The Female Labor Force Participation in the South Caucasus
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The Female Labor Force Participation in the South Caucasus The Female Labor Force Participation in the South Caucasus Presentation Transcript

  • The FemaleLaborForce Participationin the SouthCaucasus Tatevik Zohrabyan, PhD This research has been implemented in the scope of CRRC-Armenia Fellowship Program, financed by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Yerevan, 2013
  • Paper1: DeterminingFactorsInfluencing the FemaleLaborForce Participationin the SouthCaucasus
  • Outline • Introduction • Objective • Significance of the Results • Literature Review • Empirical Specification • Data • Estimation Results • Summary • Recommendations
  • Introduction • Traditionally, the societies in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are largely perceived as male-dominated. • The issue of the provision of equal rights to both the male and the female populations. • Restricting female labor participation implies inefficient use of available labor resources.
  • Introduction • In 2010, the female labor force participation (FLFP) rate was: • 49% in Armenia, • 61% in Azerbaijan, and • 56% in Georgia. • Virtually no change compared to the same numbers in 2009.
  • Objective • The major objective of this study is to provide an empirical evidence of the socio-economic determinants influencing the FLFP in the South Caucasus countries. • A binary logit model for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. • Data collected by the regional offices of the Caucasus research resource Center (CRRC) within the framework of the Caucasus Barometer program for 2010.
  • Significance of the Results • The results of this study can be used by: • the government, • policy-makers, • various non-governmental organizations, • international organizations, • that attempt: • to promote equal opportunities and rights, • to reduce poverty, and • to efficiently utilize available labor resources, • by • targeting specific demographic groups when developing and designing different programs to increase the FLFP.
  • Literature Review • Many studies attempting to explain the FLFP in developed countries: • (Mincer, 1962; Bowen and Finegan, 1969; Leuthold, 1978; Cogan, 1980; Greenhalgh, 1980; Layard, Barton, and Zabalza, 1980; Schultz, 1980; Smith, 1980; Killingsworth, 1983; Mroz, 1987; Fair and Macunovich, 1997). • As well, many studies in a number of developing countries; • Mon, 2000: Burma; • Ntuli, 2007: South Africa; • Faridi, Malik and Basit, 2009: Pakistan, etc.
  • Literature Review • A descriptive approach when discussing the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: • (European Commission, 2011; World Bank, 2012b; World Bank and International Finance Corporation, 2012). • The present study empirically investigates the issue of ascertaining the factors impacting the FLFP in the South Caucasus.
  • Empirical Specification • The estimated logit model for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia is specified as follows: • Pr(lfp=1)=F(β0 + β1capital + β2edu_atleast_higher + β3edu_sec_tech + β4single + β5div_sep_wid + β6wom_equal + β7inc_401_more + β8jobatt_rath_disag + β9jobatt_rath_ag + β10jobatt_cmpl_ag + β11age + β12hhsize)
  • Empirical Specification • The socio-economic variables used in the study: • employment status, • settlement type, • education level, • marital status, • the presence of male and/or female household heads, • household income, • respondent’s attitude toward having a job, • age, and • household size. • The actual interpretation of the estimation results is done in terms of percent change in odds ratios.
  • Data • The data from the Caucasus Barometer household survey for 2010 conducted by the CRRC’s regional offices in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. • The sample consisted of female respondents aged 18 or older. • The sample size for Armenia was 842, for Azerbaijan 817, and for Georgia 958.
  • Data
  • Data
  • Estimation Results
  • Estimation Results
  • Estimation Results
  • Summary • Residing in the capital city was inversely related with the FLFP in Armenia. • Having at least higher education and secondary technical education positively affected the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. • In Armenia, being divorced or separated or widowed was positively associated with the FLFP. • Having monthly household income of $401 or more positively impacted the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • Summary • An attitude of rather agreeing with the statement that men should have more right to a job when jobs are scarce was negatively associated with the FLFP in Armenia and Georgia. • An attitude of completely agreeing with the statement that men should have more right to a job in case of job scarcity was negatively associated with the FLFP in Azerbaijan. • Negative relationship was found between age and the FLFP in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • Summary • Household size and the FLFP were negatively related in Azerbaijan. • The effects of • being single; • the presence of female or both male and female decision-makers in the household • were statistically insignificant in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • Recommendations • The following is recommended to insure the maximum female labor force participation: • implement strategies aimed at encouraging the female labor force participation in capital cities; • increase investments in education; • create jobs with flexible working hours to fit the schedule of married women;
  • Recommendations • implement strategies geared toward enhancing women’s self-esteem and social status that will result in breaking the cultural stereotype that men are more entitled to jobs when jobs are scarce; • invest in child care facilities and make them affordable to women.
  • Paper2: ExaminingFactors Impactingthe FemaleAttitudestoward Havinga Job in the SouthCaucasus
  • Outline • Objective • Empirical Specification • Data • Estimation Results • Summary • Recommendations
  • Objective • This study attempts to answer the following research question: “What are the socio-economic factors impacting female perception that men should have more right to a job when there is job scarcity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia?” • An ordered logit model was estimated for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia employing. • Data collected by the regional offices of the CRRC within the framework of the Caucasus Barometer program for 2010.
  • Empirical Specification • The ordered logit: • Pr(response category for the jth outcome = i) = Pr(ki-1<α1X1j + α2X2j +…+ αkXkj + uj ki) • where ki-1…ki are the cut points; • α1, α2,…αk parameters, • i is the number of possible response categories of the dependent variable
  • Empirical Specification • The four ordinal categories of the dependent variable: • 1=Completely Agree, • 2=Rather Agree, • 3=Rather Disagree, and • 4=Completely Disagree. • reflect an underlying measure of the respondent’s propensity to disagree (i.e., have more negative attitudes) that men should have more right to a job when jobs are scarce.
  • Data • The categorical dependent variable (female attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity) was estimated as a function of: • settlement type, • education, • marital status, • presence of a male or female household decision-maker, • household income, • employment status, • age, and • household size. • The same data as for the logit model.
  • Data
  • Estimation Results
  • Estimation Results
  • Summary • Living in the capital cities was inversely associated with having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Azerbaijan and Georgia. • Having at least higher education positively affected having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Azerbaijan and Georgia. • • Being single positively impacted having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Azerbaijan and Georgia.
  • Summary • Being divorced or separated or widowed positively affected having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Armenia and Azerbaijan. • The presence of a woman or a woman and a man jointly as main decision-makers in the household was positively related to having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. • Positive relationship was found between being employed and having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Azerbaijan.
  • Summary • Every year increase in age decreased the odds of having more negative attitudes toward men having more right to a job in case of job scarcity in Georgia. • Having secondary technical education, having monthly household income of $401 and more, and household size were found to be statistically insignificant in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • Recommendations • The following is recommended to assist in overcoming a rather traditional perception among women in the South Caucasus that men should have more right to a job in case of job scarcity: • implement strategies aimed at encouraging the women to enter the labor force in the capital cities; • increase investments in education and enhance the female educational attainment;
  • Recommendations • create jobs that require flexible working hours for married women; • implement strategies pursuing the increased societal acceptance of women as household decision-makers; • eliminate or reduce the barriers to entry to more and more professions for women.
  • THE END SPECIALTHANKSTO THECRRC-ARMENIA’S OFFICESTAFFFORMAKINGTHIS RESEARCH PROJECTPOSSIBLE!
  • QUESTIONS/COMMENTS?