Task Analysis of Training Professionals 1Running Head: TASK ANALYSIS OF TWO TRAINING PROFESSIONALS A Task Analysis of Two Training Professionals Lisa Suzanne Vallad North Carolina State University
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 2 Introduction The role of instructional designers and training professionals is constantly evolving.According to Roytek (2010), “given global economic conditions that are increasingly forcingorganizations to downsize while simultaneously requiring an increase in productivity from theirremaining, reduced workforce, instructional designers are increasingly called upon to producehigher quality instructional programs using ever more efficient technologies” (p. 170). Whattasks, then, comprise a training professional’s role in the workplace? In order to answer thisquestion, a task analysis of two training professionals was conducted, to identify their tasks,roles, and responsibilities in the workplace. Conducting a Task Analysis A task analysis, according to Swanson (2007), is a component of documenting workplaceexpertise, and involves “detailing the expertise required to perform each task” (p. 129). Burkhart(1995) describes a job task analysis as “a procedure whereby supervisors and competent workersare observed, questioned, interviewed, and asked to supply materials so that the work relatedcompetencies and required skills to perform a job can be identified” (p. 2). In this task analysis,two training professionals, a Learner Analyst and a Training Specialist, from the University ofColorado, were interviewed and surveyed to obtain the tasks specific to their positions.Furthermore, a review of organizational records relating to the Learner Analyst and TrainingSpecialist were reviewed.
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 3 Organization The University of Colorado is a public research university with four campuses locatedthroughout Colorado. The mission of the University of Colorado is to “serve Colorado, thenation, and the world through leadership in high-quality education and professional training,public service, advancing research and knowledge, and state-of-the-art health care” (Mission,para.1). Both individuals interviewed for this paper work for the University of Colorado SystemAdministration, a centralized office that provides services to all four campus locations. TheSystem Administration offices of the University of Colorado consist of the following centralizedservices: payroll and benefits, human resources, legal, University controller, and employeelearning and development. Interviewees Interviewee I, a Learner Analyst in the Employee Learning and Development Department,was hired to design and develop effective training for the employees of the University ofColorado. The Employee Learning and Development Department consists of four employees; aDirector, a Learning Analyst (Interviewee I), a Learning Coordinator, and a Coordinator.Interviewee I’s main functions include the development of tools to streamline instructionaldesign processes, eLearning and instructional design, and the development of projectmanagement courseware (personal communication, November, 2010). Interviewee II, a Procurement Training and Documentation Specialist in the Office ofUniversity Controller, was hired to manage university-wide financial training services, and toprepare materials that document and guide end users through university business processes.Interviewee II works as a part of Finance and Procurement Business Services, which iscomprised of a team of seven individuals. Finance and Procurement Business Services has a
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 4Director, two Help Desk Consultants, a Help Desk Manager, a Communication TechnologySpecialist, a Finance Training and Documentation Specialist, and a Procurement Training andDocumentation Specialist (Interviewee II). Interviewee II’s main functions include strategicplanning for training, creating and updating instructional materials, and course development anddesign. Review of the Literature Morrison, Ross, and Kemp (2007) describe the goal of instructional design as “makinglearning more efficient and effective, and to make learning less difficult” (p. 2) and that the goalof the instructional designer is to “design and develop instruction that will improve performancein a most effective and efficient manner” (p. 3). The work environment and culture within whichinstructional designers operate is under constant fluctuation. In order to understand current jobdemands and needs of instructional designers and training specialists, it is imperative to gain anunderstanding of current issues and trends in instructional design and training and development. A current trend in instructional design and training and development is the transition fromtraditional, face-to-face training and course delivery, to an online training and course delivery.According to Moller, Foshay, Wellesley, and Huett (2008), “the growth of online distancelearning (eLearning) is explosive in almost all sectors” (p. 70). It is therefore imperative thatinstructional designers and training specialists immerse themselves in all aspects of eLearning. Achallenge to instructional designers and training specialists, according to Moller et al. (2008), “isnot only to evolve the field, but also to assure that the products of sound professional designpractice lead the e-learning enterprise” (p. 71). There is also an existing gap between theory and practice in the instructional design andtraining and development fields. Yanchar, South, Williams, Allen and Wilson (2009) explain that
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 5“although a primary purpose of theory construction is to provide conceptual tools for improvinginstructional design practice, this aspect of work in the field is often overlooked” (p. 40).Yanchar et al. (2009) further explains that “more specifically, there is little exploration of howdesigners actually view formal theories and use them for various design tasks in context – suchas organizing content, providing learner structure, and evaluating learner outcomes” (p.40).Because instruction design theory is a great framework for practice, it is considered an aspect oftraining professionals to have a grasp of instructional design theory, in order to translate thetheory into practice. Finally, there has been an identified need for project management skills in the instructionaldesign and training and development fields. According to Van Rooij (2010), “instructionaldesigners must possess both a sound instructional design knowledge base and solid projectmanagement skills that will enable them to complete courseware projects on time, on budget, andin conformance with client expectations” (p. 852). Van Rooij (2010) further explains that coursesin project management aren’t typically included in instructional design program curriculum (p.853). Project management skills would enable both the instructional designer and trainingspecialist to effectively manage and monitor their ongoing projects, especially in a time-sensitiveand deadline oriented environment. Data Collection Methods Various data collection methods exist in conducting research. For the task analysis of trainingprofessionals, three data collection methods were employed; interviews, survey questionnaire,and organizational records. These three methods were used to find the appropriate balancebetween quantitative and qualitative data, and, according to Swanson (2007), “more than onemethod or source of data collection is generally required to gain enough information to
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 6understand a phenomenon” (p. 108). Using multiple data collection methods also increases thereliability and validity of the results. All three data collection methods were used as forms of qualitative research. According toCreswell (2009), qualitative research is “a means for exploring and understanding the meaningindividuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem” (p.4). Characteristics of qualitativeresearch include collecting data in a natural setting, using multiple sources of data, usinginductive data analysis, and interpreting results (Creswell, 2009, p. 176). Plewis and Mason(2005) concur with Creswell, by stating that “the analysis of qualitative data requires theorganization of varied and complex narratives, descriptions, perceptions, perspectives,interviews, and observation” (p. 192). Typically, a review of organizational records would beconsidered quantitative research, however, in this analysis, due to the interpretive nature of theresults, the review or organizational records is considered to be qualitative research. There are advantages and disadvantages to using qualitative research methods. For example, astrength of qualitative research described by Creswell (2009), is that qualitative methodstypically involve multiple sources of data, which increases the validity of the results (p. 175).However, a disadvantage of qualitative research, according to Creswell, is that it is aninterpretative method, and therefore, is subject to the biases, values, personal background,history, culture, and socioeconomic status of the inquirer (p. 177). The research in this analysiswas designed and conducted with the intent to address both the advantages and disadvantages ofqualitative research.
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 7 Data Collection Method – Interview Swanson (2007), describes the interview data collection method as “enabling analysts togather information directly from people in the workplace or people connected in various ways tothe organization and its processes in person, in groups, and also by telephone” (p. 109). Theinterviews of the two training professionals focused on their specific roles within theirdepartment, their short and long term goals, and the mission and goals of their department. Theinterview also focused on identifying key job tasks of each interviewee, and challenges andrewards of their jobs. These questions were specifically included in the interview, as theseanswers were more abstract in nature, and better communicated via face to face communicationthan in a survey. The questions were organized to focus on the individual, on the job processesthemselves, and on the organization. Also, according to Swanson (2007), “expert analysts useinterviews as a first step for discovering the most useful content for a questionnaire” (p. 112). The questions developed and implemented during the interview, and the responsescollected, were then compared to the questions developed and used for the survey questionnaire.The interview data collection method was selected in accordance with Swanson’s (2007) viewthat the interview data collection method is “a useful technique for discovering what happens atthe organizational, process, team, and/or individual job levels” (p. 109). The interviews wereconducted in face to face meetings with the interviewees, and responses were collected viaelectronic notes by the interviewer. Each interview was conducted over the course ofapproximately one hour. The interview guide used to collect data can be found in Appendix A. Data Collection Method – Survey Questionnaire A survey questionnaire was also selected as a data collection method. According toSwanson (2007), a “survey questionnaire is often used as a primary data collection tool”, and, if
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 8“done correctly, no tool is more efficient for obtaining data from a large, dispersed population”(p. 112). Although the two training professionals in this analysis represent a small population,the survey questionnaire was an effective tool as it allowed the training professionals to respondto the survey at their leisure, and also complemented the interview, in the sense that it allowedfor the training professionals to expand on information provided during the interview. Accordingto Swanson (2007), “the questionnaire then offers a way to accurately evaluate the extent and thecredibility of the facts and opinions gathered by interviews” (p. 112). The survey contained several open-ended questions that allowed the interviewees tocontemplate their answers, rather than having their answers restricted by the time providedduring the interview. The questions included in the survey were used to expand on questionsasked during the interview, and to also provide very specific data questions, such as length ofservice, educational background, and professional background, and were organized by beginningwith the least complex question and ending with the most complex question. The survey wasdeveloped electronically, and was submitted to the interviewees via email. According tofeedback from the interviewees, the survey took approximately thirty minutes to complete.Responses to the survey were then collected electronically, using the survey development tool“Survey Monkey”. Data Collection Method – Organizational Records Finally, organizational records, such as job descriptions and position manuals were reviewedto identify existing job task information. This method, although described as a review oforganizational records, is slightly different than the traditional review of organizational records.According to Swanson (2007), a review of organizational records typically includes identifyingitems such as employee turnover, absenteeism, grievances filed, etc. (p. 118). In this analysis, the
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 9organizational record data collection method was to review job descriptions and positionmanuals in order to compare and contrast the tasks of both training professionals. Analysis Through the review of the interview responses, survey questionnaire responses, andorganizational records, it became evident that although each position is quite different, bothInterviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) are strategicallyinvolved in the delivery of training and instructional design services, and also both committed tocustomers at the University of Colorado. The review of the job descriptions of Interviewee I(Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist), involved a compare/contrast of jobtasks as described in the job descriptions. The job tasks were then categorized (see the table aspresented in Analysis – Job Description), and compared and verified through informationobtained during the interview and survey questionnaire. The job descriptions were thencompared to external job descriptions. The interview responses that were recorded electronicallyby the interviewer, and the survey questionnaire responses that were collected electronically, forboth Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) involved acompare/contrast of answers, and key themes were identified through analyzing the responses.The responses were also compared to existing literature on task analyses and issues relating tothe instructional design/training and development field. Finally, the key themes and tasks thatwere identified were compared to the detailed task analysis as described by Swanson (2007) inAnalysis for Improving Performance. Through the various analyses conducted, it was identifiedthat the tasks of both positions used to deliver the training and instructional design services arealso significantly different.
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 10 Analysis – Job Description According to Swanson (2007), a “job description is a statement that establishes the scope ofresponsibilities of a specific job within a specific organization” (p.135). Swanson (2007)identifies two components of reviewing job descriptions; the first component is to reviewexisting job descriptions, and the second component is to obtain external job descriptions fromexternal sources, such as professional references, associations or other companies (p. 136). Aspart of the task analysis of two training professionals, the job descriptions of Interviewee I(Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) were obtained and reviewed. Externaljob descriptions for a Learner Analyst/Instructional Designer position, and for a TrainingSpecialist position, were also obtained. In reviewing the job descriptions, it became evident thatalthough both positions are considered training professionals, the positions of Learner Analystand Training Specialist are quite different. According to the existing job description, the key components of Interviewee I’s (LearnerAnalyst) position are to design, develop, and deliver training events, through working with seniormanagers to gather program learning requirements, researching benchmarking practices ineLearning, developing and maintaining web based learning events, and creating and maintaininga measurement system that documents employee feedback, compliance course completion, andthe use of online learning events. The job description is in concurrence with the components ofthe position as identified by Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) themselves; Interviewee I (LearnerAnalyst) views “the development of tools to streamline processes, instructional design, anddevelopment of project management courseware” as the three most critical tasks of their position(personal communication, November, 2010).
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 11 The key components of Interviewee II’s (Training Specialist) position, as identified in thejob description, are to design, develop, and deliver training, to measure the effectiveness oftraining and develop training communications, and to design and develop training resources.According to Interviewee II (Training Specialist), the job description is accurate, as IntervieweeII (Training Specialist) identified the three most critical tasks of their position as “training coursedevelopment and design, training strategic planning, and the development and design ofinstructional materials and training resources” (personal communication, November, 2010). Acomparison of the job descriptions of Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II(Training Specialist) is as follows: Category Interviewee 1 (Learner Analyst) Interviewee 2 (Training Specialist)Purpose of Hire This position supports the design and This position manages development of effective training for the university-wide financial employees of the University of training services and Colorado. prepares materials that document and guide end users through university business processes. This position is responsible for all aspects of financial compliance training.Training Design and Develops and delivers on-Implementation going procurement training The instructional design, development programs and initiative and delivery of formal and informal specific financial training training events, with appropriate need. Prepares educational evaluation tools, that supports employee resources and development and compliance documentation materials to requirements. support university –wide procurement training initiativesDetermining Training Determines the training Work with senior managers and/Learning Needs needs of university directors throughout CU to gather the employees relative to learning requirements to meet their financial compliance program needs. policies and procedures.Research Research benchmarking practices in
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 12 eLearning as well as current practices with web based technologies and tools.Strategic Planning Works with the OUC’s Communication Specialist to develop a communication plan for financial training initiatives that includes identification of target populations, communication with prospective trainees, and follow up with those needing to complete training.Web-Based Learning Development and maintenance of webDevelopment based learning events used to optimize employee development.Evaluation/Assessment Assesses financial training Create and maintain a measurement effectiveness, including system that clearly documents employee administering course feedback, compliance course completion quizzes, and participant and the usage of online learning events. evaluations. The job descriptions of Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (TrainingSpecialist) were then compared to external sources. For Interviewee I (Learner Analyst), ten jobpostings for Instructional Designers on the American Society for Training and Developmentwebsite were reviewed (ASTD Job Bank). Out of the ten job postings, the majority of the jobrequirements for an Instructional Designer included the development of eLearning courses,project management, and client management. The development of eLearning courses and projectmanagement job descriptions are consistent with the job description obtained for Interviewee I(Learner Analyst). For Interviewee II (Training Specialist), ten job postings for TrainingSpecialists on the American Society for Training and Development website were also reviewed(http://jobs.astd.org/jobs). Out of the ten job postings, the majority of the job descriptions for aTraining Specialist included strategic planning for training, the design and development of
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 13training courses, and the design and development of instructional materials, which is consistentwith the job description obtained for Interviewee II (Training Specialist). Analysis – Task Identification According to Swanson (2007), each task from a task inventory can be detailed using one ofthree methods; procedural task analysis, system task analysis, or knowledge task analysis(p.149). Procedural tasks are made up of “people-thing work behaviors that are highlyobservable and step by step, system tasks are made up of interlocking dimensions of work tasksaround people-hardware systems or people-knowledge systems that are not usually observable,and knowledge tasks are made up of work behaviors requiring more general methods, concepts,and theories as they relate to people-idea and people-people work behaviors” (Swanson, 2007, p.149). The key tasks of each interviewee as identified through the interviews and surveyquestionnaire were reviewed, and key themes and trends were identified. Each key theme andtrend was then reviewed, and identified as procedural tasks, system tasks, or knowledge tasks.The percentage of time each Interviewee spent on each key themed task was also identified.Interviewee I (Learner Analyst): Task Group Task Type % of Time Procedural/System 40% eLearning Design Develop eLearning design Procedural/System 30% tools and procedures Knowledge 20% Research and analysis Procedural/System 5% Project Management Learning Management Procedural/System 5% Support
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 14Interviewee II (Training Specialist): Task Group Task Type % of Time Creating and updating Procedural/System 70% instructional resources Design and deliver in- Procedural/Knowledge 20% person training tasks Strategic training planning Knowledge 10% tasks, including research Although the job tasks themselves are quite different, Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) identified similar skills needed to be a Learner Analyst/Training Specialist. According to Interviewee I (Learner Analyst), a Learner Analyst must be detail-oriented, consistent in their processes, and must have the skills to streamline processes (personal communication, November, 2010). Interviewee II (Training Specialist) identified similar skills needed to be a Training Specialist, by stating that a Training Specialist must “be detail-oriented, and must always be looking for ways to be more efficient” (personal communication, November, 2010). Also, both interviewees identified that it takes approximately six to nine months to fully learn all tasks related to their positions (personal communications, November, 2010). Analysis – Work Environments Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) described similarwork environments during both their interviews and on the survey questionnaire. Commonthemes in describing their perspective work environments were identified as a collaborative workenvironment in which one’s individual contributions were valued (personal communications,November, 2010). The problem-solving and decision-making processes for both departments ofthe interviewees are also very similar. Both interviewees described their problem-solving and
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 15decision-making processes as first resolving the issues and making the decisions on their own,and if that could not be achieved, then elevating the decision/problem to the next appropriatelevel of authority within their departmental hierarchy (personal communications, November,2010). Analysis - Challenges The interviewees also identified challenges specific to their jobs and organization.Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) stated that the most significant challenge in their current role asa Learner Analyst is a lack of resources. Interviewee I’s (Learner Analyst) department iscurrently in need of instructional designers with specific expertise, and that often times, theyhave to outsource tasks outside of their department due to a lack of expertise (personalcommunication, November, 2010). Interviewee II (Training Specialist) stated that the mostsignificant challenge in their current role is not receiving information on a timely basis, and alack of project management from program managers (personal communication, November,2010). Interestingly, the challenges identified by both interviewees are organizational andprocess challenges, rather than challenges that are unique to their positions. Analysis – Goals Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist) both havestrategically different short-term and long-term goals for their positions. Interviewee I (LearnerAnalyst) identified their short-term goals as “fluid and changing all of the time, but, the short-term goals all relate directly to instructional design projects and creating instructional designtools to bring consistency into the work environment” (personal communication, November,2010). Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) continued to identify the long-term goals of the LearnerAnalyst position as “compliance with federal guidelines and regulations, and bringing online
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 16instruction and design up to federal standards” (personal communication, November, 2010).Interviewee II (Training Specialist) identified their short-term goals as “strategic planning andidentifying key instructional strategies for training and documentation” and identified their long-term goals as “creating solid training and documentation” (personal communication, November,2010). Discussion The two training professionals in this task analysis had considerably different identified jobtasks. Interviewee I’s (Learner Analyst) job tasks were more technical in nature, and focusedmore on system and procedural tasks, whereas Interviewee II’s (Training Specialist) job taskswere more abstract in nature, and focused more on knowledge and system tasks. Therefore,Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) must have a strong background in technical expertise, whereasInterviewee II (Training Specialist) must have a strong background in theoretical andpedagogical knowledge, in order to be successful in their respective positions. In the eLearning development process, Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) collaborates withsubject matter experts to develop content for each course. According to Morrison et. al. (2007), asubject matter expert is “a person qualified to provide information about content and resourcesrelating to all aspects of the topics for which instruction is to be designed, and is responsible forchecking accuracy of content treatment in activities, materials and examinations” (p.18).Sometimes, the instructor may serve as their own SME. Although Interviewee I (LearnerAnalyst) collaborates with SME’s to develop course content, Interviewee II (Training Specialist)serves as their own SME. Interviewee II (Training Specialist) is responsible for updating anddeveloping course content however, Interviewee II (Training Specialist) is also expected to be anSME on all procurement related policies, procedures, and forms.
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 17 Surprisingly, the departments of both interviewees have little to no interaction with eachother. Based on the job task analysis of both Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II(Training Specialist), efficiencies and operational productivity gains could be achieved throughthe synergistic collaboration of both departments. For example, if both departments met on amonthly basis, Interviewee II (Training Specialist) could provide Interviewee I (Learner Analyst)with a current training strategic plan, whereas Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) could provideInterviewee II (Training Specialist) with any current or evolving technological trends that couldimpact course design. Each Interviewee would have the opportunity to learn from the other, asboth their job tasks have been identified as being significantly different. Both departments couldalso collaborate on project management courseware design and implementation, as it is a currenttrend and identified need of both departments. Conclusion Prior to conducting this job task analysis of two training professionals within the Universityof Colorado, multiple employees, and even leadership, of the University of Colorado had theimpression that Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist)performed the same job tasks and had the same job responsibilities. This job task analysisidentifies that although Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist)may have the same end goals of designing and delivering training and resources for employees atthe University of Colorado, and that they have the same customer-service focused businessprocesses, that their jobs tasks and responsibilities are significantly different. Furthermore, thistask analysis has identified potential operating efficiency gains through the collaboration of thedepartments of Interviewee I (Learner Analyst) and Interviewee II (Training Specialist).
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 18 ReferencesASTD Job Bank. American Society for Training and Development. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.astd.org/Burkhart, J., & Colorado State Dept. of Education, D. (1995). Conducting the job task analysis. Retrieved from ERIC database.Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Moller, L., Foshay, W., & Huett, J. (2008). The evolution of distance education: Implications for instructional design on the potential of the web. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 52(3), 70-75.Morrison, G., Ross, S., & Kemp, J. (2007). Designing effective instruction. 5th ed. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.Plewis, I., & Mason, P. (2005). What works and why: Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in large‐scale evaluations. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(3), 185-194.Roytek, M. (2010). Enhancing instructional design efficiency: Methodologies employed by instructional designers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 170-180.Swanson, R. (2007). Analysis for improving performance. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler Publishers, Inc.University of Colorado. https://www.cu.eduVan Rooij, S. (2010). Project management in instructional design: ADDIE is not enough. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(5), 852-864.Yanchar, S., South, J., Williams, D., Allen, S., & Wilson, B. (2010). Struggling with theory? A qualitative investigation of conceptual tool use in instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(1), 39-60.
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 19Appendix A: Interview Guide 1. Interviewee: 2. What is your position title? Could you please provide me with your official job description? 3. How would you describe your work environment and organizational culture? 4. What are your short-term goals for your position? 5. What are your long-term goals for your position? 6. What are your daily on-the-job requirements and responsibilities? 7. Which three responsibilities do you spend most of your time? 8. What challenges do you encounter when completing your job tasks? 9. Please give me a brief overview of your organization and your department. 10. What is the mission of your organization and your department? 11. How does your specific role support the organization and your department? 12. What skills are needed to be a good XXXX? 13. What is the most rewarding part of your job? 14. How does the organization see your role as part of the organization? 15. Do you feel the organization values your role in the organization? 16. What are the three most valued/expected tasks of your position? 17. What changes would you implement in order for you to complete your job more efficiently and effectively?
Task Analysis of Training Professionals 20Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire 1. What is your position title? 2. What is your organization? 3. How long have you been in your position? 4. Please describe your professional experience. 5. Please describe your educational experience. 6. How would you describe the decision making process for your position? 7. How would you describe the problem solving process for your position? 8. What is the average length of time required to be able to perform your job at a successful level (i.e. how long does it take to learn your job tasks)? 9. Who are the major customers you support within your organization? 10. Please list your major work tasks and responsibilities, and indicate the % of your time spent on each task. Please begin with the most significant task relating to your job.