UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DELESTADO DE ZACATECASORGANISMO PÚBLICO DESCENTRALIZADO DEL GOBIERNO DEL ESTADO DE ZACATECASUTEZCarr. Zac.- Cd.Cuauhtémoc Km.-5Cieneguitas,Guadalupe, Zac.C.P. 98601 A.P. No.90Tel. y Fax. 01 (492)92-761-81 al 84UNIDAD ACADÉMICADE PINOSCalle González Ortega No.60Pinos, ZacatecasTel. 01(496) 86-402-15A I ECUADERNILLO ACADÉMICAINGLES IIICUATRIMESTRE:MAYO - AGOSTO 2013Elaboro Academia de Ingles UTEZ
UNIT ONE: Planning a compositionGRAMMAR (PUNCTUATION MARKS)Summary of Punctuation MarksPunctuation Mark Name Examplefull stop orperiodI like English.comma I speak English, French andThai.semi-colon I dont often go swimming; Iprefer to play tennis.colon You have two choices: finishthe work today or lose thecontract.hyphen This is a rather out-of-datebook.dash In each town—London, Parisand Rome—we stayed inyouth hostels.
question mark Where is Shangri-La?exclamationmarkexclamationpoint (AmE)"Help!" she cried. "Imdrowning!"slash, forwardslash orobliquePlease press your browsersRefresh/Reload button.backslash C:UsersFilesjse.docdoublequotationmarks"I love you," she said.singlequotationmarksI love you, she said.apostrophe This is Johns car.underline Have you read War andPeace?
underscore firstname.lastname@example.orgI went to Bangkok (myfavourite city) and stayedthere for two weeks.squarebracketsThe newspaper reported thatthe hostages [most of themFrench] had been released.ellipsis mark One happy customer wrote:"This is the bestprogram...that I have everseen."LINKS TO OTHER PAGES WITH PUNCTUATION MARKS.http://www.enchantedlearning.com/dictionarysubjects/punctuation.shtmlhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/english/reading/sentences/revision/5/http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omgrammar/signosdepuntuacion.htmGRAMMAR TERMSThe Basic Grammar TermsSometimes we Grammarians speak a language all our own.Here is a quick translation for the most common terms:noun: person, place or thing (sister, Sydney, plane)
verb: an action word (flew, visited, toured)pronoun: a replacement for a noun (he, she, it)adjective: a word that describes a noun (blond, hot,stuffy)adverb: a word that describes a verb (quickly, happily,intently)preposition: a word that shows the link between twowords (to, toward, against)conjunction: a word that joins words or ideas (and, but,or)article: three specific adjectives. Also the most commonlyused adjectives. (ONLY: a, an, the)http://www.qub.ac.uk/directorates/sgc/learning/FileStore/Filetoupload,163257,en.pdfhttp://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/definitions.htmhttp://www.grammar-monster.com/grammar_terms_and_definitions.htmhttp://www.iscribe.org/english/def.htmlHow To Write An Essay: 10 Easy StepsBrief Overview of the 10 Essay Writing StepsBelow are brief summaries of each of the ten steps to writing an essay.Select the links for more info on any particular step, or use the bluenavigation bar on the left to proceed through the writing steps. How ToWrite an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten
sequential steps in an essay writing process, or can be explored byindividual topic.1. Research: Begin the essay writing process by researching your topic,making yourself an expert. Utilize the internet, the academic databases,and the library. Take notes and immerse yourself in the words of greatthinkers.2. Analysis: Now that you have a good knowledge base, start analyzingthe arguments of the essays youre reading. Clearly define the claims,write out the reasons, the evidence. Look for weaknesses of logic, andalso strengths. Learning how to write an essay begins by learning how toanalyze essays written by others.3. Brainstorming: Your essay will require insight of your own, genuineessay-writing brilliance. Ask yourself a dozen questions and answer them.Meditate with a pen in your hand. Take walks and think and think until youcome up with original insights to write about.4. Thesis: Pick your best idea and pin it down in a clear assertion that youcan write your entire essay around. Your thesis is your main point,summed up in a concise sentence that lets the reader know where youregoing, and why. Its practically impossible to write a good essay without aclear thesis.5. Outline: Sketch out your essay before straightway writing it out. Useone-line sentences to describe paragraphs, and bullet points to describewhat each paragraph will contain. Play with the essays order. Map outthe structure of your argument, and make sure each paragraph is unified.6. Introduction: Now sit down and write the essay. The introduction shouldgrab the readers attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis.Your intro is merely a buildup of the issue, a stage of bringing your readerinto the essays argument.(Note: The title and first paragraph are probably the most importantelements in your essay. This is an essay-writing point that doesnt alwayssink in within the context of the classroom. In the first paragraph youeither hook the readers interest or lose it. Of course your teacher, whosgetting paid to teach you how to write an essay, will read the essay youvewritten regardless, but in the real world, readers make up their mindsabout whether or not to read your essay by glancing at the title alone.)
7. Paragraphs: Each individual paragraph should be focused on a singleidea that supports your thesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences,support assertions with evidence, and expound your ideas in the clearest,most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he or she weresitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay,try talking the essay.8. Conclusion: Gracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-upsentence, and then end on some memorable thought, perhaps aquotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some call to action. Is theresomething you want the reader to walk away and do? Let him or her knowexactly what.9. MLA Style: Format your essay according to the correct guidelines forcitation. All borrowed ideas and quotations should be correctly cited in thebody of your text, followed up with a Works Cited (references) page listingthe details of your sources.10. Language: Youre not done writing your essay until youve polishedyour language by correcting the grammar, making sentences flow,incoporating rhythm, emphasis, adjusting the formality, giving it a level-headed tone, and making other intuitive edits. Proofread until it reads justhow you want it to sound. Writing an essay can be tedious, but you dontwant to bungle the hours of conceptual work youve put into writing youressay by leaving a few slippy misppallings and pourly wordedd phrazies.but, however, on the otherhand, yetindicate CONTRASTfor example, that is indicate ILLUSTRATIONsimilarly, moreover,furthermore, in additionindicate EXTENSIONtherefore, consequently, as aresult, thusindicate CONCLUSIONthen, after that, ultimately indicate THE NEXT STEPhttp://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.01%20Essays.htmhttp://lklivingston.tripod.com/essay/http://www.unask.com/teaching/howto/essay.htm
1. Outline QuestionnaireThis essay is about:The essay is introduced by the following interesting statement:This essay is introduced with the following idea:The essay will illustrate the above idea by showing that:o (main point of paragraph 1) This is shown by:1.2.3.o (main point of paragraph 2) This is shown by:1.2.3.o (main point of paragraph 3) This is shown by:1.2.3.To summarize, this essay has shown that:The lessons that can be learned are:1.2.Essay ExamplesFour types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition,andargument. Each type has a unique purpose: some tell a story, someare descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. One of the best ways tobetter understand each type of essay is to review examples.Ads by GoogleEssay Grammar Checker Improve Grammar In Your Essays & Avoid Plagiarism. ItsFast & Free! www.Grammarly.comTypes of EssaysNarrativeNarration is telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and there is usuallya reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting,climax, and most importantly, a plot. The plot is the focus of the story
and is usually revealed chronologically, but there are sometimes flashforwards and flash backs.In writing a narrative essay, remember to:Include sensory and emotional details, so the reader will experience thestory, not just read about itHave the story support the point you are making, and make reference tothat point in the first sentence.Write in the first or third personDescriptiveDescriptive essays have text which describes traits and characteristics ofpeople, objects, events, feelings, etc in intricate detail.Whatever is being described will be thoroughly examined. For example,if you were describing roses, you would explain:Where they come fromWhat they look likeWhat colors they areHow they grow and smellWhen you write a descriptive essay, you want to involve the reader’ssenses and emotions. For example, you could say, “I got sleepy” ordescribe it like this, "As I was waiting for Santa, my eyelids began to getheavy, the lights on the tree began to blur with the green branches, andmy head started to drop." The second sentence gives vivid details tomake the reader feel like he is there.ExpositionExpository essays can compare, explore and discuss problems, or tell astory. An exposition essay gives information about various topics to thereader. It:InformsDescribesExplains
In writing an exposition, the text needs to:Be concise and easy to understandGive different views on a subject or report on a situation or eventExplain something that may be difficult to understand as you write youressay.Remember that your purpose is to explain.ArgumentativeIn an argumentative essay the writer is trying to convince the reader bydemonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. The writer’s position will bebacked up with certain kinds of evidence, like statistics or opinions ofexperts.The writer is not just giving an opinion, but making an argument for oragainst something and supporting that argument with data.To know how to write an essay in an argumentative way, you have toresearch and backup what you say in the text.http://examples.yourdictionary.com/essay-examples.htmlA classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. It is not theonly format for writing an essay, of course, but it is a useful model for you tokeep in mind, especially as you begin to develop your composition skills.The following material is adapted from a handout prepared by HarryLivermore for his high school English classes at Cook High School in Adel,Georgia. It is used here with his permission.Introduction:Introductory ParagraphSee, first, Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of gettingyour reader involved in your essay. The introductory paragraph should alsoinclude the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the paper: it tells thereader what the essay is about. The last sentence of this paragraph must also
contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of thebody of the paper.Body:Body — First paragraph:The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, mostsignificant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point. Thefirst sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties inwith the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic forthis paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relateto the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in thisparagraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph ofthe body.Body — Second paragraph:The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongestargument, second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or anobvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of thisparagraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitionalhook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraphshould be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesisstatement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraphshould include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body.Body — Third paragraph:The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument,weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the secondparagraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include thereverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the secondparagraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence.This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. Thelast sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook thatsignals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. Thishook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph.
Conclusion:Concluding paragraph:This paragraph should include the following:1. an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph,2. a restatement of the thesis statement, using some of the originallanguage or language that "echoes" the original language. (Therestatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement.)3. a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper.4. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion hascome to an end. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in anpersuasive paper.)Rhetorical QuestionsRhetorical questions are not really questions, but statements given in questionformat.Public speakers often use rhetorical questions in the middle of speeches. Ofcourse, the audience cannot all answer, but the intent is to engage them in thinkingand consider what answer they would give if they could.In figures of speech, rhetorical questions are known as Erotema.Gaining agreementRhetorical questions are often intended to make the listener agree with the speakeras the answer is obviously yes. Even if the listener does not say the word, they willthink it. And once they start agreeing they are more likely to keep doing so.Is the Pope a Catholic?Is the sky blue?Is this a great product?HedgingWe use rhetorical questions sometimes when we want to make a statement but arenot confident enough to assert a point. The question format thus allows others todisagree, but is not necessarily seeking agreement.
Isnt that wonderful? Is it a shade of blue?Self-talkSometimes when you ask questions, you are really asking them of yourself ratherthan the other person. this is particularly noticeable when you give the answersoon after asking the question.What is that? A bird, Id say. What type? Maybe an eagle? I think so. What a lovelyflight path.Multiple questionsWhen you ask multiple questions at once, you seldom expect them all to beanswered, and perhaps none of them.They become particularly rhetorical when you do not give time for the other personto answer.Where have you been? What time do you think this is? Do you think you can comehome late like this and nobody notice?Terminating statementAnother way that stopping the other person from answering is to put a statement ofsome sort immediately after the question.There is hence no space for the person to answer the question and they aredirected more by the final statement than the question.Can you see? Look there!Why do writers use rhetoricalquestions?Rhetoric is a persuasive technique used to convince people verbally. Rhetoricalquestions are used in a persuasive argument so that if the writer asks a rhetoricalquestion, it forces the listener to think of the obvious answer. For example:"Do you want to clean by picking up tiny individual pieces from the floor? If that is ano, pick Jamess vacuum cleaner. It is the most powerful vacuum cleaner ever."This small paragraph forces the reader/listener to think why would they want topick up the pieces from the floor, when they can just use a vacuum cleaner to dothe job. This helps the advertiser to convince their customer to buy their product.
A rhetorical question is one that is asked without expectation of an answer, oftenwith the implication that the answer is known to the person or group addressed. Itis actually a persuasive argument couched as an unanswered, or unanswerable,question.Example : "Are we going to put up with more foolishness from our electedofficials?" (The person speaking implies that the answer should be "no".)A well-constructed rhetorical question will both direct the listeners thoughts to aquestion they hadnt considered, and also have only one sensible answer, beingthe one the writer wanted.How to Describe a Persons Physical AppearanceADJECTIVEShttp://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/adjectives.phpCONNECTORShttp://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/connectors.php Start from the top. Notice the hair on your person of interest. Is itlong, shoulder-length, or short? Does this person wear a distincthairstyle? What color is their hairLook at the persons face. Even identical twins have facialdifferences that make every face on earth completely unique. Look forthe following features:Eyebrows: Are their eyebrows thick or thin, light or dark? Do theyhave small eyes or large eyes? Are they deep-set or bulgy? Arethey almond-shaped or round? Do they have long, thick, curlylashes, or are they sparse, straight or short?Nose: The persons nose can be almost any shape or size. Is itlong or short, turned up or hooked? Is it wide or narrow?
Mouth: Is the mouth wide or small? Does the person have full lipsor thin lips, and is their cupids-bow on top very defined?Notice any distinctive features, such as a mole or birthmark, evena scar or tattoo.What body shape does this person have? Are they tall or short,plump, average, stout or lanky? Do they have proportionately longarms or legs?Describing a character allows the readerto picture someone in their minds eyeThis hub will guide you through the reflective process of developingand describing a character. I will offer you a variety of elements toconsider which affect characterization. As the author you areresponsible for guiding your readers into a stimulating relationship withthe characters you create. By describing a character you are helpingthe reader picture someone. Someone whole and with depth.Describing a CharacterImagine you are writing a narrative. You should want your reader tofeel personally connected to the characteristics and traits of yoursubject. Your descriptive words, tone and voice are the writing skillsthat will make this happen. You want to be vivid in your portrayal inorder for your reader to capture your personal vision. The beauty ofreading is analyzing the characterization of interesting characters. Thewriter is the artist that will illustrate this vision through descriptive andcarefully crafted words. However, you must keep an important step inmind. You cannot describe a character until you have built thecharacter. I will guide you through the steps and questions you need toreflect on as you begin the process of evolving your thoughts into acharacter your readers will want to follow, analyze and interpret.
Note - I will use the term "character" for both fictional and non-fictionalsubjects. Therefore, you can apply these descriptive techniques in thedevelopment of character descriptions in autobiographies, biographiesand in creative writing.Characterization: Building the FrameworkThe Framework of a Character - Dont ignore who, what, when,where, how and why. The simplicity of these question prompts canlead to the development of an interesting character. You can choosehow to best use the prompts. Here are some ideas,Who - Who is the main character and who are the supportingcharacters? Who does the character influence?What - What is the purpose of each of your characters? Whatrole do they play? What conflicts do they encounter or provoke?What relationships do each of the characters have? Whatabilities or attributes affect the plot? What conflicts do they needto overcome? What motivates the characters? What internalconflicts does the character have? What external conflicts doesthe character have?When - When do the various characters emerge into thestoryline? When will your character have an epiphany?How - How does the reader perceive the character? How do thecharacters perceive each other?Why - Why is each respective character important to the storyline? Why is a character having a conflict? Why do charactersinfluence each other?Describing Character Traits and MotivationsGathering your tools and details -What makes a person?
• Physical appearance• Personality traits• Experiences• Motivations• Relationships• ConflictsTransforming details into an image...What does a character look like?Physical appearance and style of your subject are considereddescriptive - even the mundane. This includes unusual or uniquefeatures. Can you use a simile or metaphor to describe these features?For example, Her lips were as red as cherries. Her black hair glistenedlike a raven. He was a governmental tower with his stoic demeanorand height.Consider the following when developing the text for descriptive traits,• Height - really tall or short - ordinary and common• Hair length and color - shiny, dull, multi-toned, intense, cropped orlong• Freckles, dimples, braces, glasses, prosthetics, hats or canes• Clothing and style - well dressed, grungy, free spirited, disheveled.What message or image might the subject be trying to deliver with theirstyle?• Movement - is your subject graceful, clumsy or awkward? Or ordinaryand without charm?• What adjectives best describe your character?
Who is the character? Why is the character important?Personality traits and experiences are additional character questionsfor you to consider when developing a description of a person. Why isyour character the way he or she is? You should consider the causeand effect of these experiences. (Your who, what, when, where, howand why questions might be helpful here)• What makes this person unique?• How would you describe their personality?• Does your character have special abilities, virtues or attributes?• Are there specific physical or mental conflicts that challenge yourcharacter? Examples - Handicaps or disabilities from birth, disabledwar heroes, the emotionally or physically abused traits of a victim.What experience might your character have had that leads to thesedescriptive words? What have they witnessed? What where thecircumstances? Setting? Age?Examples -• If you are writing about a homeless child that has witnessed domesticabuse -His dark eyes flashed violent rippled reflections ofunfortunate wisdom and broken innocence.• If you were writing about a family matriarch that was nurturing, strongand influential -Deep furrows created crossroads of wisdom andstrife across her pale skin. The lines softened with her gentlesmile and soothing eyes. Her cane supported the evolution of herburdens as she caressed the rose in her lush and colorful garden.ADJECTIVES:http://www.momswhothink.com/reading/list-of-adjectives.htmlhttp://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adjectives.htm
UNIT TWOOBJECTIVES:Describing how sensesfeel.Exploring studentssenses.VOCABULARY:feelhearsensessightsmelltouchStudents relate stories onfeelings.BACKGROUND:Words help to express how we sense different things. Youngchildren are trying to determine which words can best explain thesituation. For instance, is boiling water, warm or hot. If you callsomething ―hot,‖ does that mean it will hurt you.Helping a student describe through words helps that student toexpress the sense in more detail. Languages throughout the worduse different "sounds" for the same event. English-speakingpeople hear "OINK, OINK" from pigs while other languages do not.PROCEDURE:1. If you have students with different native languages,you might want to ask them how they describe animalsounds.
2. Have the students use descriptive terms to describetaste, feel, and sight. For instance, the taste of sourand sweet or a warm winds verses a cool wind.3. Prior to this lesson, ask your students to think abouthow their senses have helped them discover thingsabout the world. Let the students give an oral report tothe rest of the class on their "sense" experiences. Givethem some examples of a sense experience that turnedout to be something else.EXAMPLES:1. Mary heard a noise that sounded like a baby.She looked outside to try and find the lost baby.After a few minutes, Mary found Fuzzy, her cat.He was hungry and was making a noise thatsounded like a baby.She used the sense of sound.2. Bill has a brother who likes to play jokes oneveryone. Bill was watching television when aweird object touched him. Although Bill wanted tomove away, he knew it was his brother teasinghim. Sure enough, his brother used some wetspaghetti to scare Bill.He used the sense of touch.3. Charlene felt a warm wind against her back. Sheheard a moan. She thought it was a ghost. Sheturned around and it was the door being openedby a strong wind.She used the sense of sound, touch and sight.OBJECTIVES: Students are read a book onsenses.
Exploring the human senses.Distinguishing differentsenses.VOCABULARY:sensessightsmellsoundtastetouchBACKGROUND:The senses are part of the nervous system. Touch, smell, sound,sight, and taste are all controlled by the brain. If the informationcannot get to the brain through the nervous system, there issomething wrong with the network of nerves.Senses are very important to science. They help a personinvestigate. Chemicals are sometimes invisible and we need to useour smell to detect them. Sight helps us many times, but childrendon‘t realize that the other senses are also very important. Anobject can look ―cold‖ but when you touch it, the object is really―hot.‖PROCEDURE:1. There are many books on senses. You probably have afavorite one or your library may have one that explainssenses in a clear and enjoyable manner. Go over thevocabulary words. Have the students repeat the wordsseveral times. Make sure they know what part of the body isresponsible for the senses. The recommended book clearlysummarizes all of the senses.2. There are some senses that are organs or specific bodypart. For example, ears hear sound, eyes can see, a nose
smells, and a tongue can taste. Touch, however, is a verylarge organ called the skin. Explain to your students thatthere are sensitive parts of the skin. Your fingertips, forexample, are more sensitive than skin on your leg. Ask yourstudents how they sense things.The brain however, is the main organ that regulates andallows our body to interpret all these senses. If the brain isdamaged, it can affect parts of the body that are far from thebrain.3. As you discuss each part of the body, have your studentsobserve each part. Let the students look into each otherseyes. Ask them to describe what they see. They will come upwith a list of "discoveries" because although we all have eyes,we rarely try to describe them. Ask the same questions forthe other parts of the senses including skin, tongue, nose,and ears. Emphasize that these senses help us discover anddescribe the world around us.JECTIVES:Experiencing thedifferent senses.Discovering how touse the senses tofind new thingsVOCABULARY:feelhearsensessightsmelltouchMATERIALS:objects for ―feely‖Students use their senses toidentify different objects.
boxesBACKGROUND:The human body has five major senses which operate to gatherinformation from the world around us, sight, hearing, smell, taste,and touch. Any stimulus to one of the sense areas is detected bysensory nerves and is sent to the brain for interpretation.The eye (an organ) acts like a camera. Human vision isstereoscopic, which means seeing in three dimensions. When welook at objects, two slightly different images are transmitted to thebrain, and are merged so the brain can interpret the image that wesee. This allows us to see objects which stand away from thebackground, not flat like you see in a photograph.The ear (an organ) is specially made to receive sound waves thatare sent out by vibrating objects and converts them into sensationswe call sound.The nose contains the nostrils and organs of smell. The stimulusthat excites smell is chemical, for example onion and garlic give offdifferent chemical sensations.The tongue is the organ that controls taste. Taste is also achemical stimulus. Things to be tasted must touch the tongue,sometimes, taste become combined with smell because of theconnection between the mouth and the back of the nose.Touch is created by stimulating the skin (the largest organ of thebody) through the sensations of touch, pressure, pain, heats andcold. Discussing senses and actually having the childrenexperience the different senses requires selecting items that will"accent" the sensation of that sense. For instance, the sense oftouch is much more exciting if the item being touched cannot beseen and feels "gooey." If you eliminate some of the other sensesand have the children rely just on one sense, the sensation is muchmore acute.PROCEDURE:
Now that the students have learned about senses, let them usetheir newfound knowledge to explore items. You can do this inseveral ways, depending on the availability of materials and thehelp you get from parents.1. One way is to make "feely" boxes. Put items in a boxthat the students cannot see what theitem is. Try to get objects that have anunusual feel. Use a box with a hole cutin the side or use an empty tissue boxand have the students figure out whatthey are touching. Have the studentsdescribe the texture. It is moreimportant to have the students use their senses thanidentify the object. (When you finish with the materials,put them back into their appropriate box. Students willwant to play with the items if you leave them out.)Students are using the sense of touch and eliminatingthe sense of sight. On some of the items you mighthave the students shake the box to use the sense ofsound.2. You can blind fold your students and give them samplesof fruit to see if they can determine what the fruit is(sense of taste). While they are blind folded, bottles ofperfume or flavoring can test the sense of smell.3. If you have enough help, you can divide the studentsinto small groups and discuss the following activities.For instance, one station might have different smells,for example vanilla, perfume, oil, or any other smellsyou would like to introduce. Ask students to pick thesmell that reminds them of cookies (vanilla) or the onethat reminds them of flowers (rose perfume). Atanother station, cut up pieces of oranges, apples,bananas, lemons, or any other fruit. Have studentsclose their eyes and ask them which one tastes sour(lemon).
Writing an Accurate ArchitecturalDescription OF A BUILDINGThe following items should be included if you choose to write anarchitectural description of thenominated site rather than use the Description Worksheet. You shouldbe able to describe abuilding in a page or less. Be clear and concise in your language, andbe sure that you aredescribing the building‘s existing condition rather than its original orearlier appearance.Generally, you should move from the macro to the micro – from itssize, style, and use to itsdoors, windows, and ornamentation. Use style guides and architecturaldictionaries to helpidentify the building‘s architectural style and find the correctterminology for its component parts.Here‘s a sample outline to help organize your description:Basic Outline1. Begin with a comprehensive overview sentence that captures someof the building‘smajor features (including number of stories, style, and use).2. Continue with further description of macro aspects: building shape,cladding material,roofing material, and foundation material. Indicate and describe anydifferentiationbetween primary (street) facades and secondary (rear and/or side)facades.3. Begin to focus on specific features: window type, doors and doorsurrounds, porches,chimneys, storefronts, etc., and the location of these elements on thefacades.4. Focus in on any particularly distinctive ornamental features or designdetails5. Discuss the overall condition of the building materials and features6. Note any obvious alterations from the building‘s original condition,for example windowreplacement, additions, or changes in the cladding material.
7. Describe the building‘s interior spaces – for a residential structure,note the number ofbedrooms and bathrooms and the general configuration of the layout.For commercial,industrial, or institutional buildings, note the primary ―public‖ spacesand their uses,along with the general configuration of the layout. Include a descriptionof all notablehistoric interior features, including built-in furniture, fireplace mantles,decorativemoldings, plumbing fixtures, tilework, flooring materials, etc. If youdon‘t include thisinformation in your nomination, important interior features may notreceive theprotection they deserve.8. Describe the building‘s relationship to its site, to the street, or toadjacent buildings.Include specific landscaping features, if appropriate.1. Organize your description from the basic to the specific. The style,size, and use of thebuilding should appear in the first sentences.2. Avoid subjective judgments. You are trying to preserve the building.Negative commentscould have the opposite effect.3. Don‘t ―list‖ the building‘s features - try to make the description flow. Itmay take severalrewrites before you have a complete description.Sample Architectural DescriptionsA. Commercial: San Fernando BuildingThe San Fernando Building is located at the southeast corner of Fourthand Main Streets. Thereinforced concrete structure consists of eight stories above abasement. The building has an Eshapedplan above the first story to allow for light wells. Typical of the Beaux-Arts style inwhich it is rendered, the building is horizontally organized with a baserepresented by the firsttwo stories, a shaft represented by the third through sixth stories, and acapital represented by the
seventh and eighth stories. The north and west facades face Fourthand Main Streets respectivelyand are nearly identical. The north façade has eight vertical bays, whilethere are six bays on thewest façade.The base of the building is clad in cast concrete, designed to resemblerusticated stone. There aretwo main entrances to the building, one in the third bay from the southon Main Street and theother in the fourth bay from the east on Fourth Street. There are threeoriginal storefronts in theeasternmost bays on Fourth Street. The second story windows are setabove spandrel panes withan incised diamond motif. IN each bay on the second story are threepivoting windows with asingle transom above. In each bay on the third through eighth storiesare three one-over-onedouble-hung sash windows. The bays are separated by simplerusticated piers, and are set abovediamond incised spandrel panels in the fourth, fifth, and sixth stories. Adenticulated cornice,punctuated by corbels over the piers, runs above the sixth story. Theupper two stories wereadded to the building in 1911. They are distinguished by ornamentalfriezes set above theseventh and eighth stories. A denticulated cornice caps the building.While the interior of the building has been extensively altered, the T-shaped, ground floor lobbyremains largely intact.Passive and Active VoicesVerbs are also said to be either active (The executive committeeapproved the new policy) or passive (The new policy was approved bythe executive committee) in voice. In the active voice, the subject andverb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a be-er or a do-erand the verb moves the sentence along. In the passive voice, thesubject of the sentence is neither a do-er or a be-er, but is acted upon
by some other agent or by something unnamed (The new policy wasapproved). Computerized grammar checkers can pick out a passivevoice construction from miles away and ask you to revise it to a moreactive construction. There is nothing inherently wrong with the passivevoice, but if you can say the same thing in the active mode, do so (seeexceptions below). Your text will have more pizzazz as a result, sincepassive verb constructions tend to lie about in their pajamas and avoidactual work.We find an overabundance of the passive voice in sentences createdby self-protective business interests, magniloquent educators, andbombastic military writers (who must get weary of this accusation), whouse the passive voice to avoid responsibility for actions taken.Thus "Cigarette ads were designed to appeal especially tochildren" places the burden on the ads — as opposed to "Wedesigned the cigarette ads to appeal especially to children," in which"we" accepts responsibility. At a White House press briefing we mighthear that "The President was advised that certain members ofCongress were being audited" rather than "The Head of the InternalRevenue service advised the President that her agency was auditingcertain members of Congress" because the passive constructionavoids responsibility for advising and for auditing. One further cautionabout the passive voice: we should not mix active and passiveconstructions in the same sentence: "The executive committeeapproved the new policy, and the calendar for next years meetingswas revised" should be recast as "The executive committee approvedthe new policy and revised the calendar for next years meeting."Take the quiz (below) as an exercise in recognizing and changingpassive verbs.The passive voice does exist for a reason, however, and itspresence is not always to be despised. The passive isparticularly useful (even recommended) in two situations:When it is more important to draw our attention to theperson or thing acted upon: The unidentified victim wasapparently struck during the early morning hours.When the actor in the situation is not important: The auroraborealis can be observed in the early morning hours.
The passive voice is especially helpful (and even regarded asmandatory) in scientific or technical writing or lab reports, where theactor is not really important but the process or principle beingdescribed is of ultimate importance. Instead of writing "I poured 20 ccof acid into the beaker," we would write "Twenty cc of acid is/waspoured into the beaker." The passive voice is also useful whendescribing, say, a mechanical process in which the details of processare much more important than anyones taking responsibility for theaction: "The first coat of primer paint is applied immediately after theacid rinse."We use the passive voice to good effect in a paragraph in which wewish to shift emphasis from what was the object in a first sentence towhat becomes the subject in subsequent sentences.The executive committee approved an entirely new policy for dealingwith academic suspension and withdrawal. The policy had been writtenby a subcommittee on student behavior. If students withdraw fromcourse work before suspension can take effect, the policy states, amark of "IW" . . . .The paragraph is clearly about this new policy so it is appropriate thatpolicy move from being the object in the first sentence to being thesubject of the second sentence. The passive voice allows for thistransition.†Passive Verb FormationThe passive forms of a verb are created by combining a form of the "tobe verb" with the past participle of the main verb. Other helping verbsare also sometimes present: "The measure could have been killed incommittee." The passive can be used, also, in various tenses. Letstake a look at the passive forms of "design."Tense SubjectAuxiliaryPastParticipleSingular PluralPresent The is are designed.
car/carsPresent perfectThecar/carshas been have been designed.PastThecar/carswas were designed.Past perfectThecar/carshad been had been designed.FutureThecar/carswill be will be designed.Future perfectThecar/carswill havebeenwill havebeendesigned.PresentprogressiveThecar/carsis being are being designed.Past progressiveThecar/carswas being were being designed.A sentence cast in the passive voice will not always include an agentof the action. For instance if a gorilla crushes a tin can, we could say"The tin can was crushed by the gorilla." But a perfectly good sentencewould leave out the gorilla: "The tin can was crushed." Also, when anactive sentence with an indirect object is recast in the passive, theindirect object can take on the role of subject in the passive sentence:Active Professor Villa gave Jorge an A.Passive An A was given to Jorge by Professor Villa.
Passive Jorge was given an A.Only transitive verbs (those that take objects) can be transformed intopassive constructions. Furthermore, active sentences containingcertain verbs cannot be transformed into passive structures. To have isthe most important of these verbs. We can say "He has a new car," butwe cannot say "A new car is had by him." We can say "Josefina lackedfinesse," but we cannot say "Finesse was lacked." Here is a brief list ofsuch verbs*:resemble look like equal agree withmean contain hold compriselack suit fit becomeVerbals in Passive StructuresVerbals or verb forms can also take on features of the passive voice.An infinitive phrase in the passive voice, for instance, can performvarious functions within a sentence (just like the active forms of theinfinitive).Subject: To be elected by my peers is a great honor.Object: That child really likes to be read to by her mother.Modifier: Grasso was the first woman to be elected governor inher own right.The same is true of passive gerunds.Subject: Being elected by my peers was a great thrill.Object: I really dont like being lectured to by my boss.Object of preposition: I am so tired of being lectured to by myboss.With passive participles, part of the passive construction is oftenomitted, the result being a simple modifying participial phrase.
[Having been] designed for off-road performance, the Pathseekerdoes not always behave well on paved highways.Letter to a friend, describing annual day celebration in yourschoolSourav PyakurelArticlesAddressCity NameWriting DateDear SitaramI was glad to receive your letter. It was a pleasure to know that you areenjoying the winter vacations at your Mamaji‘s place in Lucknow. Youhave asked about the annual function held in my school.Well, the annual function of my school was held on 2ndJanuary,Tuesday. A stage was built up. Three big ‗Shamianas‘ were fixed. OurEducation Minister was the Chief Guest for the day. A cultural showwas arranged, in which one-act plays, folk dances and songs werepresented. After the cultural show, the Principal read the AnnualReport. The chief guest distributed prizes to the meritorious studentsand the best performers. He praised the efforts made by our school inpreparing the students for the annual function. The function ended aftera tea-party. It was a properly arranged and well managed function.Convey my regards to your Mamaji, Mamiji and love to Bittu, Neetuand the little Baby.Yours sincerely
We are writing this article so as to describe someof our ceremonies.There are many kinds of ceremonies:1)Engagement: This ceremony is the first step before celebrating thewedding. The way this ceremony is carried out depends on traditions &customs of the town, but in general, the groomsfamily visits the brides family and they take gifts and flowers with them.When the guests arrive, the hosts meet them with flowers, milk anddates and they sit with each other and talk with the brides parents soas to agree about the date of the wedding ceremony.2)Marriage:We celebrate it in a big place, where there are manyguests(from the grooms family, the brides family& their neighbours) towhom a music band sings traditional as well as modern songs. Peoplespend the night dancing and having fun.Concerning the brides clothes, she wears traditional ones like"Takchita, Caftan", and at the end of the ceremony she wears a whitewedding dress like the one we see in most films. The groomgenerally wears two types of clothes a traditional "Jellaba" and amodern suit.As for meals, guests eat pastilla, meat with dried prunes, chicken,dessert. They also have tea withseveral varieties of cookies…3)Baptism: Seven days after the babys birth; the family celebrates it byinviting relatives, cousins and neighbors and preparing food for themjust like in a wedding.This is what my students wrote about some of our celebrations:We are writing this article so as to describe some of our ceremonies.There are many kinds of ceremonies:
1)Engagement: This ceremony is the first step before celebrating thewedding. The way this ceremony is carried out depends on traditions &customs of the town, but in general, the groomsfamily visits the brides family and they take gifts and flowers with them.When the guests arrive, the hosts meet them with flowers, milk anddates and they sit with each other and talk with the brides parents soas to agree about the date of the wedding ceremony.2)Marriage:We celebrate it in a big place, where there are manyguests(from the grooms family, the brides family& their neighbours) towhom a music band sings traditional as well as modern songs. Peoplespend the night dancing and having fun.Concerning the brides clothes, she wears traditional ones like"Takchita, Caftan", and at the end of the ceremony she wears a whitewedding dress like the one we see in most films. The groomgenerally wears two types of clothes a traditional "Jellaba" and amodern suit.As for meals, guests eat pastilla, meat with dried prunes, chicken,dessert. They also have tea withseveral varieties of cookies…3)Baptism: Seven days after the babys birth, the family celebrates it byinviting relatives, cousins and neighbors and preparing food for themjust like in a wedding.
UNIT THREEEmotions involve what we call action urges. An important function ofemotions is to prompt behaviors. For example if we feel angry, we may beprompted to fight. Or if we feel fear, we may be prompted to run or flee.The action itself, the fighting, or running, or hugging is not part of the emotion,but the urge to do the action, the feeling that prompts you to do the action, isconsidered part of the feeling.If we feel angry at someone, we may feel an urge to start yelling at them.That urge is part of the angry feeling. But the fighting is not part of the feeling.1. Prompting eventEmotions can be either reactions to events in the environment or tothings inside a person. These events and things are calledPROMPTING EVENTS. They prompt, or call forth the emotion. Apersons thoughts, behaviors and physical reactions prompt emotions.(Recently someone put his hand on the back of my neck, and I felt fearand anger.) You might have an automatic feeling, without thinking aboutit, like "I feel love when I see my cat."What triggers it or gets it going? Prompting events can be eventshappening in the present (an interaction with someone, losingsomething, physical illness, financial worries). A prompting event mightalso be a memory, a thought, or even another feeling (we feelashamed, and then feel angry about feeling ashamed, for example). Inmanaging our emotions, it is important to be able to recognizeprompting events.
Think of some examples of your own where there is an inside promptingfor a feeling you have2. Interpretation of an event or experienceMost events outside ourselves dont prompt emotions. It is theinterpretation of the event that prompts the emotion.Event Interpretation EmotionSeeing my boyfriendwith my best friendThey must have beentalking about meAngerMy car has a flat tireSome neighborhoodkid did thisAngerIt starts to thunder andlightningI have heard of peoplebeing killed by lightningFear
I see Mary at theconcert with Betty aftershe promised to gowith meMary doesnt careabout meSadnessI see Mary at theconcert with Betty aftershe promised to gowith meMary is trying to getback at meAngerCan you see that the emotion comes after the interpretation is made,after you have the thought about the reason something is happening?Think of some examples of your own, and list the event, your interpretation ofthe events (what you think about it) and your emotion.3. Body ChangesEmotions involve body changes such as tensing and relaxing muscles,changes in heart rate, breathing rate, skin temperature, rises and falls inblood pressure, etc. The most important of these changes for you to beaware of are the facial changes - clenched jaw, tightened cheek andforehead muscles, tightening the muscles around the eyes so that theyopen wider or shut more, grinding or clenching teeth, loosening andtightening around the mouth.
Researchers now believe that changes in the face muscles play animportant part in causing emotions. I noticed years ago, for example,that stretching out my cheek muscles like in a lions roar made me cry -still does.Be aware of the changes in your facial muscles when you are experiencingemotions.4. Body Response to EmotionsWhen we experience emotions, there are changes in our bodies.Sometimes people have trouble sensing their body changes. Toregulate our emotions we have to be pretty good at sensing what isgoing on in our bodies. If we have practiced shutting off our bodysensations, this can be difficult. However it is a learned response andwe can unlearn it by practicing something else.5. Action UrgesAn important thing that emotions do is to prompt behaviors. An actionurge may be to fight or attack verbally in anger, or to flee or hide in fear,etc.
What are some action urges that you might have for these emotions? Anger Fear Sadness Shame Disgust Surprise6. Expression and CommunicationOne of the most important functions of emotions is to COMMUNICATE.To communicate something, an emotion has to be expressed.Sometimes, if we have not learned to express our emotions, we maythink we are communicating but the other person isnt getting it. Thiscan cause misunderstanding.Example: I am told that for most of my life I did not show any expressionon my face, and it still is not the easiest thing for me. I would feel angry,hurt and rejected because people did not respond to my feelings, whichI thought were very obvious. Now I understand that people could not tellwhat I was feeling and so they did not respond. I find that it works bestfor me to tell people what I am feeling, instead of relying just onmy facial expression.Emotions are expressed by facial expressions, words and actions.Expressing emotions through behaviors can also cause problems,because different people interpret behaviors in different ways.Example: When I am so angry that I am afraid I am going to saysomething I will regret, I leave the room. People have interpreted this asmeaning that I am chickening out or I dont care or I am saying "in yourface." I have learned to say that I am leaving to cool down and I will be
back, so people will understand what I am doing.7. After EffectsEmotions have after effects on our thoughts, our physical function andour behavior. Sometimes these effects can last quite a while. One aftereffect is that an emotion can keep triggering the same emotion over andover.Writing in 1st, 2nd and 3rd PersonHere are some tips to help you determine when it is more appropriateto use 1st person (I/we), 2nd person (you),or 3rd person (he/she/it/they) in your writing.Writing from a specific point of view alters the readers perception ofwhat you write. It can be confusing to the reader if you shift the pointof view in your writing (meaning starting in the 3rd person, moving tothe 2nd person, then switching back to 3rd). Look at this example ofswitching points of view:Increasing ones [3rd person] workload is taxing on both your [2ndperson] physical and mental health. Unless someone [3rd person] is ina physically-intensive profession, your [2nd person] body is wastingaway while you [2nd person] are working. Additionally, diet [3rdperson] also suffers as you [2nd person] spend more time at work. Nolonger do you [2nd person] have the time to prepare healthy meals athome or even worse, we [1st person] may not have time to eat at all.After reading this passage, a reader must wonder who is beingaddressed in the passage. Is it the reader? Is it a general audience?The shifting back and forth confuses the reader. Thus, it is importantto maintain the same point of view in your writing.
You should use particular points of view in particular situations. Tohelp you with this, keep these three things in mind:Use 1st person to indicate personal experience, evaluation,and/or opinion.Use 2nd person to instruct or address the reader.Use 3rd person to generalize the experience or situation.A good idea is to write in 3rd person whenever possible. This way, youavoid shifting points of view and confusing the reader.Here are some examples of the same passage written in the threedifferent points of view. Read them to understand the difference intone and purpose.Also note the grammatical changes in subjects ("I" vs. "increasing" vs."increasing workloads"; number (singular vs. plural); and verb tenses(perfect forms in 1st person "have found"; simple be forms in 2ndperson "is" and "are"; and simple active forms "tax" in 3rd person).1st person, indicating a personal experienceI have found increasing my workload is taxing on both myphysical and mental health. Unless I am in a physically-intensiveprofession, my body is wasting away while I work. Additionally,my diet has also suffered as I have spent more time at work. Nolonger do I have the time to prepare healthy meals at home oreven worse; I sometimes do not have time to eat at all.2nd person, instructing the readerIncreasing your workload is taxing on both your physical and mentalhealth. Unless you are in a physically-intensive profession, your bodyis wasting away while you are working. Additionally, your diet alsosuffers as you spend more time at work. No longer [do you] have thetime to prepare healthy meals at home or even worse, you may nothave time to eat at all. 3rd person, addressing a general situation
Increasing workloads tax both physical and mental health. Unless aperson is in a physically-intensive profession, a body will waste awaywith inactivity. Additionally, diet suffers as more time is spent at workas people do not have the time to prepare healthy meals or, evenworse, may not have time to eat at all.Me, Myself and I:Writing First Person Point of Viewby Cheryl WrightYou want to write first person - its easy, right? Anyone can do it, atleast thats what everyone tells you.Not quite.First person narration is becoming more and more popular, and this isbeing recognised by many publishers, including some romancepublishers, who are now open to submissions using this point of view(POV). Silhouette Bombshell are one such publisher.The trick is to eliminate most of those nasty "I" words that sneak intoyour prose unnoticed. Just because the story is being told in firstperson, does not forgive starting every (or every other) sentence with"I". The alternatives are endless.For example: I glanced at the clock.Becomes: My eyes darted to the clock.Or: The constant ticking drew my glance toward the clock.Reworded, the meaning is not lost, but that repetitive "I" is gone.Each time you start a sentence with "I", cross it out in red, circle it, orunderline it. Do this every time "I" appears on the page. You will quicklytire of this no-win game. (Heres your new mantra: nasty, nasty, nasty!)Another shortfall many authors of first person have, is to make thereader privy to information not possessed by the narrator. As with mostforms of writing, this unforgivable (and annoying) habit can definitely be
perfected with practice.An example of this could be:Tripping as I entered the room, I landed heavily on my knees. Hisgentle touch was beyond anything Id experienced before, but all eyeslooked my way. I was blushing so profusely, he must have thought meinsane.Did you pick the error? The narrator cannot see herself blushing, soshe cant describe it to the reader.Imagine yourself stepping into a room. It could be a ballroom built in1820. Notice the beautifully carved ceiling. What about thosemagnificent paintings, hung perfectly straight on the wall?And of course, you would have admired the chandelier; it takes centrestage above all else, with its two hundred tiny lamps and fifty crystaldroplets.You did see the light bouncing off them, didnt you? Of course you did!Did you also notice the masked man coming up behind you, a gun inhis left hand, and a black bag in his right?If you did, you must be my mother. As far as I know, shes the onlyperson in the entire universe to have eyes in the back of her head.The lesson here, is that a first person narrator cannot see what shecannot see.What? Ive still not made it clear?The most important thing (or rule, if you prefer) with writing in firstperson, is to visualise yourself as the narrator.Stand in that doorway to the ballroom. Look down at your Cinderelladress (if youre a guy, you just became a transvestite - sorry!), looktoward the ceiling, to your left, your right, straight ahead. If you dontsee it through your human eyes, then my friend, it dont exist. (Please
excuse the grammar!)Mystery writers love this POV, simply because if the protagonist cantsee it, then neither can the reader. Its a legitimate way to hide clueswithout actually concealing them. Until the protagonist finds them, thewriter need not have any qualms about concealment.In some ways, writing first person is akin to writing dialogue. By this Imean you dont necessarily write dialogue as it sounds in real life. Firstperson, typically, is not written as we speak it. If we did, mostsentences would start with "I". Therefore, the trick is to learn to turn thesentence about.Instead of: I am the happiest today that I have been for ages.Try: Today I am happy, more than I have been for ages.Instead of: I leaned down and picked up a perfectly rounded stone.Try: The stone was perfectly rounded, and I leaned down to pick it up.Or: Leaning down, I picked up a perfectly rounded stone.Instead of: I was so hot, and the sweat trickled down my face.Try: Sweat tricked down my face, because it was so hot.Or: Sweat trickled down my face.Or: The heat affected me so much that sweat trickled down my face.As can be seen from the above examples, substitutes do exist.Why use first person?It can evoke a stronger emotional attachment with readers; from thefirst instance, the reader connects with the main protagonist. It ishis/her voice, thoughts and feelings being portrayed, therefore, this isthe person the reader is most likely to bond with.First person can be an extremely powerful tool. Below are two excerpts- both are the same story, but written in two different POVs.
Omniscient POV:Kareena spun around as movement behind her disturbed the silence.Her hands were sweaty, and her heart was beating abnormally fast asshe peered into the dark interior of the room."I didnt mean to startle you." It was Masons voice. Kareena wiped herdamp hands on her track pants.She turned her back to him, staring out at the ocean again. "You havea beautiful view, Mason.""Going somewhere?" he asked casually, glancing at the bag slung overher shoulder. Mason slowly stepped toward her. "Kareena?"She turned to face him, her bottom lip pulled in as she stared."Dont go -- please." He towered over her, and looked down into hersparkling eyes.First Person POV (from Masons POV):She stood at the window, staring out across the sea.Moving forward, my footsteps echoed across the room. "I didnt meanto startle you," I told her, as she turned to face me.Kareena rubbed her hands against her clothes. Anyone else wouldhave realised shed be nervous, but it was the last thing on my mind.She turned toward the water again, then spoke. "You have a beautifulview, Mason," she said.Small talk -- she was just making small talk. Did she think it wouldmake the problem go away?Moving next to her, I noticed her eyes sparkled with unshed tears.
"Kareena, dont go."The second piece is much more potent. The connection betweenreader and narrator (in this case, Mason) is substantially better thanwhen it was told in omniscient POV.Why? With only one side of the story being told, Masons innerthoughts come through stronger, more commanding. It elicits anemotion that the first version does not. Its more compelling, moregripping and convincing.Next time you sit down to write, consider first person POV, andwhether it might strengthen the story you are trying to tell.He said... She said...Examples of Writing inthe Third PersonWriting in the third person gives the writer maximum latitude.Examples of writing in the third person are everywhere.It is the most common mode of expression.Written language communicates in three ways:First Person, where the speaker expresses his views, as in "Iate the apple."Second Person, where the speaker speaks to another, as in"You ate the apple."Third Person, where the speaker is speaking about anotherperson, as in "She ate the apple."When writing in the third person, the writer necessarily has to considerall characters in the story or plot. They can certainly be partial to themain protagonist, but the writer still has to write about the thoughts andfeelings of the other characters as well.In a sense, most examples of writing in the third person have well-developed stories and characters because all of them have their say inthe plot. This type of writing adds to the effectiveness of the story.
In contrast, when writers choose to write from the first person point ofview, they speak only from the viewpoint of the main protagonist. Thereis no way to know what the other characters are thinking. Theprotagonist could make a guess and they could toy with some ideasbut they would still have to be a mind-reading psychic to his readers.Having said that, many very successful books have been written usingthe first person account. One brilliant book that comes to mind isHarper Lees "To Kill a Mocking Bird".Writers will find examples of writing in the third person abound inthe print media and on the Internet. This style of writing is favoredbecause writers can include so much more when writing in the thirdperson. They can include facts and discuss multiple viewpoints ratherthan the single viewpoint of the first person account. This way, writingin third person provides creative opportunity for writers, and they canadd more substance to their writing.Read the following paragraphs. Noticethat this paragraph presents the prosand cons of a shorter work week.Introducing a short work week may lead to both positive and negativeaffects on society. For workers, the advantages of shortening the workweek include more free time. This will lead to stronger familyrelationships, as well as better physical and mental health for all. Anincrease in free time should lead to more service sector jobs as peoplefind ways to enjoy their extra leisure time. What is more, companieswill need to hire more workers to keep production up to past levels of astandard forty hour work week. All together, these benefits will not onlyimprove quality of life, but also grow the economy as a whole.On the other hand, a shorter work week may damage the ability tocompete in the global workplace. Moreover, companies may betempted to outsource positions to countries where longer work weeksare common. Another point is that companies will need to train moreworkers to make up for the lost productivity hours. To sum up,companies will likely have to pay a steep price for shorter work weeks.
In summary, it is clear that there would be a number of positive gainsfor individual workers if the work week were shortened. Unfortunately,this move could easily cause companies to look elsewhere for qualifiedstaff. In my opinion, the net positive gains outweigh the negativeconsequences of such a move towards more free time for all.Tips for Writing a For and Against ArgumentBefore you begin, write down at least five positive points, and fivenegative points for your argument.Begin your writing by making a statement about the generalstatement about outcome of an action, or the overall situation.Dedicate the first paragraph to one side of the argument. Thiscan be either positive or negative. Generally, it is the side withwhich you agree.The second paragraph should contain the other side of theargument.The final paragraph should shortly summarize both paragraphs,and provide your own general opinion on the matter.Helpful LanguageExpressing Both Sidespros and consadvantages and disadvantagesplus and minusProviding Additional Arguments
What is more,In addition to ..., the ...Further,Not only will ..., but ... will also ...Showing ContrastHowever,On the other hand,Although .....,Unfortunately,OrderingFirst of all,Then,Next,Finally,SummarizingTo sum up,In conclusion,In summary,All things considered,Expressing Your OpinionIn my opinion,I feel / think that ...Personally,ExerciseChoose an for and against argument from one of the following themesAttending College / UniversityGetting MarriedHaving ChildrenChanging JobsMoving
Write down five positive points and five negative pointsWrite down an overall statement of the situation (for introductionand first sentence)Write down your own personal opinion (for final paragraph)Summarize both sides in one sentence if possibleUse your notes to write a For and Against Argument using thehelpful langua