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5. muscles and muscle action ammended

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KS4 Muscles and Muscle Action.

KS4 Muscles and Muscle Action.


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  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Remind student that in exams they must use the full name of each muscle, not abbreviations like ‘quad’.
  • Suggested answer:
    Marathon runner 75% slow twitch / 25% fast twitch
    Wrestler 75% fast twitch / 25% slow twitch
  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation
  • Here are some examples you could use with your class:
    You need muscle tone to stand up straight
    Gravity will try to push your head down and forward – muscle tone will keep it upright unless you are unconscious.
    If shoulders are drooped this can indicate a weak trapezius and therefore poor muscle tone.
  • a) a = trapezius; b = deltoid; c = latissimus dorsi; d = tricep; e = gluteal.b) abduction.c) isotonicd) static strength
  • An antagonistic pair are a pair of muscles that work together to move a joint. As one contracts and shortens, the other relaxes and lengthens, causing movement. The muscles swap roles to achieve the opposite movement. The biceps and triceps are the antagonistic pair that operate the elbow joint.
    a) Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles to contract repeatedly without getting tired.b) Muscular endurance is important in the performance of many everyday tasks like gardening and DIY. People with poor muscular endurance can find these tasks very tiring.C) Andrew’s exercises will improve his strength rather than his muscular endurance. He should use a lighter weight and increase the number of repetitions he performs.
  • Transcript

    • 1. KS4 Physical Education Muscles and Muscle Action These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 33 1 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 2. Learning objectives Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: The three muscle types and their functions The names of important voluntary muscles The role of antagonistic muscle pairings and their importance to movement Fast and slow twitch fibres and their role in sport The differences between static, dynamic and explosive strength and the different types of contraction The importance of training to muscle strength, endurance, size and action The relevance of muscles to sport, daily tasks and rehabilitation That muscle tone affects posture and body shape which effects self-esteem. 2 of 33 2 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 3. Muscle classification Muscles are involved in every movement in your body. This includes the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food, as well as activities like running, jumping and lifting. Muscle is a special type of tissue made up of fibres that contract (shorten) and relax (lengthen). There are three types of muscle fibre. 3 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 4. Voluntary The type of muscle responsible for moving your arms and legs is called voluntary muscle. It is attached to bones. It moves these bones under your conscious control. It receives signals from your conscious brain via your nervous system. When these signals stop, the muscles relax again. Voluntary muscle is sometimes called striated muscle as it has a striped appearance. 4 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 5. Involuntary Involuntary muscle is found in and around organs such as the intestines, and around blood vessels. It works without you consciously controlling it, or even being aware of it. Under a microscope it appears smooth, with no stripes. 5 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 6. Cardiac muscle Cardiac muscle is a special type of muscle that forms the walls of the heart chambers. It is a type of involuntary muscle, as it contracts without conscious thought or effort. As long as the heart is healthy, cardiac muscle never gets tired. Under a microscope cardiac muscle also appears striped. 6 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 7. Quick quiz 7 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 8. Muscles types All three types of muscle are important in physical activity: Voluntary muscle enables movement. Involuntary muscle is essential in maintaining body systems. It helps us move substances around the body, allowing us to keep cells supplied with oxygen and nutrients. Cardiac muscle is vital in sport because it makes the heart pump. The heart ensures that other muscles are well supplied with all the things they need to perform physical activities. Fitness training will strengthen cardiac muscle making the heart more efficient at pumping blood around the body. 8 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 9. More about voluntary muscles Sport is mostly concerned with the 650 or so voluntary muscles (sometimes called skeletal muscles). They give shape to your body. They are responsible for moving your body. They are attached to the bones of your skeleton by tendons. They make up 40% of body weight in men, and slightly less in women because of their higher fat levels. They are made up of cylindrical fibres composed of protein. How many voluntary muscles can you name? 9 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 10. Voluntary muscles (front) 10 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 11. Voluntary muscles (rear) 11 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 12. Voluntary muscles 12 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 13. Understanding muscle action Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. The tendon at the non-moving (or fixed) end is known as the origin. The tendon at the moving end is known as the insertion. Muscles pull by contracting – they cannot push to produce the opposite movement. Muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs. As one muscle contracts (shortens) its partner relaxes (lengthens). They swap actions to reverse the movement. 13 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 14. Upper arm muscles The biceps and triceps work together as an antagonistic pair to move the elbow joint. To flex the elbow, the biceps (the flexor) contracts and the triceps (the extensor) relaxes. To extend the elbow, the actions are reversed so that the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes. 14 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 15. Quadriceps / hamstring muscle action The quadriceps and hamstrings in the legs are another antagonistic pair. Can you answer the following questions? Which joint do they move? What types of movement are produced? Which is the flexor and which is the extensor? quadriceps hamstrings Identify the origin and insertion of each muscle. 15 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 16. Voluntary muscles 16 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 17. Muscle twitch fibres Muscles are made up of cells or fibres. It is these fibres that contract. The number of fibres that contract, and their thickness, determines the amount of force that is applied. There are two basic types of voluntary muscle fibre: Slow twitch fibres are deep red. They contract slowly, but can work for long periods. 17 of 33 Fast twitch fibres are paler. They contract quickly and powerfully, but tire easily. © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 18. Muscle twitch fibres Muscle twitch fibres occur in different proportions in different people. This proportion is mainly to do with the genes you inherit. The proportion can be altered to some extent by training. Suggest a mix for the sportspeople shown below. 18 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 19. Muscle strength Strength means the maximum force that muscles can exert when they contract. There are three different types of strength: Dynamic strength Explosive strength The amount of force that muscles can apply to a stationary object. The amount of force that muscles can apply to move a heavy object. The amount of force that muscles can exert in one fast movement. © EMPICS Ltd Static strength 19 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 20. Muscle strength 20 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 21. Isotonic contractions The different types of strength are related to the different types of muscular contractions. Isotonic contractions occur when using dynamic and explosive strength. When a contraction is isotonic, movement is created. The contracting muscle shortens and fattens. This shortening action pulls on the bones, causing them to move. Isotonic contractions are generally the more important type of contraction for sportspeople, especially games players. They produce both speed and power. Fast-paced games require isotonic contractions. 21 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 22. Isometric contractions Isometric contractions do not create movement – the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens. Isometric contractions produce static strength. To support a weight in a stationary position. To hold the body in a particular position (e.g., in gymnastics). To stabilize part of the body so movement can occur elsewhere. 22 of 33 Isometric contractions occur in a rugby scrum © Boardworks Ltd 2006 © EMPICS Ltd This type of contraction occurs in several situations:
    • 23. Strength training The strength of muscles can be increased through training. Strength training makes muscles grow thicker, allowing them to contract with more force. When muscles increase in size, it is called hypertrophy. When muscles waste away it is called atrophy. Strength training involves repeatedly lifting, pushing or pulling against a large resistance. This kind of exercise can usually only be repeated a small number of times, because it is extremely tiring. 23 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 24. Muscle endurance training Muscular endurance means the ability of muscles to repeatedly contract without getting tired. Muscular endurance can be improved by moving a lighter weight many times. Muscles become better at using oxygen and long-term energy stores (especially fat) and work better over long periods of time. Muscular endurance is important in events like long distance running, cycling and rowing which take a long time to complete. 24 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 25. Muscle training 25 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 26. Muscle training – everyday tasks Improving muscle strength and endurance through training can make everyday tasks easier. Many everyday tasks like gardening, moving furniture and ironing require physical exertion. If you are stronger and have better muscular endurance, you will find these tasks less tiring. Muscular endurance is generally more important in everyday life – most people rarely have to lift something that is very heavy. People who do very physical jobs, for example, farmers and builders, may need higher levels of strength. 26 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 27. Muscle training – rehabilitation Strength training can also assist recovery after an injury. A performer who has suffered a joint injury may use a programme of weight training to strengthen the muscles, tendons and ligaments around the joint in order to reduce the risk of the injury reoccurring. Light weights are used at first to prevent further injury. Gradually the performer lifts heavier weights as the injury heals and the muscles strengthen. Strength training can also help to prevent injuries – strong muscles can take higher stresses without being damaged. 27 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 28. Muscle tone and posture Muscles almost never fully relax – even when you sleep, there are always some fibres in a state of partial tension. This is called muscle tone. Exercise improves your muscle tone – it causes more of your muscle fibres to be slightly tensed, ready for action. Poor muscle tone leads to poor posture and slouching. Rounded shoulders Curved back Maintaining muscle tone requires energy. 28 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 29. Posture If you have good posture… Your internal organs, like your heart and digestive system, will function more effectively because good posture creates more space in the chest and abdomen. Straight shoulders allow more room in the chest, so lung capacity is increased. Good posture helps prevent strain and injury in everyday activity and sport. 29 of 33 But if you have poor posture… Other muscles have to work harder to compensate for weak muscles. You will get tired sooner. You don’t look as good. This may damage your selfesteem. © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 30. Muscle quiz 30 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 31. Exam-style questions 1. This picture shows part of the muscular system. a) Name muscles a–e. a b Janine exercises her deltoids by lifting heavy weights. She raises her arms out to the sides until her d hands are level with her shoulders. b) What type of movement is occurring at the shoulder? c e c) What type of muscle contraction is involved? Janine changes her exercise to holding the weights out to the sides at shoulder level for 10 seconds at a time. d) What type of strength will this improve? 31 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 32. Exam-style questions 2. Explain what is meant by an antagonistic pair and give one example. 3. Muscular endurance can be improved by training. a) What is meant by muscular endurance? b) How is muscular endurance important in everyday life? Andrew is trying to improve his muscular endurance. He performs five biceps curls a day with a very heavy weight. Andrew’s muscular endurance is not increasing much. c) Suggest how he could change his exercise so that he achieves better results. 32 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006
    • 33. Can you remember all these keywords? Voluntary muscle Isotonic contraction Involuntary muscle Isometric contraction Cardiac muscle Hypertrophy Antagonistic pair Atrophy Origin Resistance Insertion Muscular endurance Extensor Muscle tone Flexor Posture Fast twitch Slow twitch 33 of 33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006