SPE 108: Forming the Introduction


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SPE 108: Forming the Introduction

  1. 1. Forming the introduction SPE 108
  2. 2. Determining the general purpose & specific purpose • What is the broad goal of your speech? General Purpose Example: inform or persuade • What do you precisely hope to accomplish? Specific Purpose Example: To inform my audience about the benefits of music theory for people with cognitive delays
  3. 3. Structure of the Introduction A strong introduction contains: Attention device Specific purpose Central idea Preview statement/transition into the body
  4. 4. Attention and interest Attention devices: • Relate the topic to the audience • State the importance of your topic • Startle the audience • Arouse the curiosity of the audience • Question the audience • Begin with a quotation • Tell a story
  5. 5. Reveal the topic • Don’t confuse your audience; do not assume they know what you will be speaking about • Do not assume your attention device is descriptive enough • Introduce your topic clearly: • Specific purpose • Central idea
  6. 6. Formulating a specific purpose statement • Write the purpose statement out as a full sentence Forces you to fully articulate your purpose • Express your purpose as a statement, not a question A question doesn’t make you choose a direction for where your speech will go • Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement Forces you to be specific, and avoid sweeping statements • Limit your purpose to one distinct idea Forces you to focus your direction • Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general If it is, it’s NOT a specific purpose statement
  7. 7. Questions to ask about your specific purpose 1. Does my purpose meet the assignment? 2. Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted? 3. Is the purpose relevant to my audience? 4. Is the purpose too trivial for my audience? 5. Is the purpose too technical for my audience?
  8. 8. Structure of the Introduction A strong introduction contains: Attention device Specific purpose Central idea Preview statement/transition into the body
  9. 9. The Central Idea • Central idea: a one sentence statement that sums up the major ideas of a speech • A concise statement about what you expect to say • Essentially the same as a thesis statement in a written paper • Your residual message – what you expect the audience to remember after you’re finished speaking • The central idea usually emerges after most of your research is complete, and you have already decided on the three main points of your speech.
  10. 10. Guidelines for the central idea The central idea: 1. Should be expressed in a full sentence 2. Should not be in the form of a question 3. Should avoid figurative language 4. Should not be vague or overly general
  11. 11. Establish credibility and goodwill • • • • Credibility = perception (audience) Are you qualified to speak on this topic? Why should we believe you are? Whatever the source of your expertise, let the audience know! • Goodwill = mean no harm • How can you take a topic your audience feels negatively about and reason your side?
  12. 12. Preview the Body of the Speech • Most people are poor listeners • Preview statements let your audience know EXACTLY what you’re going to be talking about • Identify what main points are coming up in the body of the speech
  13. 13. Tips for prepping the introduction • Keep it brief – should be about 10-20% of your total speech • When conducting research, keep an eye out for possible attention devices • Be creative in developing the introduction • Re-work wording after you’ve completed the body of the speech – after you’ve determined the main points, it’ll be easier to decide how to begin the speech • Work out the introduction in DETAIL. It is the first – and most important – part of the speech
  14. 14. Example of introduction structure Attention device Specific purpose Central idea Credibility build/goodwill Preview statement/transition 44% of you sleep with your phone next to, or even IN bed with you, because you are afraid to miss any calls, text messages, or other updates during the night, says the most recent research from the Pew Research Center. After researching this topic for weeks and being an avid smartphone user myself, I am here today to inform you about smartphone usage and it’s impact on social relationships. People are missing out on their lives due to near-constant engagement with digital content, over real life events. Today we’ll take a look at the statistics of smartphone usage, how people use their phones and the impact on friendships and family connections. First, let’s look at the numbers.