Public Speaking Why learn it?The Parts of the Speech
Why learn public speaking?• Confidence• Job skill• Effective communicator• Power
How can public speaking help you?• You have to train a group of workers at your job• You are fighting to keep your local playground open• You are in sales/marketing/other jobs that require you to work with the public• You have to give a eulogy• You want to have a second date with someone!
What you ALREADY knowSimilarities between public speaking and conversations:• Organizing your thoughts logically• Tailoring your message to your audience• Telling a story for maximum impact (punchline)• Adapting to listener feedback
What’s different about public speaking• More highly structured – time limits, little to no listener interruption/interaction, have a purpose to accomplish, anticipating audience questions/reactions, more detailed planning• Requires more formal language – it is expected slang, jargon and bad grammar have no place in public speeches, a speech should be special• Requires a different method of delivery – no vocal crutches, speaking louder than you normally would, good posture, avoid distracting mannerisms
Introduction• Get the attention and interest of your audience• Reveal the topic of your speech• Establish credibility and goodwill• Preview the body of the speech
Attention and interestAttention devices:• Relate the topic to the audience• State the importance of your topic• Startle the audience• Arouse the curiosity of the audience• Question the audience• Begin with a quotation• Tell a story
Reveal the topic• Don’t confuse your audience; do not assume they know what you will be speaking about• Do not assume your attention device is descriptive enough• Introduce your topic clearly
Establish credibility and goodwill• Credibility = perception (audience)• Are you qualified to speak on this topic?• Why should we believe you are?• Whatever the source of your expertise, let the audience know!• Goodwill = mean no harm• How can you take a topic your audience feels negatively about and reason your side?
Preview the Body of the Speech• Most people are poor listeners• Preview statements let your audience know EXACTLY what you’re going to be talking about• Identify what main points are coming up in the body of the speech
Tips for prepping the introduction• Keep it brief – should be about 10-20% of your total speech• When conducting research, keep an eye out for possible attention devices• Be creative in developing the introduction• Re-work wording after you’ve completed the body of the speech – after you’ve determined the main points, it’ll be easier to decide how to begin the speech• Work out the introduction in DETAIL. It is the first – and most important – part of the speech
The body• Organization is key• See formal speech outline for structureOrder types: Chronological: follow a time pattern Spatial: directional pattern (from top to bottom, from to back, east to west) Causal: illustrate a cause and effect relationship Problem-solution: 2 parts – first shows the problem, second shows possible solutions Topical: dividing the speech topic into subtopics
Connectives• Transitions: a word or phrase that indicated when a speaker has finished one point and is moving on to another• Internal preview: much like your preview statement in the introduction, this previews the main points inside the body of the speech• Internal summaries: sum up previous main point as a method of moving on to the next• Signposts: brief statements that indicate exactly where you are in the speech (first, second, final)
ConclusionServes two functions:• Let the audience know you are finishing• Reinforce the audience’s understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea
Conclusion• Reinforcing the central idea:• End with a quotation• Make a dramatic statement• Refer back to the introduction
Tips for prepping the conclusion• Keep an eye out for possible concluding statements during your research• End with a bang, not a whimper• Don’t be long winded (should account for 10% of your total speech)• Don’t leave anything to chance. The conclusion is an opportunity to have the “final say.” Prepare well and practice this often!