time we needthem.e.g. to show the white feather (to show fear) - set expressionto show ones anger/great courage/... -free word group- Set expressions may contain different figures of speech such as metaphor, metonymy,etc...e.g. snake in the grass; to be a dog in the manger; to have a card up ones sleeve to be all ears- Set expressions are based on alliteration and contrast:e.g. now or never ; through thick and thin; to kill or to cure; give and take-synonymy : to pull ones leg, to make a fool of somebody to hit the right nail on the head, to take the wrong sow by the ear by hook or by crook; fair and square-polysemy:at large : at liberty, free: The escaped prisoner is still at large. at full length, with details: He talked/wrote at large. in general : Did people at large approve of the government policy ? at random, without definite aim : They scattered accusations at large.II. CLASSIFICATION1. Classification based on the degree of motivation (degree of idiomacity)a) Phraseological fusions: completely idiomatic set expressions :the meaning of the whole has no connection with the meanings of its components, e.g. tobe in high feather, to beat about the bush, white elephant.b) Phraseological unities: partially idiomatic set expressions: 40
  41. 41. the meaning of the whole can be perceived as the figurative (metaphoric) meaning of thecomponentse.g. to fish in troubled waters; to show ones teeth; to wash dirty linen in publica slip of the pen /the tongue; to be Jack of all trades and master of none.Phraseological fusions and unities are called phraseological units proper. In many cases itis difficult to tell whether a given set expression belongs to fusions or unities, whether itis completely or partially idiomatic (non-motivated), because motivation often dependson the speakers education and knowledge.c) Phraseological combinations: non-idiomatic word combinations, which contain onecomponent used in direct meaning while the other is used metaphorically and restricted inits valency ability to be combined with other words. They may be called traditionalphrases.e.g. to do ones duty, to make a mistake, to meet the requirements, a burning question,acute pain, blank took/face/expression2. Classification based on the function in speechSet expressions can be classified as parts of speech equivalents :2.1 Noun equivalents :a) Ph. fusions :e.g. rank and file, high tea, slow coach, pretty kettle of fish, brain trust, pain in the neck(sl)b). Ph. unities : fe.g. a man in the street, brown bread, a slip of the tongue. Jack of all trades2.2. Verb equivalents :a) Ph. fusions :e.g. to show the white feather, to blow ones own trumpet, to sit above the saltb). Ph. unities :e.g. to clutch/ catch at a straw, to dance on a tight rope, to hold the trump card, to breakthe ice, to play the first/second fiddle2.3. Adjective equivalents :a). Ph. fusions:e.g. above-board, spick and span, mad as a hatter, dead as a door nailb). Ph. unities :e.g. high and mighty, brittle as glass, cold as charity, sharp as a needle2.4. Adverb equivalents :a) Ph. fusions:e.g. at sixes and sevens, (right) on the nail, with might and main, in the trice.b). Ph. unities :e.g. at hand, in full swing, through thick and thin, in the twinkling of an eye, far andaway, (be driven) from pillar to post, (be) over head and ears.2.5. Connecting word equivalents:a) Prepositions: by means of , in order to, in front of, in view of, with the view to, byvirtue of. 41
  42. 42. b) Conjunctions : as well as , as soon as.2.6. Interjection equivalents:Oh dear! Dear me ! My Goodness! Goodness gracious ! Well, I never ! My stars!2.7. Modal particle equivalents :After all, as it were, in fact, so to say, to be sureThey are of parenthetical character.Some phraseological units have homonyms among free word combinations.e.g. red tape, red - tape ; to hold a trump card, to hold a trump cardIII. VERBAL COLLOCATIONS:Verbal collocations are combinations of verb and particles :They are treated as set expressions, i.e. the meaning of such combinations can not beeasily derived from the meaning of the verb and the particle. They have idiomaticcharacter (non-motivated) and are different from free combinations (motivated).Verbal combinations consist of :- phrasal verb (verb + adverbial particle): to turn down- prepositional verb (verb + preposition particle): to take after- prepositional phrasal verb ( verb + adverb + preposition): to put up with1. Phrasal verbs :a). With transitive phrasal verbs, the position of the adverbial particle is determined bythe nature of the object.- Verb + object + adverb particle / Verb + adverb particle + object.They managed to put the fire out (extinguish) They managed to put out the fire .- Verb+ pronoun + adverb particle.You cant count me out (exclude)The customer turn it down. (rejected)- Verb + adverb particle + object (a long noun phrase)They turned down lots of perfectly good suggestions (rejected)b). With intransitive phrasal verbs, the adverb particle comes immediately after the verb.He broke off as I came into the room. (stopped talking)2. Prepositional verbs:The prepositional particle comes immediately after the verb.John obviously takes after his father, (resembles)3. Prepositional phrasal verbs :Verb + adverb particle + preposition particleI refused to put up with his rudeness any longer, (tolerate)The plan came in for a lot of criticism .(met)Some of the verb-preposition combinations function transitively in one of their meaningsand intransitively in another of their meanings.Transitive IntransitiveTake off shoes (remove) The plane will take off in ten minutes, (leave the ground)We must break down these My car was broken down last night 42
  43. 43. figures accurately. (went out of order)(make an analysis of)Please, pass out these papers. He passed out from the heat. (distribute) (fainted)+ Comparison verbal collocations and free verb combinations:1a He looked/up the chimney.1b. He looked up/ the meaning of the word. (search for)2a. He came/ across the road.2b. He came across/ an interesting book. (find/meet by chance)+ Compound words derived from phrasal verbs :break down (v) break -down(n)break up (v) break -up(n)break out (v) break-out, outbreak (n)call up (v) call- up (n)clear out (v) clear -out (n)draw back (v) draw-back (n)drop out (v) drop-out (n)hold up (v) hold-up (n)knock out(v) knockout(n)take over (v) takeover(n)try out (v) try-out(n)turn out(v) turnout(n)bring up (v) upbringing (n)IV. PROVERBS AND QUOTATIONS1. ProverbsProverbs are historically created folk quotations or sayings, which express popularwisdom, a truth or a moral lesson in a figurative, imaginary way. They have the form of acomplete sentence and play the most important role in phraseological units, as:- their lexical components are also stable, constant;- their meaning is mostly figurative;- they are ready-made units.Many proverbs are peculiar only to the English language, reflecting national features,history and traditions of the English people:e.g. He dances well to whom fortune pipes.You cant eat your cake and have it.The pot calls the kettle black.To carry coal to Newcastle.The proof of the pudding is in its eating.Some English proverbs are of international character: they exist in many languages.e.g. Two heads are better than one. 43
  44. 44. Dont cast pearls before swine.The devil is not so black as he is painted.Habit is the second nature.Sometimes they are translation loans from other languages, mainly from French.Appetite comes with eating (Lappetit vient en mangeant)Besides, many set expressions are created from proverbs and sayings.e.g. It is the early bird that catches the worm - the early birdNew broom sweeps clean - a new broomThe last straw breaks the camels back - the last straw2. Quotations:Quotations are expressions coming from literature which is part and parcel of thelanguage. There are literary quotations (created by famous writers):Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.Brevity is the soul of wit. (Shakespeare)To err is human, to forgive divine- (Pope)Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (Pope)and biblical quotations (taken from the Bible).It was the last straw that broke the camels back.3. ClichÐsClichÐs are quotations that are so often used and become stale. They have lost theiroriginal expressiveness.e.g. the acid test; the irony of fate; to stand shoulder to shoulder; swan song; tendermercies, etc.All these above mentioned set expressions are mostly emotionally coloured and ready-made. Exercises on lecture IVI. Read the following proverbs. Give their Vietnamese equivalents or explain theirmeanings.• A bargain is a bargain.…………………………………………………………………………………………….• A cat in gloves catches no mice.…………………………………………………………………………………………….• Those who live in glass houses shouldnt throw stones.…………………………………………………………………………………………….• Its the first step that counts.…………………………………………………………………………………………….• A new broom sweep cleans.……………………………………………………………………………………………• Fasting comes after feasting.………………………………………………………………………………………..• Might goes before right.……………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  45. 45. • The dog will not howl if you beat him with a bone.……………………………………………………………………………………………..• To shape a coat for the moon.……………………………………………………………………………………………..• Faults are thick where love is thin.……………………………………………………………………………………………..II. Match each of the following common proverbs with the most appropriate situationfrom the list below.a Actions speak louder than words.b Dont look a gift horse in the mouth.c When in Rome, do as the Romansd Dont count your chickens before theyre hatched.e Blood is thicker than water.f Prevention is better than cure.g One good turn deserves another.h Make hay while the sun shines.1) Yes, you’re probably pass the exam, but dont depend on it till you near the result.2) Make the most out of life while you can, while youre young and without any bigresponsibilities.3) Well, the cassette recorder he gave you may have a few defects, but you shouldntcomplain. It cost you nothing.4 Im not impressed by fine speeches. Why doesnt the government do something?5) Dont wait till youve got flu. Try not to catch it.6) If youre in a foreign country, you should get used to the customs there.7) Ill probably lose my job by going there to help him, but hes in trouble and he is mybrother.8) Yes, of course I’ll help you. You lent me a hand last week.2 Instructions as above.(a) Nothing venture nothing gain.(b) It never rains but it pours.(c) Once bitten, twice shy.(d) A bad workman blames his tools(e) Too many cooks spoil the broth(f) Its no use crying over spilt milk(g) Pride comes before a fall.(h) Absence makes the heart grow fonder.1 Well, it’s a pity but it’s in the past now and theres nothing we can do about it 45
  46. 46. 2) Oh, my God, I’ve got tickets for the wrong day and they ruined my suit at the cleanersand my wallet was stolen and I forgot my wifes birthday3) My wife’s spending a week with her parents. I do miss her4) I’m not investing my money in that company again. I lost everything last time I did5) Ask her out to dinner. If you dont, youll never know if she likes you.6) He was over-confident. He thought he couldnt go wrong, but then he got complacentand failed the all-important exam.7) Do we really need so many of us to do this job? Wont we get in each others way?6) Its not my fault I havent finished this typing yet. Its not a very good machine and thestuff I have to copy is very difficult to read.III. Give the English equivalents for the following Vietnamese phrases and proverbs:a/ ¨n ®Õn n¬i, lµm ®Õn chèn…………………………………………………………………………………………….b/ Cã c«ng mµi s¾t cã ngµy lªn kim…………………………………………………………………………………………….c/ Cèc mß cß x¬i…………………………………………………………………………………………….d/ Chã cËy gÇn nhµ, gµ cËy gÇn chuång…………………………………………………………………………………………….e/ Chã chª mÌo l¾m l«ng…………………………………………………………………………………………….f/ Chim thÊy tªn ph¶i cµnh cong còng sî………………………… 

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