Ancient Egypt was an age of thriving life and new mindsets. With the Nile river as its blood, Egypt was the heart of the new world and engineering of magnitudes that were unimaginable for millennia afterwards.
When, Who, and Where the Ancient Pyramids Were Built
Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians from 3000-2500 bc.
They were built by the villagers living in the area of the pyramids
1. Everyone was involved : A. women- made the food and clothed then men
b. men- did the hard labor; make the pyramid build it
Many of the Royal Pyramids were built in Nubia along the Nile
The Pyramids When, Who, and Where the Ancient Pyramids Were Built Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians from 3000-2500 bc. They were built by the villagers living in the area of the pyramids 1. Everyone was involved : A. women- made the food and clothed then men b. men- did the hard labor; make the pyramid build it Many of the Royal Pyramids were built in Nubia along the Nile Were built as tombs and for the pharaohs a way to the heavens The pyramids played a huge role in holding information of Ancient Egyptian life. It showed off the many characteristics of a once prosperous civilization, which is important for other generations to come.
Hieroglyphics Type of record keeping used by the Egyptians for keeping track of taxes, laws, and stories . They were carved along the walls of the pyramids. These were called sunk relief and raised relief. Were also written on loose leafy paper called papyrus were ink from soot or ochre Told stories and facts about the pharaoh and his/her people. Only about 1% of the Egyptian people knew how to write in this calligraphy. They were called scribes Scribes were boys of wealthy families which were taught how to read and write at an early age. You were kept close to the pharaoh if you were one.
The Egyptians had many gods and beliefs within there culture. Some of these gods were:
Ra: God of the sun, he was believed to have been swallowed every night by the god of the sky, Nut. Then every morning he would be reborn. He often appeared as a man with a hawk’s head.
Isis: The goddess of magic and protection, she was the husband of Osiris, the god of the dead, and the mother of Horus, god of the Pharaohs. She appears as a woman with a headdress or in the shape of a throne.
Anubis: The god of embalming, he would lead the dead through the afterlife, and help to weigh a persons heart against the feather of Ma’at. If your heart was heavier than the feather, then it would be devoured by the demon Ammit, whereas if your heart was lighter, you would get to live forever. His appearance was that of a man’s body, and a jackal’s head.
The Ancient Egyptian government was ruled by the Pharaoh, although, he wasn’t always the one in control. The government was a theocracy as well, and was controlled by the clergy, which nearly always consisted fully of priests. The priests were considered the only one worthy enough to carry out the will of the Pharaoh, and were considered as a higher status than normal citizens, a kind of nobility. Even though the majority of Egypt’s people were peasants and farmers, they still had no say in the government. Nobody questioned this either, since their religion backed it up. There were some times, too, that the Pharaohs wife, the Queen would be the one making all the orders. This would be in the case of the Pharaoh being sick, or in some cases, murdered.
Ancient Egypt was ruled by God-Kings called Pharaohs. In the Egyptian beliefs, the Pharaohs were put on the earth to rule by the gods, and were the god’s mortal vessels. Two of the most famous Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were Menes and Djoser.
Menes (Hor-Aha) : 3000- 2938 B.C.
The first Pharaoh of the first dynasty, Menes was also the first ruler of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. As a show of his unified country, Menes had the capital city, Memphis, built in the middle of the Nile. He had a long 62 year rule before he was carried off and killed by a hippo.
Djoser: 2668- 2649 B.C.
The second Pharaoh of the third dynasty, he was thought to be the brother of the Pharaoh Sanakhte, the first pharaoh of the third dynasty. He was the first Pharaoh to come up with the idea of a pyramid, and had his vizier, Imhotep, design the step pyramid Saqqara for him. He was also called Zoser, or for the majority of his rule, Netjerikhet, which was his Horus name.
A statue of Menes, the first pharaoh of the first dynasty.
All internal organs were removed from the body, aside from the heart
The brain was removed by an iron hook that would go up the nose of the corpse. Once in the brain, the hook would be swirled around to liquefy the brain so that when the head is tipped forward everything would pour out.
With a sharp tool, the side of the body was cut and the rest of the organs were removed
Embalmers filled the belly of the dead with myrrh, cassia, and other “perfumes”. This helped against decay
Soaked the body in mineral salt for 70 days. The mineral salt absorbed the moisture, shrank, and darkened the body
After 70 days the body would then be wrapped in waxen cloth
When the person died, Egyptians believed that they made their way from the netherworld to the Hall of Judgment
Parts from the “Book of the Dead”, the “Book of the Two Ways”, and the “Book of the Netherworld” were put on objects that were buried with the dead to protect them on their journey
A priest performed the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony over the body so that once in the netherworld all of the bodies senses were restored
Once in the Hall of Judgment, Osiris (god of the netherworld) would weigh the persons heart against a feather. If the heart was heavy with sin, their soul would be eaten by a beast known as the Devourer of souls
If not heavy with sin, the soul would live forever in the “Other World”
Ancient Egypt was a time of religion, prosperity, poverty, downfalls, uprisings, and engineering, the likes of which that were not repeated for millennia. Still today people learn from Egypt’s culture, how they lived, and what they believed. If not for Ancient Egypt’s engineering breakthroughs, the world’s technology as we know it would be set back decades, possibly even centuries. It is without a doubt that mankind can say the world has come so far because of the help of Ancient Egypt.
Bibliography Chronicle of the Pharaohs by Peter A Clayton World History: Patterns of Interaction by McDougal Littell Egypt: Engineering an Empire http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/egypt/index. htm http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/explore/main.html http://students.missouri.edu/~sa-en-ra/menes2.jpg http://www.geocities.com/athens/2962/colourbook/ra.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/3011/egypt3. htm http://www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/Lectures/Hum1/030910/030910social.gif "Ancient Egyptians." All About History . 2002-2008. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.allabouthistory.org/ancient-egyptians-faq.htm>. "Ancient Egypt:The Egyptian Afterlife." Museum of Science . 2003. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.mos.org/quest/afterlife.php>. "Ancient Egypt: Mummification in Ancient Egypt." Museum of Science . 2003. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.mos.org/quest/mummyegypt.php>.