Three “C’s” of Radio Today• Competition• Consolidation• Control
Competition• Most competitive of today’s media• More “radio” than anything else• More radios than TVs; more radio stations than TV stations or newspapers• Take in the least amount of media advertising dollars (about 8%)• Radio is largely a local medium• Audience share: 82% tune into FM
Consolidation• Prior to the Telecommunications Act of 1996, most radio stations were owned by single owners; at the time, you could not own more than one AM and FM in any one market• Market: a geographically based media area; its size determined by population• Telecommunications Act of 1996 allowed for multiple station ownership, resulted in supergroups like Entercom, Clear Channel & Cumulus
Consolidation• After an initial boom in acquisitions, many of radio’s biggest groups are now selling off stations, after failing to turn the kinds of profits expected• LMA: lease management agreement/local market agreement – allows a radio group to control the programming, operations and sales of additional radio stations in the same market (without violating ownership rules)
Control• Rigorous product control• Research driven programming and advertising• A lot of cross- talk between sales, promotions and programming to create a unified station message for both advertisers and the audience.
Programming: Formats• What is a format?• The genre of the station; its music, personalities, contests, positioning• What is a target audience?• Broken down with demographics (age, race, gender, socio-economic status, geography)• How to identify the target audience?
Types of formats• Country• News/talk• Oldies• Hispanic• Adult contemporary (AC• Sports• Contemporary hits radio (CHR)• Classic rock• Classic hits• Hot AC• Modern rock• Active Rock• Urban
Noncommercial radio• Community stations: supported by members of the community, serves that community, and employs the community• College radio: licensed to schools as a learning tool, serves college communities• Public radio stations: meet criteria established by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting• Low Power FMs (LPFM): news stations that serve small listening areas (i.e. the Thruway traffic channel)
Satellite Radio Today• Started strong, forecasters predicted annual revenues of $8B by 2014• iPod and other mobile media may have been a factor in decreasing audience• Today, just one company: SirusXM
Growth of Internet and Mobile Broadcasting• More than 80% of Americans have access to broadband connection, and nearly 505 of homes have at least 2 computers (Arbitron)• ComScore: 2010 – 14% of smart phone usage was to listen to music• Internet music services have to pay a fee to the Copyright Royalty Board for performance rights for music• Some services are limited (number of skipped tracks, time length of stream – all part of their CRB agreements)
Radio station structure• Operations: Traffic department – coordinates advertising on a station, between sales and programming• Sales department: sells airtime for a station• Program department: on-air staff, program directors, production• Engineering: responsible for keeping the station on the air, and sounding good!
Radio employment today• Consolidation, automation, syndicated programming, has made the job market very competitive• 17% ethnic minority, 42% female• Starting salaries are very low, but the potential for success is always there!• Typically sales will make the most, average on air salary is $25,000