Evolution ofEvolution ofscientific medicinescientific medicineProf. Vajira WeerasingheProf. Vajira WeerasingheProfessor of...
Chinese medicineChinese medicine Known to have started in 2650 BCKnown to have started in 2650 BC Classical Classical Ch...
Egyptian medicineEgyptian medicine Recoded history says Egyptians were the first to practice medicine This medicine was ...
600 BC: Ancient Indian Surgeon600 BC: Ancient Indian SurgeonSusrutaSusrutaSusruta Samhita is a great Ayurvedic surgical tr...
Ancient Medicine in CeylonAncient Medicine in Ceylon400 BC King Pandukabhaya (437-366 BC) in the fourthKing Pandukabhaya ...
Birth of western medicineBirth of western medicine Allopathic medicineAllopathic medicine allopathic medicine refers to ...
HippocratesHippocrates460 BC – 370 BC Considered to be the “Father of Medicine” A greek physician and teacher of medicin...
AvicennaAvicenna Persian (Iranian) physician and philosopher He wrote the “Canon of Medicine” He describecontagious di...
Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci The world famous Italian painter was an anatomistas well He became a master of topogr...
Andreas VesaliusAndreas VesaliusHe was an anatomist and a physicianborn in BrusselsHe is often referred to as the founde...
Vesalius dissecting human bodyVesalius dissecting human body(1500)(1500)In the mid-1500s, Andreas Vesalius and then others...
Barber-surgeonsBarber-surgeons In the old days in UK there were no surgeonsIn the old days in UK there were no surgeons ...
William HarveyWilliam Harvey Was an English PhysicianWas an English Physician Anatomical Study of the Motion of theAnato...
Antonie van LeeuwenhoekAntonie van Leeuwenhoek Dutch tradesman and scientistDutch tradesman and scientist Considered to ...
Pasteur, Lister & KochPasteur, Lister & Koch 18571857Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur (French chemist & microbiologist)(French ...
Claude BernardClaude Bernard French physiologistFrench physiologist He was the first to define the term: “milieuHe was t...
Santiago Ramón y Cajal A Spanish neuroscientistA Spanish neuroscientist He pioneered investigations of theHe pioneered i...
Ivan PavlovIvan Pavlov RussianRussian  physiologistphysiologist, , psychologistpsychologist,,and physicianand physician ...
Wilhelm RoentgenWilhelm Roentgen German physicistGerman physicist Discovered XRayDiscovered XRay He received the first ...
E.H. StarlingE.H. Starling– British Physiologist– British Physiologist He described the famous "Frank-Starling law of the...
First human heart transplantFirst human heart transplant1967The worlds first human heart transplantThe worlds first human...
First CT ScanFirst CT Scan1971 Sir Godfrey Newbold HounsfieldSir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield(English electrical engineer) ...
MRI ScanMRI Scan1974-2001 Peter Mansfield (british physicist) and PaulPeter Mansfield (british physicist) and PaulLauterb...
First Test-tube BabyFirst Test-tube Baby Every year, millions of couples try to conceive aEvery year, millions of couples...
DNA FingerprintingDNA Fingerprinting Genetic, genomic, or DNA fingerprinting is the termGenetic, genomic, or DNA fingerpr...
Use of DNA Fingerprinting in SriUse of DNA Fingerprinting in SriLanka during Tsunami periodLanka during Tsunami period- Ba...
Dolly – the first cloned the sheepDolly – the first cloned the sheep1996
The first vaccine against cancerThe first vaccine against cancer2010 In April 2010, USA approved the first cancer treatme...
No amount of experimentationcan ever prove me right; asingle experiment can proveme wrong.AlbertEinstein 1879 -
Scientific medicine
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Scientific medicine

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Scientific medicine

  1. 1. Evolution ofEvolution ofscientific medicinescientific medicineProf. Vajira WeerasingheProf. Vajira WeerasingheProfessor of PhysiologyProfessor of PhysiologyDepartment of PhysiologyDepartment of PhysiologyFaculty of MedicineFaculty of MedicineUniversity of PeradeniyaUniversity of Peradeniya
  2. 2. Chinese medicineChinese medicine Known to have started in 2650 BCKnown to have started in 2650 BC Classical Classical ChineseChinese belief that the life and activity of belief that the life and activity ofindividual human beings have an intimateindividual human beings have an intimaterelationship with the environment at all levelsrelationship with the environment at all levels Include such treatments as Chinese herbal medicine,acupuncture, dietary therapy, and both Tui na andShiatsu massage Scientific proof was lackingScientific proof was lacking2650 BC
  3. 3. Egyptian medicineEgyptian medicine Recoded history says Egyptians were the first to practice medicine This medicine was highly advanced for the time, and included simple,non-invasive surgery, setting of bones and an extensive set of pharmacopoeia Egyptians knew anatomy, knew the connection between pulse andheart Later descended down due to foreign invasions1800 BC
  4. 4. 600 BC: Ancient Indian Surgeon600 BC: Ancient Indian SurgeonSusrutaSusrutaSusruta Samhita is a great Ayurvedic surgical treatise written by Susruta, a surgeon inVaranasi about 600 BC. Because of the language difficulty, it has been practicallyinaccessible to the modern world so far.600 BC
  5. 5. Ancient Medicine in CeylonAncient Medicine in Ceylon400 BC King Pandukabhaya (437-366 BC) in the fourthKing Pandukabhaya (437-366 BC) in the fourthcentury constructed an Ayurvedic hospital - thecentury constructed an Ayurvedic hospital - thefirst recorded hospital in the worldfirst recorded hospital in the world The history of medical care began early inThe history of medical care began early inceylonceylon Later King Buddhadasa (337-365 AD) himself aLater King Buddhadasa (337-365 AD) himself aphysician of great repute, appointed a physicianphysician of great repute, appointed a physicianto be in charge of every ten villagesto be in charge of every ten villages
  6. 6. Birth of western medicineBirth of western medicine Allopathic medicineAllopathic medicine allopathic medicine refers to "the broad categoryallopathic medicine refers to "the broad categoryof medical practice that is sometimes calledof medical practice that is sometimes calledwestern medicine, biomedicine, scientificwestern medicine, biomedicine, scientificmedicine, or modern medicine"medicine, or modern medicine"
  7. 7. HippocratesHippocrates460 BC – 370 BC Considered to be the “Father of Medicine” A greek physician and teacher of medicine The first physician to reject superstitions, legends andbeliefs that credited supernatural or divine forces withcausing illness Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strictprofessionalism, discipline and rigorous practice He recommend that the physicians always be well-kempt (dressed), honest, calm, understanding, andserious Hippocratic oath was named after him
  8. 8. AvicennaAvicenna Persian (Iranian) physician and philosopher He wrote the “Canon of Medicine” He describecontagious diseases and sexually transmitted diseasesthe introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of infectiousdiseasesthe introduction of experimental medicineclinical trialsneuropsychiatryrisk factor analysisand the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specificdiseases and hypothesized the existence of microrganisms980 - 1037
  9. 9. Leonardo da VinciLeonardo da Vinci The world famous Italian painter was an anatomistas well He became a master of topographic anatomy,drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and othervisible anatomical features He has done many experiments in neuroscience1489
  10. 10. Andreas VesaliusAndreas VesaliusHe was an anatomist and a physicianborn in BrusselsHe is often referred to as the founderof modern human anatomyHe made a trademark illustration ofthe brain in which he depicts the corpuscallosum, the thalamus and many otherimportant structures for the first time1543
  11. 11. Vesalius dissecting human bodyVesalius dissecting human body(1500)(1500)In the mid-1500s, Andreas Vesalius and then others did their own dissections and foundout that frequently the authorities were mistaken. This was one of the revolutions in thehistory of medicine.1500
  12. 12. Barber-surgeonsBarber-surgeons In the old days in UK there were no surgeonsIn the old days in UK there were no surgeons Barbers did removing a nail and other surgeriesBarbers did removing a nail and other surgeries Later they splitLater they split Even to date in UK, surgeons are called Mr. whereasEven to date in UK, surgeons are called Mr. whereasphysicians are called Dr.physicians are called Dr.1540
  13. 13. William HarveyWilliam Harvey Was an English PhysicianWas an English Physician Anatomical Study of the Motion of theAnatomical Study of the Motion of theHeart and of the Blood in AnimalsHeart and of the Blood in Animals His famous book was called “De MotuHis famous book was called “De MotuCordis”Cordis” He added the critical experimental findingthat blood is "pumped" around the body bythe heart1628
  14. 14. Antonie van LeeuwenhoekAntonie van Leeuwenhoek Dutch tradesman and scientistDutch tradesman and scientist Considered to be the first Considered to be the first microbiologistmicrobiologist He is best known for his work on theHe is best known for his work on theimprovement of theimprovement of the microscopemicroscope Using his handcrafted microscope he wasUsing his handcrafted microscope he wasthe first to observe and describe singlethe first to observe and describe singlecelled organismscelled organisms1700
  15. 15. Pasteur, Lister & KochPasteur, Lister & Koch 18571857Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur (French chemist & microbiologist)(French chemist & microbiologist)identifies germs as cause of diseaseidentifies germs as cause of disease 18671867Joseph ListerJoseph Lister (British surgeon) develops the use(British surgeon) develops the useof antiseptic surgical methods and publishesof antiseptic surgical methods and publishes“Antiseptic principle of the practice of surgery”“Antiseptic principle of the practice of surgery” 18701870Robert KochRobert Koch (German Physician) and Louis(German Physician) and LouisPasteur establish the germ theory of diseasePasteur establish the germ theory of disease
  16. 16. Claude BernardClaude Bernard French physiologistFrench physiologist He was the first to define the term: “milieuHe was the first to define the term: “milieuinterieur” (the internal environment) andinterieur” (the internal environment) anddescribe the principle of homeostasisdescribe the principle of homeostasis He was one of the first to suggest the use ofHe was one of the first to suggest the use ofblind experiments to ensure the objectivity ofblind experiments to ensure the objectivity ofscientific observationsscientific observations1865
  17. 17. Santiago Ramón y Cajal A Spanish neuroscientistA Spanish neuroscientist He pioneered investigations of theHe pioneered investigations of themicroscopic structure of the brain andmicroscopic structure of the brain anddescribed the “neurone”described the “neurone” He shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology orHe shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology orMedicine with Camillo Golgi in 1906Medicine with Camillo Golgi in 1906for their contribution to the structure of thefor their contribution to the structure of thenervous systemnervous system1894
  18. 18. Ivan PavlovIvan Pavlov RussianRussian  physiologistphysiologist, , psychologistpsychologist,,and physicianand physician He was awarded the Nobel Prize inHe was awarded the Nobel Prize inPhysiology or Medicine in 1904 for researchPhysiology or Medicine in 1904 for researchpertaining to the digestive systempertaining to the digestive system He described “the conditioned reflex” usingHe described “the conditioned reflex” usingdogs salivationdogs salivation1897
  19. 19. Wilhelm RoentgenWilhelm Roentgen German physicistGerman physicist Discovered XRayDiscovered XRay He received the first Nobel Prize inHe received the first Nobel Prize inPhysics in 1901Physics in 19011901
  20. 20. E.H. StarlingE.H. Starling– British Physiologist– British Physiologist He described the famous "Frank-Starling law of theHe described the famous "Frank-Starling law of theheart“heart“ The discovery of peristalsis, with BaylissThe discovery of peristalsis, with Bayliss The discovery of secretin, the first hormone, withThe discovery of secretin, the first hormone, withBayliss (1902) and the introduction of the concept ofBayliss (1902) and the introduction of the concept ofhormones (1905)hormones (1905) The discovery that the distal convoluted tubule of theThe discovery that the distal convoluted tubule of thekidney reabsorbs water and various electrolyteskidney reabsorbs water and various electrolytes1915
  21. 21. First human heart transplantFirst human heart transplant1967The worlds first human heart transplantThe worlds first human heart transplantwas performed by Christiaan Barnardwas performed by Christiaan Barnardon December 3, 1967 in Cape Townon December 3, 1967 in Cape TownSouth AfricaSouth Africa
  22. 22. First CT ScanFirst CT Scan1971 Sir Godfrey Newbold HounsfieldSir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield(English electrical engineer) and(English electrical engineer) and AllanMcLeod Cormack (South African Physicist) Shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for PhysiologyShared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiologyor Medicine for this inventionor Medicine for this invention
  23. 23. MRI ScanMRI Scan1974-2001 Peter Mansfield (british physicist) and PaulPeter Mansfield (british physicist) and PaulLauterbur (US chemist)Lauterbur (US chemist) Awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in PhysiologyAwarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiologyor Medicine for his discoveries concerningor Medicine for his discoveries concerningmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  24. 24. First Test-tube BabyFirst Test-tube Baby Every year, millions of couples try to conceive aEvery year, millions of couples try to conceive achild; unfortunately, many find that they cannotchild; unfortunately, many find that they cannot On July 25, 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the worldsOn July 25, 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the worldsfirst successful "test-tube" baby was born infirst successful "test-tube" baby was born inGreat BritainGreat Britain Dr. Patrick Steptoe, a gynecologist at OldhamDr. Patrick Steptoe, a gynecologist at OldhamGeneral Hospital, and Dr. Robert Edwards, aGeneral Hospital, and Dr. Robert Edwards, aphysiologist at Cambridge University, UKphysiologist at Cambridge University, UKperformed this procedureperformed this procedure1978
  25. 25. DNA FingerprintingDNA Fingerprinting Genetic, genomic, or DNA fingerprinting is the termGenetic, genomic, or DNA fingerprinting is the termapplied to a range of techniques that are used toapplied to a range of techniques that are used toshow similarities and dissimilarities between theshow similarities and dissimilarities between theDNA present in different individualsDNA present in different individuals Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of LeicesterSir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicesterdeveloped DNA fingerprinting in the mid 1980sdeveloped DNA fingerprinting in the mid 1980s The sequence of nucleotides in DNA is similar to aThe sequence of nucleotides in DNA is similar to afingerprint, in that it is unique to each personfingerprint, in that it is unique to each person DNA fingerprinting is used for identifying people,DNA fingerprinting is used for identifying people,studying populations, and forensic investigationsstudying populations, and forensic investigations1980s
  26. 26. Use of DNA Fingerprinting in SriUse of DNA Fingerprinting in SriLanka during Tsunami periodLanka during Tsunami period- Baby 81- Baby 81The baby, around 2 months old, was reportedly found on theThe baby, around 2 months old, was reportedly found on thebeach of the town of Kalmunai on the day of the disaster, 26beach of the town of Kalmunai on the day of the disaster, 26December 2004, in the midst of debris caused by the tsunamiDecember 2004, in the midst of debris caused by the tsunamiNo relatives were found in the vicinity, so he was taken toNo relatives were found in the vicinity, so he was taken toKalmunai hospitalKalmunai hospitalHe was said to be the 81st victim taken to that hospital after theHe was said to be the 81st victim taken to that hospital after thetsumani hit Sri Lanka, and so named Baby 81tsumani hit Sri Lanka, and so named Baby 81Eight couples had claimed baby 81 was theirs. The questionEight couples had claimed baby 81 was theirs. The questionended up with a judgeended up with a judgeThe judge had DNA for identification. Testing by molecularThe judge had DNA for identification. Testing by molecularbiologists soon found the real parentsbiologists soon found the real parents2004
  27. 27. Dolly – the first cloned the sheepDolly – the first cloned the sheep1996
  28. 28. The first vaccine against cancerThe first vaccine against cancer2010 In April 2010, USA approved the first cancer treatmentIn April 2010, USA approved the first cancer treatmentvaccinevaccine This vaccine is approved for use in some men with metastaticThis vaccine is approved for use in some men with metastaticprostate cancerprostate cancer It is designed to stimulate an immune response to It is designed to stimulate an immune response to prostaticprostaticacid phosphataseacid phosphatase(PAP), an antigen present on most prostate(PAP), an antigen present on most prostatecancerscancers
  29. 29. No amount of experimentationcan ever prove me right; asingle experiment can proveme wrong.AlbertEinstein 1879 -

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