101 ch9


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101 ch9

  1. 1. Sound recording Chapter 9
  2. 2. A brief history• Phonograph: invented by Thomas Edison in 1877, originally conceived as a spoken word/ dictation device. Used a cylinder instead of disc.• Graphophone: had a better amplification device• Gramophone: used a disc, introduced the concept of a record. These were eventually used for music, not spoken word, and the recording industry was born
  3. 3. The impact of radio• By the end of 1924, the sales of record players dropped by 50%• RCA merged with Victor in 1927• How did the Victrola get its name?
  4. 4. The Depression years• Thomas Edisons recording company went out of business in 1930• Record sales dropped $46M in 1930 to $5.5M in 1933• However, coin operated jukeboxes began to appear in the new bars that emerged post-Prohibition• By 1939, sales increased by more than 500%
  5. 5. Post WWII• Radio was utilized as a promotional tool for record labels• If songs were played on the radio, it helped to sell records• Labels would send free music to the DJs at radio stations
  6. 6. Post WWII• Three competing formats for records post WWII: 33 1/3, 45, 78• 33 dominated albums, 45 for singles• The advent of television changed radio in that it made the industry experiment with music formats
  7. 7. The coming of rock and roll• July 1955 Bill Haley and the Comets released "Rock Around the Clock"• The following year Elvis puts out his first single "Heartbreak Hotel"• Popular in this era of early rock and roll: Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard and Chuck Berry
  8. 8. The commercialization of rock• Through a bizarre series of events, the early rock pioneers were out of the picture by 1959 (Elvis was in the Army, Little Richard was in the seminary, Chuck Berry was incarcerated in federal prison, Jerry Lee Lewis married his 13-year-old cousin)• Rock and roll was experiencing an image problem: now, new artists were "squeaky clean" e.g. Ricky Nelson, The Four Seasons, Bobby Vee, Connie Francis, Brenda Lee
  9. 9. The British Invasion• In 1964 the Beatles took the US by storm• The British Invasion changed the shape of the music business and American popular culture
  10. 10. British Invasion• Most of the BI acts mimicked what was popular in American music at the time (cheerful, commercial and white)• Hermans Hermits, Dave Clark Five• A less cheerful/pop British Invasion was taking place with bands like the Animals and the Rolling Stones
  11. 11. Industry Trends 1970s – 1990s• Recording industry boomed in the 1970s in part to disco• Early 80s downturn reversed itself in the late 80s, due in part to big albums like Michael Jackson’s Thriller• CD replaced tape as the preferred playback medium; CDs have a bigger profit margin than tape
  12. 12. The contemporary sound recording industry• The biggest development in the past decade is the emergence of MP3s and MP3 players (iPod)• The decline of physical media in music (digital downloads)• Business model changed; not selling albums, but selling songs a la carte• Industry fighting illegal download sites in court (Napster)
  13. 13. Sound recording in the digital age• Transition: from vinyl disk > magnetic tape > digital encoding of music (multiple storage options)• The rise of the iPod: created an entirely new industry (iPod accessories), began a new radio format based on the idea of “shuffle” (Jack FM)
  14. 14. The decline of the CD• Sale of CD albums declined steadily since 2000• Typically consumers only like one or two tracks from an album• The digital revolution put the power in the hands of the consumer – buy just one track if that’s all you want• Music customization through burned mix CDs, iPod playlists
  15. 15. Sound recording in the digital age• New products: Ringtones• Mobile music: download to a device, streaming, or “The Cloud”• User-generated content: artists & labels that make and distribute their own music, allowing fans to remix songs• Social Media: MySpace, YouTube to discover performers
  16. 16. Defining features of sound recording• A cultural force, the products of the industry help characterize social groups and define movements and trends in American society• The industry has been at the center of a great deal of social and cultural controversy• Elvis• The Beatles• 2 Live Crew, Ice T, Madonna
  17. 17. Organization of the recording industry• Talent: singers, musicians, songwriters, arrangers, lyricists• Production: Recording studio personnel, audio engineers, promotion (public relations, advertising, merchandising)• Distribution: direct retail, rack jobbers, one-stops, direct consumer sales, online sales, direct download• Retail: importance has declined, but influence of big marketers (Target, Walmart) increased
  18. 18. Ownership in the recording industry• Big companies account for more than 85% of the market (Universal, Sony, EMI, Warner)There are seven departments within a typical recording company:1. Artists & Repertoire (A&R): talent scout, monitor influential music websites, keeps an eye on local markets to see what’s hot2. Sales & Distribution: sells the company’s products and then distributes the product on CD and download sites3. Advertising and Merchandising : plans media ad campaigns and point-of-purchase displays in sales outlets. Works with promotion department
  19. 19. 4. Promotion: helps promote the company’s artists; getting songs on radio and film/TV, social media5. Business: lawyers, accountants, market researchers, financial analysts, secretarial and clerical staffers6. Publicity: attempts to get press coverage for new artists and new releases, getting albums reviewed in magazines and newspapers7. Artist development: coordinates tour dates, making sure the act has a well-produced concert show, arranges TV appearances
  20. 20. Making a recording• Demo: a sample of an artist’s sound• Performers are signed to contracts to produce music (a track or album)• A master recording is made in the studio• After the recording session, the recorded tracks are mixed down into a master, which is given to the promotions department, and advertising and publicity begin shopping the disc
  21. 21. The Economics of sound recordingEconomic trends:• Steady decline since 2000• Digital downloading is a growth industry.• Profit margin is less, since companies make more on CD sales, and the sale of physical media is dropping
  22. 22. New Business Model360 deal:• a company agrees to make a large cash payment to a performer• In return, the company gets a percentage of all revenue generated by the performer (including record sales, touring, merchandise, endorsement deals, etc.)Song licensing: video games, TV. Example: Aerosmith made more money from licensing to Guitar Hero than from any of their albums
  23. 23. Feedback for sound recordingBillboard charts• Based on two components: exposure and sales.• Relies on Neilsen SoundScan reports for sales figures.• To measure exposure, data from Neilsen Broadcast Data Systems is used – monitors airplay on more than 1,600 stations in the US, Canada and Puerto Rico.• Radio also uses Billboard to determine what songs they should play
  24. 24. Feedback for sound recordingSound recording audiences:• Estimated more than 90% of all households have the means to play a CD or digital download• Older consumers account for more record purchases (55%)• Consumer spending for 19 and under declined from 32% to 21%• Even spending between males and females