What is your opinion? Does the project manager’s leadership style influence project success?
Agenda Leadership definitions Schools of leadership theory Project Manager Leadership Competency What is project success Leadership Styles The Top Leadership Traits Conclusion Questions and Answers
Definitions “Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals " — S. P. Robbins "My definition of a leader . . . is a man who can persuade people to do what they don't want to do, or do what they're too lazy to do, and like it.“ — Harry S. Truman “Leadership is a process of influence. Anytime you seek to influence the thinking, behavior, or development of people in their personal or professional lives, you are taking on the role of a leader.” — Ken Blanchard “Leadership is the discipline of deliberately exerting special influence within a group to move it toward goals of beneficial permanence that fulfill the group’s real needs.” — John Haggai
“The leader seeks to communicate his vision to his followers. He captures their attention with his optimistic intuition of possible solutions to their needs. He influences them by the dynamism of his faith. He demonstrates confidence that the challenge can be met, the need resolved, the crisis overcome.” John Haggai
schools of leadership theory The trait school The behavioral school The visionary school The contingency school The emotional intelligence school The competency school
The trait School Popular in 1940´s Effective leaders share common traits Abilities - hard management skills Personality - self-confidence and emotional variables Physical Appearance – size and appearance
The behavioral school Popular in 1940´s and 1960´s Effective leaders display behavios or styles Problem solving Results orientation Energy and initiative Self-confidence Perspective Communication Negotiating ability Laissez-faire, democratic, autocratic and bureaucratic
The Contingency School Popular from 1960´s to 1970´s Effective leaders depend on the situation
The Visionary School Popular in 1980´s and 1990´s Two types of leaders Focus on relationships (transformational leaders) Focus on process (transactional leaders)
The Emotional Intelligence School All managers have a reasonable level of intelligence. What distinguishes leaders is their emotional response to situations Goleman el al. (2002) identify 19 leadership competencies grouped into 4 dimensions: Personal competencies Self-awareness Self-management Social competencies Social awareness Relationship management Management styles: visionary, coaching, affinitive, democratic, pacesetting andcommanding
The Competency School It encompasses all the previous schools because: trait and behaviors are competencies certain competency profiles are appropriate in different situations competency profiles of transformational and transactional leaders emotional intelligence is one of 4 groups of competencies 15 competencies in 3 competence types: intellectual quotient (IQ), managerial quotient (MQ) and emotional quotient (EQ) Leadership styles: Goal-Oriented – best on low complexity projects Involving – best on medium complexity projects Engaging – best on high complexity projects
Project Manager Leadership Competency Effective project managers are usually highly intelligent and have better problem solving abilities than normal project managers - Rees, Turner, and Tampoe (1996) Effective project leaders: creative problem solving, flexible management skill, credibility and effective communication - Pinto and Trailer (1998) Combination of knowledge (qualification), skills (ability to do assignment), and core personality characteristics (motives + traits + self concepts) - Crawford (2007)
Project Manager Leadership Competency IQ dimensions: critical analysis, EQ dimensions: self-awareness, sensitivity, influencing, motivation, MQ dimensions: manage resources, empowering, developing, were statistically related to project performance - Geoghegan and Dulewicz (2008) Based on the literature onproject manager competencies, it could be proved that the competencies required by project managers are similar to the leadership competencies. There is a consensus that effective project managers have combination of skills such as leadership skills, management skills, and communication skills and so on.
what is project success? Critical Success Factors (CSFs) 1970s - time, cost (on budget) and functional improvement 1980s and 1990s – quality Today - stakeholder satisfaction, product success, business and organization benefit, and team development
Conditions for Project Success Sucess criteria should be agreed with stakeholder before and during the project A collaborative working relationship should be maintained between project owner/sponsor and manager A project manager should be empowered to deal flexibility with unforeseen circumstances The project owner/sponsors should take an interest in performance of the project
The Top Leadership Traits Trustworthiness Nobody will obey, follow, or be inspired by someone they distrust. A good reputation, likeability and respect will be absolutely impossible if you’re labeled as a liar. Regardless of their own mal-practices, people will never be able to associate with an untrustworthy character
The Top Leadership Traits Passion and Motivation Whatever your role, people will respect the fact that you take pride in your work, you enjoy it, and that you will therefore try your hardest to succeed.
The Top Leadership Traits Approachability & Friendliness While many managers dream of being a superior and ‘feared’ leader, the most effective type of leader is an approachable one. A leader who an any employee can feel like they could have a conversation will be able to hear about what the quiet dissenters have to say.
The Top Leadership Traits Consistency If you fail to be consistent with your attitude, decisions or behavior, you will be causing unrest in your team.
The Top Leadership Traits Confidence Confidence flows through a team just like cheerfulness or a hardworking attitude. If the leader shows hesitation, self-doubt, or a lack of ambition, it will infect the rest of the team.
The Top Leadership Traits Ability to Listen The fantastic leaders thorough history were also good listeners. Drawing upon the expertise and ideas of all those around you will improve your decision making. It follows that leaders who listen well simply make better decisions.
The Top Leadership Traits Calmness Calmness is a leadership trait to keep calm under pressure. Any leader that can achieve this will instantly earn respect.
The Top Leadership Traits Ability to Delegate Delegation is one of the perks of being promoted to a leadership position. A poor leader undermines your subordinate’s ability to make decisions independently.
The Top Leadership Traits Charisma The ability to speak confidently and with meaning is a rare one, and carries much merit for those few who possess it. Increased influence and persuasion is just one of the positive benefits of being a leader with charisma.
The Top Leadership Traits Clarity Business leadership is about separately and clearly identifying those roles and responsibilities and ensure that everyone knows what they’re supposed to be doing.
The Top Leadership Traits Human Understanding Leaders that can understand their team will ultimately be far more effective. Only by being able to put yourself in the shoes of your team workers will you be able to make decisions that will enthuse and motivate your staff
The Top Leadership Traits Adaptability and Flexibility As a leader, you must be able to cope with negative change, and also be able to quickly grab opportunities as soon as they appear
The Top Leadership Traits Wide Outlook A good leadership trait is to be able to take a step back and take a look at the big picture. This is really one the main purpose of a leader. While everyone is cleaning the deck and preparing the sails, somebody has to be looking where the ship is going.
The Top Leadership Traits Sense of Humour A good sense of humour helps to put across the message you want to convey more effectively and help smooth over awkward or tense moments in board meetings
The Top Leadership Traits Appreciates Quality A good leader recognizes that quality is the most important gauge of the work done. A culture that cares little for quality will demotivate employees and reduce job satisfaction. Staff must be able to feel good about their work and their skills.
The Top Leadership Traits Modesty Being modest and humble, a leader minimize the potential for jealousy within the team, and inspire warmth and affection instead
The Top Leadership Traits Fairness/Equity Fairness is one of the key criteria by which employees measure their superiors. Quite simply, if you don’t behave in an equitable manner at all times, you will lead no more than a rabble of reluctant workers, and will never gain their respect.
The Top Leadership Traits Hard Work It is important that employees never question your dedication to work hard. By simply doing the nasty job yourself each year, your staff will never have a doubt over whether it’s fair you to delegate menial work
The Top Leadership Traits Continuous Development “There's always "one more thing" to learn! Learn from customers, competitors and partners. If you partner with someone whom you don't like, learn to like them – praise them and benefit from them. Learn to criticize your enemies openly, but honestly.” — Steve Jobs
The Top Leadership Traits Patience A good leader needs to show their employees that they’re willing to give them as much time as necessary to see them perform. A manager who roughly attaches arbitrary deadlines onto tasks and aggressively chases employees up will only antagonize and stress their workforce.
References D´Souza, A. (2003). Developing the leader within you, 2nd edition. Secunderabad, India: Haggai Center for Advanced Leadership Studies. 633 p. Lang, R. D. (2007). Project Leadership: Key Elements and Critical Success Factors for IT Project Managers. Journal of Healthcare Information Management, Vol. 21, No. 1. 4 p. Turner, J.R., & Müller, R. (2005). The project manager’s leadership style as a success factor on projects: a literature review. Project Management Journal, 2(36), 49-61. Zhang, W. (2009). The relationship between project manager leadership style and project success. 27 p. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://minds.wisconsin.edu/bitstream /handle/1793/34682/Zhang,%20Wei.pdf?sequence=1