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  2. 2. CHARLES DICKENS His natural sense of humor can be found in Character drawing Dialogue Whole episodes Sometimes it is united to pathos and excessive sensitiveness
  3. 3. CHARLES DICKENS A subtle observer of London life He was able to give a minute description of school systems, law court procedures, domesic life of lower or middle classes, manners, traditions and popular festivities.
  4. 4. CHARLES DICKENS His characters are derived from the observation of real people. They are individual with their particular idiosincratic features. He is not great at drawing the spiritual side of his characters but he is excellent at catching their humoristic side.
  5. 5. CHARLES DICKENS Limits His plots lack real organic unity His main characters are sometimes superficially portrayed Sentimentalism and pathos are excessive Comic scenes are sometimes exaggerated His tragic scenes are sometimes too melodramatic
  6. 6. CHARLES DICKENS Merits A neverending range of incidents and situations His minor characters with their foibles are mermorable His plots keep attention high His style is fluent and effective Striking use of symbolism Powerful descriptive passages
  7. 7. THOMAS HARDY Regionalism Wessex as a link between past and present The change from an agricultural society under the impact of industrial life The presence of nature is relevant in his works Only in rustic life men can express their passion
  8. 8. THOMAS HARDY ROMANTIC AND REALIUSTIC ELEMENTS Nature as a mother and then indifferent to man’s destiny. Love, the main source of most of his novels turns into disillutionment and failure because of institutions, society or Fate.
  9. 9. THOMAS HARDY PESSIMISM Its source is in the clash of all traditional beliefs due to the theories by Darwin, Schopenhauer, Mill. Man is a simple insect in a universe indifferent to him, far from being the beloved son of a providential Father- God. This fatalistic vision of the universe led him to a sort of predestination to failure.
  10. 10. THOMAS HARDY CHARACTERS He feels compassion for all suffering people. That’s why his characters, even when they fail in their search for true values, have a moral dignity. Around them there is a community made up by country people believing in superstitions and moved by instinct.They all form an extension of the rural landscape.
  11. 11. THOMAS HARDY TECHNIQUE It can be defined architectual and cinematic at the same time. He usually starts panning to secure a panoramic effect and then focuses on the various elements of nature until he gives a single detail. He also makes use of perspective and lighting devices and often lets objects speak for themselves turning them into symbols.
  12. 12. TESS A woman forced by circumstances to submit and to use violence, can still be pure in her heart: an open challenge to the moral conventions of the time Its characters are victims of their choices Tragic melodramatic conclusion Plot with fatalism and pessimism
  13. 13. TESS Its inner structure is made up of antagonisms and conflicts: Prejudice versus feeling Culture versus ignorance Individual vs community Human will vs destiny
  14. 14. OSCAR WILDE His name is connected to Aestheticism and even more with Decadentism, even though he stands a little apart. The Aesthetic writers broke with the conventions of the time and gave free rein to imagination and fantasy, echoing Romantics but taking their theories and attitudes to extremes. They chose to live an extravagant life, devoted to the cult of beauty and art.
  15. 15. OSCAR WILDE Decadentism was marked by a sort of extremism. Their representatives, disregarding the simple genuine values of life and disdaining mediocrity, cut themselves off from masses. They often fall in vice and corruption. Despite his decadent aestheticism, Wilde was still Victorian at heart and the precept of ‘Art for Art’s sake’ was for him basically a moral as well as an aesthetic imperative
  16. 16. OSCAR WILDE That’s why in The Preface to ‘The Picture of Dorian Gray’, among other things he stressed the integrity and coherence of the artist, who must always be ‘in accord with himself’. Even his novel which was branded as immoral, when it appeared, can be read as a morality. Its conclusion sounds like the ‘deserved’ punishment of a life only devoted to the pursuit of sensation.
  17. 17. OSCAR WILDE A man pretending to be something else (mask) Mask as the only identity, as a multiple possibility with contrasting viewpoints Personal vision of truth which can be perceived by two different individuals Negation of commonplace Tendency towards a lack of sense of pity and good
  18. 18. OSCAR WILDE The idea of fatality and doom Images of duality and double life with two distinct tones Blend of aesthetic discussions and epigrammatic wit A humoristic sense of life No bitterness in his paradox