The importance of persuasion• Persuasion is the process of creating, reinforcing or changing peoples beliefs or actions• Understanding the principles of persuasion are vital to being an informed citizen and consumer• When you speak to persuade, you act as an advocate
Ethics and persuasion• Would you be willing to shade the truth a little, to juggle statistics, doctor quotations, pass off opinion as fact to ensure a successful speech?• Maintaining the bond of trust with listeners is vital to a speakers credibility• Learn about all sides of an issue, seek out competing viewpoints, get your facts straight
The psychology of persuasion• Persuasion is a psychological process• Persuasion is challenging; often you deal with controversial topics that touch on your listeners basic attitudes, values and beliefs• You contend not only with an audiences knowledge of a subject, but also their attitudes on it• How successful you will be depends on how well you tailor your message to the audience
How listeners processpersuasive messages• Persuasion is something a speaker does with the audience• Listeners engage in a mental give-and-take with the speaker• They assess the speakers credibility, delivery, supporting materials, language, reasoning and emotional appeals• Mental dialogue• Target a portion of your audience (questionnaires)
Questions of fact• A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion• Questions like this involve prediction: Will the economy be better or worse next year? What will happen in the Middle East? Was there a conspiracy in the assassination of JFK?• These questions dont have right or wrong answers, persuasive speakers will try to convince the audience they have the best answer• Informative speeches are nonpartisan, persuasive speeches are partisan
Questions of value• A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action• What is the best movie of all time? Is cloning morally justifiable?• Value judgments: judgments based on a persons beliefs about what is right or wrong, good or bad, fair or unfair, moral or immoral, proper or improper• Example: Bicycle riding is the ideal form of transportation. (pg 322)
Questions of policy• A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken Who should I vote for? Should the electoral college be abolished? Should I donate blood?
Types of speeches on questions of policy• Speeches to gain passive agreement: a speech in which the speakers goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging direct action in support of the policy• Speeches to gain immediate action: a speech in which the speakers goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
Analyzing questions of policy1. Need: is there a need that requires change?The burden of proof lies with the speaker advocating for change (it is YOUR obligation to prove change is needed/not needed)2. Plan: once you have shown a problem exists, you must explain your plan for solving it3. Practicality: will the speakers plan solve the problem? Will it create a more serious problem?
Organizing speecheson questions of policy• Problem-solution order : a method of organizing where the first main point deals with the existence of a problem, the second main point presents a solution to the problem• Problem-cause-solution order : first main point identifies a problem, second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, third point presents a solution
Organizing speecheson questions of policy• Comparative advantages order : each main point explains why a speakers solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions
Organizing speeches on questions of policyMonroes motivated sequence:1. Attention2. Need3. Satisfaction4. Visualization5. Action