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  • 1. Broadcast Television Chapter 11
  • 2. History of TV
  • 3. History of TV • A way to scan images, encode an image into tiny electrical signals, able to be received and reassembled • Philo Farnsworth: Age 16, conceptualized the “image dissector,” patented in 1930, the first television • Vladimir Zworykin: by 1928 developed a working camera tube -- iconoscope • First demo of working TV: 1939 World’s Fair (RCA, with Zworykin’s help and Farnsworth’s patent made it happen)
  • 4. History of TV• Initial public response was weak, sets were expensive, and not many programs to watch• Early TV actors had to wear green makeup to look normal for TV and swallow salt tablets to prevent sweating under the hot camera lights• WW2 interrupted TVs development
  • 5. History of TV• Post War: technology utilized during WW2 spurred TV development, regarding reception and working conditions for the performers• New TV cameras required less light, TV screens were bigger, more programs, the beginnings of networks
  • 6. History of TV• 1945: 8 TV stations, 8,000 homes with TV in the US• 1955: 100 stations, 35 million households with TV
  • 7. TV in the 1950s • Early TV industry was modeled after radio; local stations served their communities, and might be affiliated with networks • 4 TV networks during this period: NBC, CBS, ABC and DuMont • Golden Age of Television • Popular shows: I Love Lucy, The Today Show, 21, Gunsmoke
  • 8. TV Freeze• TV growth was phenomenal; manufacturers could barely keep up with demand, many TV stations popping up all over the country• FCC declared a freeze on new applications in 1950-1952• 1952: Sixth Report and Order
  • 9. 1960’s• By the end of the decade, 95% of American households had a TV• TV journalism changed: NBC and CBS expanded nightly news from 15 minutes to 30• Covered the Kennedy Assassination, civil rights movement, first moonwalk• Public Broadcasting Act of 1967: established the Public Broadcasting System (PBS)• Popular programs: The Beverly Hillbillies, Green Acres, Bewitched, My Favorite Martian, My Mother the Car
  • 10. 1970s• Public concern over the impact of tv watching was growing• Surgeon General formed a panel to investigate the harm TV watching could cause – that TV violence was related to aggressive adolescent behavior• Cable industry growing, networks feeling competition• Program trends: law-and-order programs; The FBI, Charlie’s Angels and Mannix.• Towards the end of the decade, programming trended toward adult situation comedies (the sitcom): All In The Family, M*A*S*H, Dallas, Dynasty
  • 11. 1980s-2000s • UPN, WB:CW – in 2006, merge to 1990s • Major Mergers: Walt Disney buys ABC, Westinghouse buys CBS • By 2000, 68% of people use cable • 80’s: The Cosby Show, Family Ties • 90’s: prime-time newsmagazines, 20/20, 60 Minutes • 2000’s: Reality TV, Survivor, Jersey Shore, The Bachelor
  • 12. Technology• VCR: 1982, was adopted faster than any other appliance since TV.• Led to the movie-rental industry• Encouraged time shifting: playing back programs at times other than when they aired• TVs with remotes: lead to grazing: viewers surfing through channels during commercials
  • 13. Broadcasting in the 21 Century st• HDTV:and sound. Requires a2009, higherand special picture 60 Million homes by special TV quality signal• DTV: Digital TV, mandated in 2009. Digital signals free up space on the broadcast spectrum; have the ability to be split for subchannels.• 3D TV: In 2010, TV set manufacturers shipped 4 million 3- D capable sets to vendors. So far has failed to catch on.• Broadcasters & the Web: Networks offer high definition episodes for streaming, clips, social media integration. News websites are no longer just adjuncts to the broadcast; many offer exclusive web only content.
  • 14. Broadcasting in the 21 Century st• Broadcasters &quality content. Disney- ABC operates streaming of high Broadband: Broadband allows for ESPN 360, an online sports channel available through certain Internet service providers that streams live coverage of sporting events. Broadband series have yet to generate a profit for broadcasters, and the networks do not invest a lot of money in their development. They do represent a place where the networks can experiment with new programming forms and new creative personnel without risking a lot of money
  • 15. Broadcasting in the 21 Century st• Mobile TV Apps• User-generated content: with the exception of the occasional cell phone video of a news event, network broadcasters use little user- generated content. Local stations are more likely to employ user- generated material. One study found that 50 percent of stations accepted content from the audience, most of it consisting of photos and video of weather-related events.• Social Media: used for promotion of shows, interaction with fans, companion for live events (Super Bowl)
  • 16. Defining features of broadcast TV• TV is a universal medium• 99% of homes in the US have at least one working TV• Most homes have more than one• Dominant medium for news and entertainment• TV set is on about average 8 hours a day
  • 17. Organization of the Broadcast TV industry• Commercial TV: local stations whose income is derived from selling time on their facilities to advertisers• Noncommercial TV: stations whose income is derived from sources other than the sale of ad time• Markets: service areas for broadcast• Network & Affiliate relationship
  • 18. Organization of the Broadcast TV industryThree segments of the industry:1.Production2.Distribution3.Exhibition
  • 19. ProductionProgramming comes from three basic sources:1. Local production: produced in the station’s own studio or with the use of the station’s equipment (ex. News)2. Syndicated programming: programs produced exclusively for syndication and off-net series programs (ex. Wheel of Fortune, Oprah, Friends reruns)3. Network programs: 65-70% of an affiliate’s programming is from the network. (ex. ABC – Grey’s Anatomy, 20/20)
  • 20. DistributionThree basic elements of distribution:1. Networks: distribute programs via satellite, then the affiliate sends along to viewers. Network/affiliate contracts are complicated, and vary from network to affiliate, but currently networks ask for “reverse compensation,” where the affiliate pays a fee to carry net programs.2. Syndication companies: lease taped or filmed programs to local television stations in each local market, usually distributes content from outside sources. Usually stations buy packages of shows, contracts determine how many times they can be aired and when.3. Cable/satellite networks: How viewers might receive TV broadcasts
  • 21. Major Networks• CBS• NBC• ABC• FOX• CW• My Network TVStations that are not affiliated with networks are called independents
  • 22. Ownership in the TV industryAll major networks are under the control of large conglomerates:NBC Universal is owned by ComcastABC is owned by Walt DisneyFox is owned by News Corporation (Rupert Murdoch). Also controls My Network TVCBS is owned by CBS Corporation (a spinoff of Viacom). Also controls CW
  • 23. Producing TV programsDepartments & Staff (Local Affiliate level):Station Manager oversees the following:1. Sales: sells ad time2. Engineering: maintains equipment3. Production/Programming: puts together local produced programming, responsible for scheduling of the program day4. News: in charge of the news programs5. Administration: clerical, accounting, etc.
  • 24. Producing TV programsAt the network level:1.Sales: sells network commercials, works with ad agencies2.Entertainment: works with producers to develop new programs3.O&O stations: stations owned by the network itself4.Affiliate relations: supervises contracts with all affiliate stations
  • 25. 5. News: responsible for all network news programming6. Sports: responsible for all sports programming7. Standards: checks network programs to make sure they do not violate the law or the network’s own guidelines for appropriate content8. Operations: handles the technical aspect of distribution of programs to affiliates
  • 26. The Economics of Broadcast TVCommercial time: A station, network or cablesystem makes available a specified number ofminutes per hour that can be sold (avails)Three types of advertisers on TV:1.National advertisers2.National spot advertisers3.Local advertisers
  • 27. The Economics of Broadcast TV• TV industry has been profitable since 1950• Ad revenue increased every year since 1971• Changes in the industry are affecting the bottom line of networks and stations
  • 28. Commercial Time• Three types of advertisers • National advertisers • National spot advertisers • Local advertisers• Bigger ratings = higher costs for airtime• TV shows also generate revenue from • Product placement • Text messaging fees
  • 29. Where Did the Money Go?• Network programming is expensive • 30 min sitcom: $1.5 million per episode • 60 min show: about $3 million per episode• Quiz and reality shows are a lot cheaper• Programming costs account for about 35- 40% of a local station’s expenses
  • 30. PUBLIC BROADCASTING• Public broadcasting has existed in the US for more than 40 years
  • 31. A Brief History• 1967 Public Broadcasting Act • Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) • Public Broadcasting System (PBS)• Internal disputes regarding programming• Competition from cable channels• Reduced funding – political issue • Stations looking for other funding sources
  • 32. Programming and Financing• Tension between local stations and centralized PBS organization • 1990: moved toward more centralized programming. Ratings remain low• Sesame Street; Nova• 354 PBS stations; licensed by FCC • Licensed to 168 community organizations, universities, states/cities• Funding from government, viewer contributions, businesses, grants, etc.• PBS moving slowly into digital age
  • 33. HOME VIDEO• DVDs & VCRs common in US households• DVRs (Digital Video Recorders) gaining ground • VCRs and DVRs can time-shift• Home video industry functions: • Production (motion picture studios dominate) • Distribution (record-like rack jobbers dominate) • Retail (retail and department stores)• DVD opened new aftermarket for TV • Retailers concerned about video on demand and premium channels
  • 34. FEEDBACK FOR BROADCAST TELEVISION• The television industry seeks feedback in a variety of ways
  • 35. Measuring TV Viewing• Demographic data and viewing behavior• Nielsen Media Research Network ratings: • Nielsen Television Index • People Meter, national sample = 12,000 • Testing Portable People Meter (PPM)• Nielsen Local-Market TV Ratings • 200 markets, 4 times per year (sweeps) • Diary/electronic metering • Nielsen hopes to phase out paper diaries
  • 36. Ratings Reporting• Rating: Number of households watching a program, divided by the total number of TV households• Share: Number of households watching a program, divided by number of households actually watching TV at that time• Sweeps (Feb, May, July, Nov) • Local market people meters will decrease importance of traditional sweeps periods• Determining accuracy of ratings • Media Ratings Council (previously Electronic Media Ratings Council; EMRC) set up to monitor, audit, accredit broadcast ratings services • Other criticisms may deserve closer attention
  • 37. Television Audiences• TV is entrenched in American life • TV set in 99% of homes; 75% have more than one set • TV is on for eight hours per day; average person watches more than three hours • Viewing is heaviest: • During prime time • In winter (lightest in July/August) • In low-income households • Among people with lower educations • Among females