INTRODUCTION• Research indicates that hand washing contributes to thewell being, health and safety of preschoolers and theirteachers.• Hand washing is accepted as the most effective method inreducing the spread of infectious diseases, and the result offewer days absent from school and loss of learning.• Therefore both children and adults can benefit from handwashing.
FACTOR ONE – PROPER HANDWASHING PROCEDURE ANDVARIOUS STEPS INVOLVED• 1. Turn on the water• 2. Place hands under the water until they are wet• 3. Turn off the water• 4. Apply soap• 5. Scrub your hands with friction. Focus on the front, theback, and between the fingers• 6. Scrub for two minutes. Sing Happy Birthday if you want!• 7. Turn on water• 8. Rinse the soap off• 9. Turn off water• 10. Dry hands thoroughly
FACTOR TWO- DISEASEPREVENTION• The Center for Disease Control (CDC) states that millions ofschool days are missed every year due to colds and flu.• These illnesses and more (including MRSA) can be preventedwith proper hand washing.• It is estimated that over 3.8 million children under the age offive die from respiratory tract infections every year. Properhand washing can help prevent some of these deaths.• The World Health Organization and the CDC cite routine handwashing as a cost effective way to prevent communicabledisease.
FACTOR 3 – HAND SANITIZER USEDIN CONJUNCTION WITH HANDWASHING• Hand sanitizer can be used when there is no running wateravailable such as when away from home or in the car.• It can also be used if the sinks are the wrong height or can’teasily be reached by younger children.• Sometimes sinks are hard to turn on. They have twohandled spigots which require advanced fine motor skills.Young children may not have these skills yet.
HAND WASHING IN THE USA• The United States is viewed as an individualist country.• We believe that individual needs are more important thangroup needs.• We strive for independence and push our children to beindependent from a young age.• Water is readily available and the majority don’t worry aboutrunning out or conservation.
HAND WASHING IN INDIA• India is viewed as a more collectivist family-centeredculture ( ie everyone is involved in babies birth anddevelopment).• Emphasizes group success• Individual ambitions are set aside for the attainment ofgroup goals.• Water can scarce during droughts and at other times, soconservation is key.
INTERVEIWCOUNTRY OF ORGIN: INDIA• What is your countries cultural perspective on handwashing?.• “Hand washing is viewed as necessary in my country. It is very important to wash handsbefore praying and before touching holy items in temples. Family members wash handsright away when entering a home so they don’t contaminate the food. Also, hand washingin the kitchen is very important. One person usually prepares and serves the food. Handsare washed before eating because we eat with their hands. While eating if the handstouch the mouth they have been contaminated with germs.”• Does your country/family follow hand washing guild linesand procedures?• “We work together to teach children hand washing procedures. There is no agency thathelps with hand washing techniques. We believe if the hands are dirty, then wash them.”
INTERVIEW CONTINUED• Length of time in USA?• “12 years”• Differences in Indian Culture and US culture?• “In my culture water is very precious. Sometimes it is not always available. When water isavailable, it is collected in water tanks in the city (Bombay). In the countryside peoplecarry water to their homes. We must boil water and carry it to the bathroom for cleaning.Water must be conserved because we have times of dryness. Hand sanitizer is kept to aminimum because of chemicals. In India I see more water conservation. In the U.S.people don’t turn off the facets when washing and leave the water running. People don’tknow how precious water is because its always available. There is much wasted water inAmerica. When there is a drought in India, or people use more water than their watertanks can hold, there is nothing to wash with. We know we have to conserve.”
FINAL COMMENTS• We both read, summarized, and discussed our empiricalarticles• Kirsten and Valerie developed the questionnaire together• Kirsten typed questionnaire, Valerie proofed and madecorrections as needed.• Both distributed surveys and collected them• Valerie conducted interview• Kirsten and Valerie developed PowerPoint together• Kirsten put PowerPoint together, Valerie proofed it• Kirsten and Valerie both presented the PowerPoint together• Good work team!
REFERENCESAlkon, A., To, K., Mackie, J., Wolff, M., & Bernzeig, J. (2010). Helath and safety needs in early careand education programs: what do directors, child health records, and national standards tellus?. Public Health Nursing, 27(1), 3-16.Anderson, K. (2009) Germ Wars. American School & University, 81.6.Halder, A.K., Tronchet, C., Akheter, S., Bhuiya, A., Johnston, R., & Luby, S.P. (2010).Observed hand clealiness and other measures of handwashing behavior in ruralBangladesh. BMC Public Health, 10545-553. doi: 10.1186/1417-2458-10-545Obeng, C. (2008). Personal Cleanliness Activities in Preschool Classrooms. Early ChildhoodEducation J, 36:93-99.Schultz, A., Morton, J., (2004). Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct toHandwashing in Elementary School Children. The Journal of School Nursing,20(3).Snow, M., White Jr., G.L., & Kim, H.S. (2008). Inexpensive and Time Efficient Hygeine InterventionsIncrease Elementary School Children’s Hand Hygiene Rates. Journal of School Health,78(4), 230-233. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00291.x
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