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Info Design in an Urban      Environment
Teacher expectations                   Share                   Speak                  Process                   Trust     ...
Description:- location based assignments- in class presentations- exchanging information and learning from experience.- in...
Presentations:   - Pecha Kucha style- catalog of your research- visual archive of what you  find and how you apply it     ...
Intro to the need for info design                     Clear and accessible communication:                          A broad...
So What is Information design?
Finding a single, comprehensive definition for the term "information                    design" is almost impossible.
So what do others think?
VERY BASIC"Information design makes complex information     easier to understand and use." - AIGA
A BETTER ONE   "Information design is about the clear and effective presentation of   information. It involves a multi- an...
ANOTHER GOOD ONE"Information design is all about the psychology and physiology of how users access, learn, and remember in...
ANOTHER GOOD ONE  "My quote is: The only way to communicate is to understand what it islike not to understand. It is at th...
ONE I LIKE A LOT"Information design, also know as communication design, is a rapidlygrowing discipline that draws on typog...
Common Information Design Artifacts                           -Calendars, timelines, & timetables                         ...
Behind all great design artifacts is a  strong user-centered design process      (or human-centered design)     that place...
What are the tools of user-centered design?    Its driven by research into the needs, behaviors,          and expectations...
In a user-centered design processprojects are developed through multiple cycles of testing,           analysis, and protot...
"The goal is to create artifacts that enhance the way people work, learn, and play- rather than forcing them to conform to...
"Information design is ultimately a human-centerd practice. Careful consideration            of the users needs determines...
Why do we need Principles of ID?
"To understand the end user so that we can target our messaging,we need to learn more about how they will receive and deco...
What do the Principles of ID do exactly?
"Principles explore the connections and convergences between   human perception, thinking, and learning; how we transmit  ...
What is the end goal?
"The end goal of any information design task is to communiate a     specific message to the end user in a way that is clea...
Cognitive principles:Learning Styles, Memory, Perception, Wayfinding          Communcation Principles:  AIDA, LATCH, Inver...
Cognitive principles:                             Wayfinding- travel- using signs or landmarks- signs or landmarks- roads ...
Communication principles:                               AIDAAttention, Interest, Desire, Action- a model that describes th...
Aesthetic Principles                                 Grid System- Print, digital, installation- ratios, numbers of columns...
Cognitive Principles of IDLearning Styles & Memory
Learning Styles                                         Visual                                    Auditory/Verbal         ...
Visual Learners                 Prefer Images for new information.More likely to remember: pictures, maps, charts, flowcha...
Auditory/Verbal Learners     Prefer written and spoken words for new information.     More likely to remember info from: l...
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners         These learners acquire knowledge by doing.They prefer labs, demonstrations, and learn...
Memory"Memory is an organisms ability to store,retain, and recall information and                           experiences." ...
The Stage Theory ModelThe stage model of memory is often used to explain the basic structure and function         of memor...
Sensory Memory (Input)   Sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief periodof time, generally for ...
Short-term Memory           Short-term memory, also known as active memory,  is the information we are currently aware of ...
Long-term Memory (Storage & Retrieval)  This is where information is stored in the brian   permanently to be retrieved whe...
The Stage Theory Model
Organizing Memory     The ability to access and retrieve information from long-term memory         allows us to actually u...
Millers Magic Number                        (or number chunking)In 1950 George Miller, a psychology professor at Harvard U...
9173614874
Quick Tips for the Week:- Design for retention: "Make aesthetic and communication decisions thattarget every stage of the ...
Second Week Lecture start here
Cognitive Principles of ID         "How we learn"       "How we remember"
Communication Principles of ID    "How we process or transmit information"
Aesthetic Principles of ID  "How we package information visually     to best connect our audience to         the intended ...
Cognitive Principles of ID
"How do we learn"         Visual    Auditory/Verbal   Kinesthetic/Tactile
"How we remember"              The Stage Theory Model:Input memory (notice), short-term memory(storage),      long-term me...
Millers Magic Number (or number chunking)   (402) 367-7309
Putting it together
Cognitive principles of ID                    How we perceive & discern                                    (thinking and l...
Cognitive principles of ID                       Perception/Descernment                                    (thinking and l...
Cognitive principles of ID           Perception & Discernment
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                                      Perception                Our ab...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                                    Discernment                       ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                          Learning Why?                      can help ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences             ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                  Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences           ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences                    Webers la...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences                             ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences                          Thi...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences                             ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                  Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences           ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                       The Gestalt Principles of Perception          G...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception         1930s Gestalt psychologis...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception            While individual desig...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                              They...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                              The ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                                  ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity        ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                                  ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Similarity
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Similarity
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                                  ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Principle of Prägnanz
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                                  ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure"A Sunday ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception                                  ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception     A better version.
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                                Clevelands Task Model     William S. C...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model                                      Graphs tell...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model                                        Graphs te...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup         http://visitsteve.com/made/c...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model                         Bad designs can skew fac...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model                            When making visual di...
Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment                    More than "just noticeable" differences           ...
how do we find...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                 Wayfinding                 Kevin Lynch, The Image o...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                    Orientation within a new environment                            ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                  Physical or Virtual                               ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                         "Route-based knowledge"                     environmental c...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                             "Route-based knowledge"
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                  "Survey Knowledge"
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                         "Legibility"             Points            ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                         "Legibility"              Points : place, s...
Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding                                         "Legibility"                 This visual ge...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload                  Information Overload                        Alvin Toffle...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload            An individuals inability to process, assimilate, and          ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload                               Map Shock/Visual Shock             Complex ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload                           Information Anxiety              "The black hol...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload            Stress from not knowing how to process data, but              ...
Cognitive principles of ID: Information OverloadHome Defibrillator
Quick Tips for Week 2: Perception and Decernment- More than "just noticeable" differences: "Determining the difference thr...
Quick Tips for Week 2: Wayfinding- Provide a map: Include a map wherever possible to help users orient themselves withinth...
Quick Tips for Week 2: Information Overload- Dont Decorate, design: Keep the design simple so the user feelscomfortable. A...
Cognitive Principles of ID
Cognitive Principles of ID                                Learning Styles                                      Visual     ...
Cognitive Principles of ID                       The cognitive Process                         The Stage Theory Model:    ...
Cognitive Principles of ID                               Memory                         Millers Magic Number              ...
Cognitive Principles of ID                    Perception & Discernment           Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences...
Cognitive Principles of ID                             Wayfinding                      Route-based knowledge              ...
Cognitive Principles of ID                       Information Overload                          Dont decorate design       ...
Cognitive Principles of ID          Learning Styles       The cognitive process              Memory     Perception & Disce...
Communication Principles of ID                   AIDA                  LATCH         Inverted Pyramid Writing         Prin...
Communication Principles of ID    "How we process or transmit information"
Communication Principles of ID                            To understand                   how people transmit knowledge,  ...
Communication Principles of ID                 Often from an economic, commercial,                   cultural, social,or p...
Communication Principles of ID                            Often takes two forms:                      Interpersonal Commun...
Communication Principles of ID       Often the vehicle for distributing the information,       rather than the content, de...
Communication Principles of ID                                      AIDA                          (Attention, Interest, De...
Communication Principles of ID                       Developed in the early 1900s          by E. St. Elmo Lewis, a pioneer...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA               Attention or awareness must be developed;                   meaning the...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA                Interest must be generated so the audience                       learn...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA                          Desire must be created,                      producing an em...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA                 Action will then be taken by the audience,                        eli...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA                                       AIDA                  is also the foundation of...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA          AIDA and similar hierarchy of effects models                  have been wide...
Communication Principles of ID: AIDA        While developed as a sales tool, AIDA can also be used by   designers in the s...
Info design Urban week1-3
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Basic lecture notes from Week 1, 2 and 3 of
ID URBAN @Parsons

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Transcript of "Info design Urban week1-3"

  1. 1. Info Design in an Urban Environment
  2. 2. Teacher expectations Share Speak Process Trust Explore Teaching Ground-rules Contribute Respect Confidence Support Challenge Textbook “The Information Design Handbook”O’Grady, Jenn Visocky. O’Grady, Ken Visocky.
  3. 3. Description:- location based assignments- in class presentations- exchanging information and learning from experience.- in-depth introduction to information design models- consider all forms of design for design solutions- Projects can be in the form of exhibition, installation, graphic, print, game, videoand/or web. Objectives:- Professional and personal understanding of info design- Learn through exploration and hands on experience- Practice application of design models
  4. 4. Presentations: - Pecha Kucha style- catalog of your research- visual archive of what you find and how you apply it Class Blog: - all work on blog - label your posts with your name, nothing else. Post title includes week.
  5. 5. Intro to the need for info design Clear and accessible communication: A broad range of media is essential. Information design is broad: blending typography, illustration, communication studies, ergonomics, psychology, sociology, linguistics, computer science, and a variety of other fields Focus: Accurate representation of specific knowledge sets and the unique needs of the end user. Globalization through Technology since 1969: Radio and TV. Now internet, podcasts, social networking, guerilla marketing, text message, interactive outdoor ads. Human centered approach:Technology changes and cultural shifts are essential to comprehend preferred methods of media consumption. Need to understand how and why audiences are using those tools.
  6. 6. So What is Information design?
  7. 7. Finding a single, comprehensive definition for the term "information design" is almost impossible.
  8. 8. So what do others think?
  9. 9. VERY BASIC"Information design makes complex information easier to understand and use." - AIGA
  10. 10. A BETTER ONE "Information design is about the clear and effective presentation of information. It involves a multi- and interdisciplinary approach tocommunication, combining skills from graphic design, technical and non- technical authoring, psychology, communication theory, and cultural studies." - Frank Thissen translated from Lexikon des Digitalen Informations Designs
  11. 11. ANOTHER GOOD ONE"Information design is all about the psychology and physiology of how users access, learn, and remember information; the impact of colors, shapes, and patterns, learning styles." - Luigi Canali De Rossi from "What is Information Design?"
  12. 12. ANOTHER GOOD ONE "My quote is: The only way to communicate is to understand what it islike not to understand. It is at that moment that you can make something understandable." - Richard Saul Wurman
  13. 13. ONE I LIKE A LOT"Information design, also know as communication design, is a rapidlygrowing discipline that draws on typography, graphic design, applied ergonomics, computing, and other fields. It emerged as a response to peoples need to understand and use such things as forms, legal documents, signs, computer interfaces,technical information, and operating/assembly instructions." - Sue Walker and Mark Barratt designcouncil.org.uk
  14. 14. Common Information Design Artifacts -Calendars, timelines, & timetables -Charts & graphs -Diagrams & schematics -Exhibitions & environments -Exterior signage, wayfinding elements, & kiosks -Icons & symbols -Interfaces, both physical and digital -Maps -3D models & computer simulations -Commercials -Technical illustrations -Tutorials & instructions -Websites, animations, & interactive media.
  15. 15. Behind all great design artifacts is a strong user-centered design process (or human-centered design) that places the end user at thecenter of each products design process.
  16. 16. What are the tools of user-centered design? Its driven by research into the needs, behaviors, and expectations of the target audience. Focus groups Interviews observational studies prototyping and testing
  17. 17. In a user-centered design processprojects are developed through multiple cycles of testing, analysis, and prototype refinement.
  18. 18. "The goal is to create artifacts that enhance the way people work, learn, and play- rather than forcing them to conform to new or unfamiliar skill sets and learning methods." -Jenn & Ken Visocky O Grady The Information Design Handbook.
  19. 19. "Information design is ultimately a human-centerd practice. Careful consideration of the users needs determines the appropriate content." -Jenn & Ken Visocky O Grady The Information Design Handbook.
  20. 20. Why do we need Principles of ID?
  21. 21. "To understand the end user so that we can target our messaging,we need to learn more about how they will receive and decode the information sets we send. Though designers need notbecome behavioral scientists, knowledge of the principles framing cognition, communication, and aesthetics provides illumination for our craft." -Jenn & Ken Visocky O Grady The Information Design Handbook.
  22. 22. What do the Principles of ID do exactly?
  23. 23. "Principles explore the connections and convergences between human perception, thinking, and learning; how we transmit knowledge, share concepts, and process information throughlanguage; and how structure and legibiltiy affect the visualization of messaging." -Jenn & Ken Visocky O Grady The Information Design Handbook.
  24. 24. What is the end goal?
  25. 25. "The end goal of any information design task is to communiate a specific message to the end user in a way that is clear accessible, and easy to understand" -Jenn & Ken Visocky O Grady The Information Design Handbook.
  26. 26. Cognitive principles:Learning Styles, Memory, Perception, Wayfinding Communcation Principles: AIDA, LATCH, Inverted Pyramid, Familiarity Aesthetic Principles Structure, Grid System, Hierarchy, Color
  27. 27. Cognitive principles: Wayfinding- travel- using signs or landmarks- signs or landmarks- roads and pathways
  28. 28. Communication principles: AIDAAttention, Interest, Desire, Action- a model that describes the salesprocess- the foundation for other models- used in marketing for morestructure sales approach- business writing for persuasivecommunication- guage the effectiveness ofcampaigns
  29. 29. Aesthetic Principles Grid System- Print, digital, installation- ratios, numbers of columns- width of gutters and margins- horizontal/vertical- canvas for content- clarity through organization,movement and grouping
  30. 30. Cognitive Principles of IDLearning Styles & Memory
  31. 31. Learning Styles Visual Auditory/Verbal Kinesthetic/Tactile (Also called the Dunn & Dunn Learning-Style Model developed by Rita and Kenneth Dunn in 1970 and widely accepted by educational and cognitive science communities)
  32. 32. Visual Learners Prefer Images for new information.More likely to remember: pictures, maps, charts, flowcharts, etc.. Tend to have a strong awareness of aesthetics and space.
  33. 33. Auditory/Verbal Learners Prefer written and spoken words for new information. More likely to remember info from: lectures, written documents, and group discussions. These learners tend to think in words rather thanpictures and often have strong written and verbal communication skills.
  34. 34. Kinesthetic/Tactile Learners These learners acquire knowledge by doing.They prefer labs, demonstrations, and learning through play.These learners do best by doing, work well with their hands, and usually possess good physical coordination.
  35. 35. Memory"Memory is an organisms ability to store,retain, and recall information and experiences." -Wikipedia.org
  36. 36. The Stage Theory ModelThe stage model of memory is often used to explain the basic structure and function of memory. Initially proposed in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin, this theory outlines three separate stages of memory: sensory memory (input) short-term memory long-term memory.
  37. 37. Sensory Memory (Input) Sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief periodof time, generally for no longer than a half-second for visual information and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information. We attend to only certain aspects of this sensory memory, allowing some of this information to pass into the next stage - short-term memory and ignoring the rest.
  38. 38. Short-term Memory Short-term memory, also known as active memory, is the information we are currently aware of or thinking about in aconscious way. This information can again be processed or forgotten.The more we use that information, the more likely we will remember it and passed into long-term memory. Short-term memory is stored for about 20-30 seconds before we either forget it or it is saved in our long-term memory.
  39. 39. Long-term Memory (Storage & Retrieval) This is where information is stored in the brian permanently to be retrieved when needed.
  40. 40. The Stage Theory Model
  41. 41. Organizing Memory The ability to access and retrieve information from long-term memory allows us to actually use these memories to make decisions, interact with others and solve problems. But how is information organized in memory? The specific way information isorganized in long-term memory is not well understood, but researchers do know that these memories are arranged in groups.
  42. 42. Millers Magic Number (or number chunking)In 1950 George Miller, a psychology professor at Harvard University, wanted to identify the the limits of short-term memory. What he found was that the human brain can best remember information in chunks of 7 units, plus or minus two, in short-term memory. So we are able to remember larger amounts of content by rechuncking and re-organizing that content into units of 7 +/-2
  43. 43. 9173614874
  44. 44. Quick Tips for the Week:- Design for retention: "Make aesthetic and communication decisions thattarget every stage of the memory process. Use contrasts and color to attractimmediate notice. Create associations with familiar subjects to help the userstore the information. And provide parsed, accesible chunks of content or easyretrieval."- Make it Easy: "Use Millers Magic Number to make complex information setseasier for your user to access, understand, and recall. Break complicated orlengthy content into smaller chunks always remembering "7 +/-2" as your guide.Then utilize design continuity to link those sections into a broader message."- Homework:Pecha Kucha presentation of real life examples of good and bad info design (7minutes or less)Read PDF on blog (TBD)
  45. 45. Second Week Lecture start here
  46. 46. Cognitive Principles of ID "How we learn" "How we remember"
  47. 47. Communication Principles of ID "How we process or transmit information"
  48. 48. Aesthetic Principles of ID "How we package information visually to best connect our audience to the intended message"
  49. 49. Cognitive Principles of ID
  50. 50. "How do we learn" Visual Auditory/Verbal Kinesthetic/Tactile
  51. 51. "How we remember" The Stage Theory Model:Input memory (notice), short-term memory(storage), long-term memory(storage and retrieval)
  52. 52. Millers Magic Number (or number chunking) (402) 367-7309
  53. 53. Putting it together
  54. 54. Cognitive principles of ID How we perceive & discern (thinking and learning) How we transmit knowledge (share ideas and process info through language) How to use Structure and Legibility ( visualization of the message)
  55. 55. Cognitive principles of ID Perception/Descernment (thinking and learning) Wayfinding (share ideas and process info through language) Information Overload ( visualization of the message)
  56. 56. Cognitive principles of ID Perception & Discernment
  57. 57. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Perception Our ability to rapidly absorb and asses sensory information from our environment. =
  58. 58. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Discernment Our ability to understand that information and easily distinguish it from other sensory information.
  59. 59. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Learning Why? can help you target your message for maximum reception
  60. 60. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences The Gestalt Principles of Perception Clevelands Task Model
  61. 61. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences (Difference Threshold) The minimum amount of change required in any type of sensory stimulus for an individual to take notice.
  62. 62. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences Webers law postulates that once the amount of change is determined, it remains constant and can be predicted for future stimuli.
  63. 63. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences
  64. 64. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences = 2 points
  65. 65. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences This 2 points difference is know as Difference Threshold
  66. 66. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentWebers Law of Just Noticeable Differences Subsequent changes are apparent at 14pt, 16pt, 18pt, and 20pt.
  67. 67. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences (Difference Threshold) Confirmed by numerous studies. Has been applies to many different types of sensory experiences with consistent results.
  68. 68. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment The Gestalt Principles of Perception Gestalt psychology views the workings of the human mind as a holistic process that strives to self-organize. - OGrady
  69. 69. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception 1930s Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, Wolgang Koler, and Max Wertheimer applied this theory to visual perception. They found we perceive compositions as a whole, rather than as a collection of individual forms.
  70. 70. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception While individual design elements may posses unique information, when viewed in relation to other elements their meaning and context can be hard to discern because we tend to group multiple element into complete compositions.
  71. 71. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception They theorized that in terms of visual perception comprehension is achieved by recognizing both the interplay between design elements and reading the composition as a whole.
  72. 72. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception The most relevant of techniques used by todays designers to create hierarchy and meaning are: The Principle of Proximity The Principle of Similarity The Principle of Pragnänz The Principle of Closure
  73. 73. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception The Principle of Proximity When viewers see adjacent objects they process them as a group, and consider them to have like meaning. - OGrady
  74. 74. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity
  75. 75. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity Timm Kekeritz
  76. 76. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Proximity
  77. 77. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception The Principle of Similarity States that objects which look the same, i.e.. share similar attributes-size, color, shape, direction, orientation, weight, and texture-are perceptually and cognitively grouped together. - OGrady
  78. 78. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Similarity
  79. 79. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Similarity
  80. 80. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception The Principle of Prägnanz (Figure-ground relationship) States that when looking at a visual field, objects appear either dominant or recessive. Dominant objects are perceived as figures. Recessive objects are seen as background. Reversible images or patterns make it hard to differentiate the figure-ground relationship. Smaller objects are generally perceived as figures in a larger visual field or background
  81. 81. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
  82. 82. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
  83. 83. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
  84. 84. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Prägnanz
  85. 85. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Principle of Prägnanz
  86. 86. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception The Principle of Closure States that we mentally close up or form objects that are visually implied. - OGrady
  87. 87. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
  88. 88. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
  89. 89. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure
  90. 90. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of PerceptionThe Principle of Closure"A Sunday on La Grande Jatte" Georges Seurat, 1886
  91. 91. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception A bad example of them all.
  92. 92. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentThe Gestalt Principles of Perception A better version.
  93. 93. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment Clevelands Task Model William S. Cleveland, a professor of statistics and computer science at Purdue University, Indiana, has defined how we visually decode the content in graphic displays of statistical information.
  94. 94. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model Graphs tell 2 stories: General statements & broad overviews Specific details, events, dates, number, or quantities Our minds process these stories in two different ways
  95. 95. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model Graphs tell 2 stories: General statements & broad overviews Pattern Perception Specific details, events, dates, number, or quantities Table Lookup
  96. 96. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  97. 97. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  98. 98. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  99. 99. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  100. 100. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  101. 101. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  102. 102. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelPattern Perception
  103. 103. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
  104. 104. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup http://visitsteve.com/made/capitalism-works-for-me-truefalse/
  105. 105. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
  106. 106. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
  107. 107. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
  108. 108. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task ModelTable Lookup
  109. 109. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model Bad designs can skew facts and alter concepts. Good designs can enhance scanning, help the user see relationships to scale, and make sure symbols, icons, etc. are easily identified.
  110. 110. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & DiscernmentClevelands Task Model When making visual displays of statistics Be specific Clear and accurate Give a quick read
  111. 111. Cognitive principles of ID: Perception & Discernment More than "just noticeable" differences Take Webers principle and magnify those just noticeable differences into really noticeable ones. Proven Practices Use Gestalt Principles to group objects & create contextual relationships. Use contrasts deliberately to separate ideas, & guide the viewers eye through the content. Design Tasks Use color, value, shapes, contrasts, textures etc. to aid pattern perception. Assist the viewer with table lookup by clearly labeling X & Y axes, or by creating marked contrasts for type & symbols that represent different information sets. Make sure scales are clear.
  112. 112. how do we find...
  113. 113. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding Wayfinding Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City 1960
  114. 114. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding
  115. 115. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding Orientation within a new environment cognitive process determine and follow a route
  116. 116. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding Physical or Virtual Familiar or Unfamiliar Memory or Recorded = Influenced by environmental cues, culture and design
  117. 117. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Route-based knowledge" environmental clues and landmarks "Survey Knowledge" looking at maps "Legibility" Clarity and ease
  118. 118. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Route-based knowledge"
  119. 119. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Survey Knowledge"
  120. 120. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Legibility" Points Lines Planes
  121. 121. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Legibility" Points : place, signs or landmarks Lines : paths from one place to another Planes : large quantities of like information like neighborhoods, communities, cities, etc.
  122. 122. Cognitive principles of ID: Wayfinding "Legibility" This visual geometry helps navigate physical, virtual, and conceptual environments
  123. 123. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload Information Overload Alvin Toffler, Future Shock 1970
  124. 124. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload
  125. 125. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload An individuals inability to process, assimilate, and understand information due to overwhelming amounts of data.
  126. 126. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload Map Shock/Visual Shock Complex graphic content in maps, diagrams and images = Information processing stops
  127. 127. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload Information Anxiety "The black hole between data and knowledge" Richard Saul Wurman 1990
  128. 128. Cognitive principles of ID: Information Overload Stress from not knowing how to process data, but feeling they should. "The quantity, composition, and structure of information can influence motivation and concentration. Good design has the power to prevent poor user experiences and lost opportunities." - OGrady
  129. 129. Cognitive principles of ID: Information OverloadHome Defibrillator
  130. 130. Quick Tips for Week 2: Perception and Decernment- More than "just noticeable" differences: "Determining the difference thresholdtells the designer where the audience will notice the smallest change. Take Webersprinciple and magnify those just noticeable differences into really noticeable differences toensure clear information hierarchy"- Proven Practices: "Use the Gestalr Principles of Perception to influence hierarchy andreading order. Group objects to create contextual relationships. Use contrasts to separateideas. Guide the viewers eye through the content with implied alignments"- Keep things Consistent: "Use grids, flow-lines, and typography to create familiarity inlayouts. Studies show that consistent placement of content creates scanpaths to which theviewer will soon become accustomed. This will then help them to process information morequickly."
  131. 131. Quick Tips for Week 2: Wayfinding- Provide a map: Include a map wherever possible to help users orient themselves withintheir environment.- Use Well-defined routes: Use routes that are clear and continous, with well-definedlandmarks so your path is easy to follow.- Create Marked Desitations: In both virtual and physical environments use signage,significant landmarks, color coding, etc. to let users know when theyve arrived.- Keep it simple: minimize the decisions your user has to make to reach goal. Crossreference the cognitive theories from Week 1.
  132. 132. Quick Tips for Week 2: Information Overload- Dont Decorate, design: Keep the design simple so the user feelscomfortable. Acheive clarity through minimalism by avoiding anything that doesnot serve as a function.- Provide Options: Structure information in ways that allow the reader to attain multiplelevels of understanding, from overview to expert.- Use Structure to create meaning: Awareness of the emotional and cognitive effectsof information overload should influence decisions. Use tools, like Millers Magic number tomake information more digestible- Homework:Pecha Kucha presentation of Perception and Decernment, Wayfinding andInformation Overload (7 minutes or less)
  133. 133. Cognitive Principles of ID
  134. 134. Cognitive Principles of ID Learning Styles Visual Auditory/Verbal Kinesthetic/Tactile (Also called the Dunn & Dunn Learning-Style Model)
  135. 135. Cognitive Principles of ID The cognitive Process The Stage Theory Model: Input memory (notice), short-term memory(storage), long-term memory(storage and retrieval)
  136. 136. Cognitive Principles of ID Memory Millers Magic Number (or number chunking) (402) 367-7309 ROY G BIV
  137. 137. Cognitive Principles of ID Perception & Discernment Webers Law of Just Noticeable Differences The Gestalt Principles of Perception Clevelands Task Model
  138. 138. Cognitive Principles of ID Wayfinding Route-based knowledge Survey Knowledge Legibility
  139. 139. Cognitive Principles of ID Information Overload Dont decorate design Provide Options Use Structure to create meaning
  140. 140. Cognitive Principles of ID Learning Styles The cognitive process Memory Perception & Discernment Wayfinding Information Overload
  141. 141. Communication Principles of ID AIDA LATCH Inverted Pyramid Writing Principles of Least Effort
  142. 142. Communication Principles of ID "How we process or transmit information"
  143. 143. Communication Principles of ID To understand how people transmit knowledge, share concepts, and process information through language.
  144. 144. Communication Principles of ID Often from an economic, commercial, cultural, social,or political origin.
  145. 145. Communication Principles of ID Often takes two forms: Interpersonal Communication or Mass Communication
  146. 146. Communication Principles of ID Often the vehicle for distributing the information, rather than the content, determines weather the intended communication is interpersonal or mass.
  147. 147. Communication Principles of ID AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action)
  148. 148. Communication Principles of ID Developed in the early 1900s by E. St. Elmo Lewis, a pioneer of American advertising, to understand how effective sales people led their customers to a buying decision. AIDA is a model that describes that sales process.
  149. 149. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA Attention or awareness must be developed; meaning the audience must be aware of the product or service.
  150. 150. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA Interest must be generated so the audience learns more about the offering.
  151. 151. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA Desire must be created, producing an emotional response.
  152. 152. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA Action will then be taken by the audience, eliciting the desired response
  153. 153. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA AIDA is also the foundation of other marketing plans, like the "hierarchy of effects models," where customers move systematically through distinct phases to make purchasing decisions.
  154. 154. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA AIDA and similar hierarchy of effects models have been widely used in: Marketing to help companies create more structured sales approaches. Business writing to generate persuasive communications. Advertising, to influence and gauge the effectiveness of campaigns.
  155. 155. Communication Principles of ID: AIDA While developed as a sales tool, AIDA can also be used by designers in the structure, delivery, and acceptance of their content. The content becomes a story that evokes both interest and desire, turning what are effectively data sets into experiences.
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