• Symbiosis: “the living together in intimate
association or close union of two organisms”.
• Movies & Music
• Radio & TV
• Radio & the music business
• Necessary for radio stations to have the freedom
to choose the programming they want to provide
to their communities
• Section 326 of the Communications Act: FCC
has neither the right or power to control radio
• FCC may enforce rules regarding political
advertising, obscenity and indecency
• Bulk of radio programming is free from
• Format freedom
In other countries:
Canadian content rule: CanCon, cancon or can-con) Canadian
broadcasting policy is defined by Section 3 of the Broadcasting Act,
which stipulates that:
radio frequencies are public property
broadcast programming provides a public service essential to
national identity and cultural sovereignty
the Canadian broadcasting system should provide a wide range of
programming that reflects Canadian attitudes, opinions, ideas,
values and artistic creativity, by displaying Canadian talent in
To qualify as "Canadian content," music must generally fulfill at least
two of the following conditions
(the MAPL system):
M (music) - the music is composed entirely by a Canadian.
A (artist) - the music and/or the lyrics are performed principally by a
P (production) - the musical selection consists of a live performance
that is (i) recorded wholly in Canada, or (ii) performed wholly in
Canada and broadcast live in Canada.
L (lyrics) - the lyrics are written entirely by a Canadian.
Under the Commercial Radio Policy, 35 per cent of all music aired
each week on all AM and FM stations must be Canadian. In
addition, 35 per cent of music broadcast between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.
Monday through Friday must consist of Canadian content.
• Other countries employ similar quota systems.
• For example, Australian broadcasters are
required to broadcast a certain percentage of
Australasian content alongside international
• Similar domestic content quota laws also exist in
the Philippines, Mexico, Nigeria, France, Israel,
Ireland, South Africa, Jamaica, the United
Kingdom, and New Zealand.
• In the UK, Ireland, and France, this rule is now a
European Union content rule rather than a
domestic content rule
Types of programming
• Local programming: originating from the
radio station or studios, or from areas in
the local community
• Prerecorded/syndicated programming:
obtained by the station through a
commercial supplier. Distributed via CDs,
satellite, online download or telephone
• Back in the day, stations employed their
• Now the majority of music is provided by
CDs, computer hard drive, or via satellite
• Locally produced content
• National/network/syndicated content
• Big personalities like Rush Limbaugh, Dr.
Laura, Tom Leykis
Modes of radio production
• Local/Live : when radio stations employ their own
announcers or newscasters locally and play music that
they themselves own
• Live-assist: use syndicated programming, but retain
some local announcers and DJs as the backbone of
their on air schedule
• Semiautomation: reliance on syndicated services,
occasionally inserts live personalities
• Turnkey automation: fully automated stations that
create programming based on a format service
(usually delivered via satellite) or a computer
automated schedule (that is created locally); runs on
• Where jocks can record all intros and outtros to make it sound like they are live on
the air, when in reality, they may record
from any part of the country, any time of
the day, and many days in advance.
• Three keys to a successful format:
1. Identify and serve a predetermined set of listeners
2. Serve those listeners better than the competition
3. Reward listeners both on and off the air, so they
become consistent customers for the products and
services advertised on the station
• Finding the “format hole”
• The need to carve a unique niche – one that will deliver a
large enough audience to attract advertising to that station
• Internal factors: dial location, ownership, signal strength,
technical facilities, management philosophy
• External factors: competitive market study – what else is
out there, can you compete? Of other current formats, are
they weak in any ways you can capitalize on?
• Target audience: the
primary listeners of your
• General demographics:
the age/gender area
where most of your
• Psychographics: “getting
in the heads” of your
listeners. What are their
habits, interests, needs,
Psychographics and formats
• What do you think of CHR
• Modern rock?
• Hot AC?
• Classic Rock?
Hot clock, format wheel,
• Graphical chart that indicates the structure
of one typical programming hour
• Looks like the face of a clock
• Dictates precisely when each major
programming element will air (i.e.
commercials, live breaks, sweepers, ids,
promos, weather, songs)
• Usually one format clock per daypart
• How a broadcast day is broken up into
• Morning drive
• Afternoon drive
3 main types of info represented in the
1.Commercial & promotional matter
• Too many commercials: clutter
• Commercial break, also called a “stop set”
• Music is broken down into segments on a
• Subcategories usually correspond to how
they are categorized in a station’s
programming software (Selector, Music
• Currents, hits, golds, power cuts, b-side,
oldies --- heavy rotation, lite rotation?
• How one programming element goes into
• IDs, Sweepers, Promos, Live Breaks
• Why do you think it’s important to give the
station’s name in between every song?
How do you know it’s working?
How do you select songs for your station?
Charts: iTunes, Billboard, Radio and Records
Call-ins: what listeners are saying
Call-outs: stations reaching out to their listeners for research
Auditorium tests: “hook-testing” songs for a large group in
Focus group study: group of
listeners you interact with
personally to get opinions
Fine-tuning the format
• Pay attention to ratings, adjust accordingly
• Personal People Meter: device that
collects data about TV/radio
watching/listening by detecting inaudible
tones in the content
News/talk & Sports formatting
• Mainly four programming elements: news,
talk, business & sports
• All news
• All talk
• What kind of talk? Example: Car Talk
• What is “hot talk”? Example: Tom Lycus
All news formatting
• Three basic elements: news segments,
feature segments & commercial matter
• Provide network news at or near the top of
• 30-minute mark – the bottom of the hour
• Incorporates news segments, with the
remainder of each hour filled with features,
interviews and listener call in segments
• Talk hosts
• May also carry some sports play by play
• Example: WBEN-AM
Non commercial programming
• Typically utilizes “block programming”
• For a station to be CPB qualified: meets
standards met by the Corporation for
• College radio
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