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Presentation On Early  Marriage
 

Presentation On Early Marriage

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The present study made an attempt to gain insights on determinants and psychosocial consequences of early marriage on rural women. Samples of 300 women who married early and have completed 5 to 15 ...

The present study made an attempt to gain insights on determinants and psychosocial consequences of early marriage on rural women. Samples of 300 women who married early and have completed 5 to 15 years of married life were taken from 20 villages of district Bhilwara, Rajasthan as it has highest instances of child marriages. In depth investigation employed the use of interview, FGDs, observation and case study method. Research was based in district. Baseline Proforma and SES scale (self developed) was used to get the necessary details regarding the socio-economic status and demographic characteristics of respondents and their families. DEM scale (self developed), PSC Scale (self developed) and life satisfaction scale (Alam & Shrivastava, 1973) were used for data collection. Statistical test i.e. ‘z’ test, ANOVA, Regression & Pearson’s ‘r’ were applied to find out the results.
The findings of the study revealed that age at marriage is governed by various components of socio-economic status with traditions & customs, lack of education, childhood residence and castes. Effect of mass media was not found as hypothesized. Media is only meant for entertainment by rural people. The study also highlighted psycho-social consequences (PSC components) of early marriage. It was found that child marriage increases exploitation of girl child and loss of her adolescence along with denial of education & freedom, inadequate socialization & personal development and violence & abandonment. Access to contraception is highly correlated with age at marriage i.e. the lower the age at marriage lower the knowledge and less access of contraception.
The multiple regression analysis in predicting age at marriage and its determinants reveal that the Beta coefficient reflect the socio- economic status of the family and in which a girl belongs has more considerable contribution in terms of early marriage while traditions and customs follow the socio-cultural perseverance in predicting age at marriage. It is also depicted from the regression analysis that the ill consequences of early marriage in earlier ages have more awful effects on girl child. On the whole, it was found that early marriage itself means exploitation of girl child and loss of adolescence. This factor is highly significant in all studied age groups. They are treated as homely bird which means confined to four walls of house. Overall dissatisfaction level is high with the respondents who get married at the early age. There are significant correlation found between determinants and psycho-social consequences of early marriage and inter-correlation among LS and SES components.

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  • traditional young marriage age of girls—referred to as early marriage.The Inter-African Committee (IAC) on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children.(1993) Newsletter, December 2003
  • UNICEF’s “State of the World’s Children-2009” report,
  • Naata’The phenomenon of Naata is also widespread in Rajasthan. This is the practice of ‘brideprice’, where traditionally in some communities the father of the bride was given a certain‘price’ for the services of his daughter by the groom. If the woman wished to change partnersat a later stage, it was possible to negotiate for this change in ‘attachment’ as long as the manwith whom she was to go to would pay a negotiable price to the groom and the father. Intoday’s context this has been a cultural mode of enabling trafficking and exploitation. Thelinks between this practice and migration and trafficking must be explored. Child marriage isalso practiced extensively in Rajasthan and may have implications as well. How can we alsoexpand the understanding and changing practice of Naata, - what are women’s experiences,what is their understanding of the system?
  • .
  • Extreme cases of those women were included in the study who forced in to early marriage due to specific determinants and have shown profound effect of it on their life with low level of life satisfaction.
  • Present table shows frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gaunain selected villages from lower to higher age at marriage of females. It was found that Khamor, Aoongucha and Gagera stand at the top three ladders among 20 selected villages. Reasons of lower age in these three villages observed are distance from connecting road to tehsil or district headquater or remote villages have little awareness of ill effects of early marriages, lack of media awareness and less approach of GOs and NGOs programmes. Also it was found that these villages are densely populated with Jat, Gurjar, Jogi and Rebari and in which early marriage is customary.
  • Caste: present study show that Mean age marriage for ST (8.36 years) and SC (9.3 years)is comparitevely low than others and also SC/ST mean age at gauna is below 14 years. while mean age at marriage and gauna for obc and general castes were comparatively high.Age-old caste value system is so much dominant and rigid that it affects the process of marriage. The tradition of early marriage started thousand years ago but it is so intertwined with caste system that people from lower Hindu caste do not have courage to oppose social illegalities. It is observed that caste factor is most evident in the community marriages (mass marriages) held on AkhaTeejand Dev UtthaniGyaras (Hindi Month;KartikShuklaEkadashi, PeepalChoth). The result of the study are in line with Singh & Dev, 1994 that, in Rajasthan child marriages are customary in the Gurjar, Jat and Rawat castes. He also found that significant proportion of children are married off while they are under the age of 10 years and some even mere toddlers. It was observed that surveyed villages are mostly inhabitant with Jat and Gurjar communities, where the custom of Aata-Sata (a leading cause of early marriage) is widespread and marriages are followed by kinship relations. Caste identities get reinforced and it becomes a ground for the glorification of caste leadership. It is also an opportunity for the political leadership to come closer to their caste constituencies. A proverb followed in caste system i.e: “Vote aurBetijaati-jaati main” means marriage and vote give preference in the same caste. Education Figure shows the mean age at marriage and Gauna among families having different education level i.e. illiterate, literate and up to 5th standard, up to 10th, up to 12th and Graduate & above. 52 percent families were illiterate age at marriage for the illiterate families is very low ie. 9 years only, while families having education up to 5th standard marry their daughters by 11.51 years and families having education above than graduation level having mean age at marriage 12.54 years. Figure also depict that mean age at gauna is almost 14 years for families having education upto 12th standard, a increase of one year in mean age of gauna is found in families belonging to higher educational level . It shows that education raises awareness regarding understand ill effects early marriage and also it empowers them to take decisions against rigid social norms.There was sufficient evidence to show that though some educated families desired to marry their children late but they could not do so because of the social binding or pressure of grandparents or other society members. So they believe in to let the girl mature to cop up with marital responsibilities and fixing up marriages of their daughters at early age and but they try to delay Gauna.
  •  Finding reveals that respondents belonging to lower SES were rigid in following traditions and customs, had less educated, more affected by rural culture, blindly follow the caste ethics, more protecting in nature and less expose to mass-media. This results in early marriage.
  • one way ANOVA used to found the effect of various determinants on age at marriage. Data reveal a highly significant impact of traditions and customs (F=4.20), lack of education (F=4.35), childhood residence (F=3.01), caste (F=3.76) and protection of girl & absence of father (3.51) on age at marriage. while Exposure to media (F=1.7) has significant effect on age at marriage. Almost same level of significance was found of age at effective marriage (G-age). Thus the second hypothesis DEM components will show significant differences and impact on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status is proved.determinants of early marriage emerged from this study are inter related and deeply ingrained. The respondents expressed variety of reasons for getting their children married at an early age. determinants of early marriage emerged from this study are inter related and deeply entrenched. The respondents expressed variety of reasons for getting their children married at an early age. Rural residence presents environment, which automatically makes girls submissive, and mentally prepared for marriage irrespective of suitable age (76%). The results are supported by Savitridina (1997) i.e. Childhood residence also has an effect on age at marriage and those who were brought up in villages were more likely to get married early. The traditions and customs were found highly significant cause of early marriage. This result is also corroborated with the study of Chandrasekhar (1996); Santhya, Haberland & Singh (2006) that in Indian context especially in Rajasthan child marriages is a tradition. The custom of early marriages is deeply entrenched in the society. It is an age-old custom, which has been carried forward to generations from times immemorial. The prevalence of practices like Nata, Aata- Sata, Jhagda and Mayas in castes were also leads early marriage. During FGDs it was also seen that to some extent, early marriage is a cause of social prestige. People feel pride if their children or grand children are married early.rural people use media only for entertainment and do not take interest in the relevant social messages which can combat ill practices leading to early marriage of women. As Erulkar & Onoka (2003) also found that respondents had exposure to media but they mostly used it for entertainment purpose. Findings of Nagi (1993) also supports the present study, he found that 80 percent the families in Raila village of Bhilwara district the females who got married were below the age of 11 years and about 80 percent of the married females are illiterate. By the time girls complete their primary education they are already 10 to 14 years of age and generally remain illiterate.
  • Above figure depicts that 90% respondents believes that early marriage denies their right of education and they still want to study. 84% believes that early marriage denies their freedom…
  • It can be seen from the present chart that higher percentages of (95%) respondents from U SES believes that early marriage leads to denial of education as compare to middle and L SES
  • Table reveals that the psycho-social consequences of early marriage are significantly different among different SES groups. there are no significant difference found among three groups on the component of violence and abandonment. Whereas the Z values of denial of education and denial of freedom significantly differ in each group i.e. Z=4.22, Z=5.60 in upper-middle and upper- lower group respectively. Rest components of PSC were significantly different in each group i.e. component C4 &C6 of PSC reveal no significant different in respondents belongs to all three SES. It means they felt more exploitation, denial of education, denial of freedom and violence and abandonment.
  • The findings of Population council (2006) corroborated with the study that just after Gauna the girl who till recently was freely frolicking around in her parents' village, is suddenly catapulted to a new position where she has to play the role of a deaf and mute wife in a long veil, and be seen only as working with her two hands. If she is a younger child when she moves to her new home, she may find too much work harming her physically, but if she has already matured into a woman with an individual personality, she undergoes major adjustment problems. Another study by Ram, Sinha & Mohanty (2006) stated that the majority of married young women did not have a say in decisions related to the purchase of various household items. Analysis suggests that they were clearly 'junior' partners in household decision-making. Given such restricted mobility, it is not surprising that these women had limited social networks. A study of Roshini (1998); UNICEF (2005) proved that child marriages curtail the girls’ education and most of the girl's drop out from schools at pre puberty stage because they are married off very early.
  • Table illustrates results of the multiple regression analysis in predicting age at marriage and its determinants. There are significant association were found in all age groups with DEM, except some. Thus the hypothesis that Age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study will be significantly predicted by the determinants is partially proved.The Beta coefficient reflect the socio- economic status of the family and in which a girl belongs has more considerable contribution in terms of early marriage while traditions and customs follow the socio-cultural perseverance in predicting age at marriage. The regression coefficient further shows that the childhood residence seems to be loosening its grip though caste seems to virtually pursuance of the early marriage. On the contrary, a social protection seems to have less contributory in terms of predicting age at marriage and its determinants. Findings revealed highly significant association of traditions and customs with age at marriage in age groups 0 to 9 years (β(94) =0.16, p=0.01) and 10 to 14 years (β(152)=0.14, p=0.01) but age group 15 to 18 years showed only significant (β(52)=0.10, p=0.05) association. This notifies that tradition and customs have slightly low impact on age group 15 to 18 years. This could be due to differences in socio- economic status. Comparatively, higher SES people in rural area prefer their daughters to marry at little matured age, even if they have to over look local traditions and customs and vice versa. Mensch (2003) in line with the study showed that across region, the percentage of women married by age 18 decrease with increasing years of schooling.Rastogi’s (1988) empirical study that in India, particularly among rural people, the girl child is generally brought up to accept that the major object in life is ‘marriage’. Virginity of a girl is considered to be an essential condition for her first marriage.Beta coefficient revealed highly significant relationship of protection of girl child and absence of father and the age of marriage of younger cohort (0-9 years). Davis and Blake, (1956); McDonald (1985) (cited in Bhagat, 2002) have pointed out that there exists a strong relation between patriarchal structure and age at marriage.Kulkarni (1994) also found that anxiety about grown-up daughters (14 years and above) going astray is another reason forcing less educated or illiterate parents to marry off their daughters before the ideal age i.e. 18 years for marriage.
  • Through regression analysis , it is evident that all the PSC components used in the multiple regression modal are significantly affected by age at marriage. Early marriage denies education of girl child. It is highly significant, after marriage neither parents nor in-laws are willing to continue education as it is basically believed that girl is meant for house hold chores only. In age group 10-14 years as it was found significant during study that the respondents’ were willing to continue their education and some of them were able to persuade or gone against their families to continue it. Data reveal that once married, restriction on wearing clothes is increased and she has to follow dress code as wearing a bindi on her forehead, veil, wearing metal rings on toes etc. SolahShinghar giving her different looks from her non- married friends and she often feels shy to attend schools with these. According to Siddiqui (2005), “the direct reflection of education can be seen on their attitudes, ideas and ways of life.Early marriage provokes the violence against girl child. Also it leads to abandonment sometimes. It is highly significant for age group 15-18 years. Reason being in this age group (above 15 years), girls are somehow mature, aggressive and do not accept changes easily due to physical and personality formative years. Whereas compared to girls age in between age group of 0-14 years. Who can mould them easily accept new pattern of life.Early marriage denies freedom of girl child in all aspects. It was found to be significant in the study. But it was noted that girl in rural areas are brought up in such a way to accept early married life as fate written by almighty. The dimension of freedom for them is very limited. Early marriages hinder the way to personal development and proper socialization as a significant resultant. Girls do not have chances to personality development as after marriage their life is commanded by family. They have list of do’s and don’ts. Hence their life becomes isolated and socialization is not allowed. They are not allowed to meet friends nor can express their feelings.Overall dissatisfaction level is high with the respondents who get married at the early age.Thus the results of the study are found in line with the hypothesis that Psycho-social consequences and overall life satisfaction of the respondents will be significantly predicted by their age at marriage (within different age groups).
  • Table reveals that relationship among DEM and PSC components. It was found that respondents’ castes significantly affect the exploitation of girl child and loss of adolescence as the data revealed that early marriage are more prevalent in lower caste, and it snatched the opportunities to do develop a girl, she has no right to choose her spouse, no say about his age. Also as married early she has to fill-up different responsibilities in a very tender age resulting in more exploitation & loss of adolescence.It was found that traditions and customs not only deny education of a girl child but freedom also. Due to traditions and customs people marry their daughters early and girls are forced to live miserable life without any chance of getting personally developed. This pathetic situation leads to very low life satisfaction. At tender age she has to bear lots of responsibilities of house hold chores. Lack of education also means denial of education as its consequences. Lack of education hinders the personal development of a girl. It takes away her socialization. Lack of education, as a determinant of child marriage, leads to less access of contraception for girl. This relation was found highly significant. Also it is cause of violence against wife and abandonment. Overall scenario says lack of education means lack of life satisfaction. Childhood residence does not have psychosocial consequences on girl’s life rather life satisfaction level is directly related and highly significant. It is the girl only who suffers most as a victim of child marriage. Caste as a cause of child marriage is highly significant for loss of adolescence and exploitation of girl child. Caste also led to denial of education and freedom. When father of a girl is not present and protection of girl child is sought, consequence is early marriage. Early marriage is significant to access to contraception. Whereas level of life satisfaction is significantly low. Exposure to mass media helps in overall development: less the exposure, more the denial of education and denial of freedom. Also, access to contraception is significantly very low. Higher exposure helps in personal development and proper socialization of a girl. Exposure to mass media and life satisfaction is highly interrelated. SES level of a respondent is highly significant with denial of education and freedom. Personal development and socialization is highly is affected with a very low life satisfaction. Socio- economic status level is significant with access to contraception and violence abandonment.Hence, the hypothesis that there will be a significant relationship between determinants and psycho-social consequences of early marriage is proved.

Presentation On Early  Marriage Presentation On Early Marriage Presentation Transcript

  • DETERMINANTS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON RURAL WOMEN OF BHILWARA DISTRICT
  • Presentation Outline
    • INTRODUCTION
    • RATIONALE, OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES
    • METHODOLOGY
    •  RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    • Determinants of early marriage
    • Psychosocial consequences of early marriage
    •  SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    2
  • INTRODUCTION
    3
  • Child marriage intro
    Child Marriage
    is one of the burning problems of Indian society. In India, despite amended laws advocating 18 as the legal minimum age at marriage for females, a substantial proportion i.e. every third adolescent girl in the age group of 15-19 year is married and every second married adolescent girl has given birth to a child. According to the Registrar General of India (RGI) Report (2001) Rajasthan has the highest (40.8) percentage of females ever married among 15-19 year old girls as compared to India (24.9 %) followed by Bihar (39.6 %), Madhya Pradesh (34.1%), Jarkhand (32.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (32.3%). Among the various districts of Rajasthan, Bhilwara is at the top with 61.9 percent.
    4
  • nfhs
    reflecting the country’s diversity, few women (12%) marry before age 18 in Goa and Himachal Pradesh, while nearly 57 to 61 percent do so in Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Bihar. Differences by area of residence are also stark: 28% in urban areas vs. 53% in rural areas.
    Yet, there has been a slow trend toward delaying marriage: Nationally, the proportion of women marrying before their 18th birthday declined by five percent from 1993 to 2006 (50% to 45%).
    NFHS
    5
  • Vicious Circle of Girl Child's Neglect
    High Mortality
    Mal Nutrition
    Non-Preference for Girl Child
    Low Expenditure on Health Care of Girls
    Low Awareness Level
    Dowry,
    Child Marriage
    Low Literacy Level, Low Investment on Girl Education
    Victims of Oppression
    Girls are socialized from the very beginning to accept the culture of male supremacy, which willingly or unwillingly, subjects them to discriminatory practices. They actually adopt, support, promote and transmit inter-generationally the dominant social and cultural values. Gender inequality begins even before birth and is consistently becoming adverse throughout the life of the Indian women. The plight of rural women in India irrespective of their age is a matter of concern.
    6
  • Child Marriage: Age view
    • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, India defines Child marriage is a marriage of individuals before they attain the legal age i.e. 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys.
    • UN's Convention on the Rights of Children define the union of children or adolescents under the age of 18 as child marriage.
    • IAC (2003) Child marriage, also known as early marriage, is defined as “any marriage carried out below the age of 18 years, before the girl is physically, physiologically, and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and childbearing.
    • Early Marriage: In the present study the term early marriage used, is understood as child marriage i.e. below the age of 18 years for female as prescribed by law.
    7
  • INTRODUCTION
    Child Marriage: Facts
    • (UNICEF -2009) 47% of India's women aged 20–24 were married before 18, with 56% in rural areas and 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.
    • (NGHS-3) 57.1 percentage of women aged 20-24, married by the time they are 18 in Rajasthan.
    • Median age at marriage among urban and rural women age 20-49- 18.8 years and 16.4 years.
    • (RGI-2001) Rajasthan has the highest (40.8) percentage of females ever married among 15-19 year old girls as compared to India (24.9 %) followed by Bihar (39.6 %), Madhya Pradesh (34.1%), Jarkhand (32.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (32.3%). Among the various districts of Rajasthan, Bhilwara is at the top with 61.9 percent.
    • According to Census 1981, 1991 and 2001, mean age at marriage for female in Bhilwara district is 14.5, 16.2 and 16.4 years respectively.
    8
  • Acts and Legal Perspective
    9
  • Conceptual Framework of the Study
    Age at Marriage
    Age at Gauna
    Conceptual Framework of the Study
    0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 (in Years)
    • Upper
    • Middle
    • Lower
    0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 (in Years)
    10
  • Determinants of Early Marriage
    Traditions and customs: Traditions are beliefs with particular consensus through time. Custom is a practice followed by people of a particular group or a pattern of habitual activity. Rajyalaxmi (1990) mentioned that the custom of early marriage is more prevalent in Rajasthan, in the spoken language it was said that the infant was being married in Pile Potare(yellow napkin).
    Lack of Education: High rate of early marriage is caused due to low level of female literacy and low status of women (Sharma, 2003; UNICEF, 2001).
    Childhood Residence: According to Savitridina (1997), childhood residence refers to that place where the respondent spent the longest period of time till reaching the age of 12.
    11
  • Determinants of Early Marriage
    Caste: The caste has immense control over the social and economic life of people; the traditions and practices of castes are rigidly followed by them. The caste hierarchy also perhaps had its role to play in perpetuating early marriage (Birodkar, 2006). Findings of the study (Reddy, 1998) revealed a marked caste differences in the age at marriage of females among the different Hindu castes.
    Protection of Girl and Absence of Father: Early marriage is one way to ensure that a wife is ‘protected’, or placed firmly under male control. She is submissive to her husband and works hard for her in-laws’ household; that the children she bears are ‘legitimate’; and that bonds of affection between couples do not undermine the family unit. Girls will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian (Caldwell, John & Pat, 1977).
    According to study by Santhya, Haberland, Singh (2006) at Rajasthan State, girls’ emerging sexuality is viewed as a threat, puberty as a signal to promptly place a girl under the safety of the label “married”. Deviating from this practice elicits community pressure. The developing body of an adolescent girl is viewed as a liability or danger that can be dealt best by pre-emotively marrying her off.
    12
  • Determinants of Early Marriage
    Exposure to Mass Media: Exposure to mass media has a significant effect on age at marriage. Women with no access to any of the mass media were more likely to have married early as compared with those who had access to all three of the media (audio, video & print) or at least one of them. The age at marriage, according to media exposure in big cities and towns, was similar; however, some differences prevail in rural areas. The proportion of women who married early compared with those who had no access to mass media is slightly lower than for those who had access to at least one medium. For rural residents, radio is the most popular media (Savitridina, 1997).
    Socio- Economic Status: Caste, occupation, income and educational backgrounds of the people are considered as the important socio- economic variables to assess the socio economic status of the people in the society. These socio- economic differentials significantly affect the age of marriage (Reddy, 1998).
    13
  • Psychosocial Consequences
    Exploitation of Girl Child as Loss of Adolescence: For the majority of girl children in India, there is no period of "Adolescence" as they shift from childhood to adulthood and soon become a pregnant adult. (NIPCCD, 1992-93).
    The time when she needs support, confidence and advice, an adolescent bride has to adjust to the unfamiliar set up of her new home. She also cope with the post pubescent bodily changes along with the feelings and sensation that are unfamiliar and people with whom she must maintain a respectful distance (Kakar, 1978).
    Denial of Education: Once married, girls are rarely permitted to continue their education, except in a few families. It is only through education that the girl child can arm herself to be independent and self-reliant, and hence have a fighting chance in life (Patel, 2007).
    Denial of Freedom: (Population Council, 2006), women are not allowed to go out and in many cases, permission of the family is required. Similarly, girls are restricted from moving freely. A girl becomes a mother, she is crushed under multiple responsibilities of being a wife, mother and daughter-in-law at very tender age. Despite growing up together, the boys are not completely connected or committed to their wives and some even seek relationships outside their marriage.
    14
  • Psychosocial Consequences
    Personal Development and Inadequate Socialization: UNICEF (2001) focused that child marriage, along with little or no education, economic dependence, denial of decision-making power, inequality within the home, and sexual exploitation adversely affect the mental health. A girl child tends to be more attached emotionally to her parental family than a boy child. She is more prone to psychological stress and tension because of detachment from parents after marriage. Many women get depressed following the incident. They suffer from an inability to enjoy things, find it difficult to sleep and eat, face concentration problems, and experience feelings of guilt and decreased self-esteem.
    Early marriage typically cuts girls off from established support networks and friends (Santhya & Jejeebhoy,2003).
    Access to Contraception: Selvaratnam (1988) revealed that women who married early were less likely to use contraception, this is because women who married late with higher education have a better knowledge of contraception. Education exposes women to family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices.
    15
  • Psychosocial Consequences
    Violence and Abandonment: A study among women in Calcutta found that half had been married at or below the age of 15, and that this group were highly vulnerable to sexual violence in marriage (Sen, 1997).
    UNICEF (2005) Domestic violence is more common among women, who had been married during childhood. India has the highest levels of domestic violence (67%) among women married before 18 years.
    Life Satisfaction: Satisfaction is a mental state where an individual expresses positive feeling about what he has done or has been able to achieve. Whatever one does, its merit is determined in terms of satisfaction it brings to the doer. . A happy and satisfied woman can make better adjustment and modify the internal and external environment, reduce the tension and increase harmony at home. A satisfied woman gives due regards to other people’s feelings, is kind and tolerant to others and in general is more cautious, less touchy, less irritable and less critical (Narang,1996) .
    16
  • Customs Surrounding Child Marriage
    Customs Surrounding Child Marriage
    • Gauna orMuklawa: A ceremony is performed for consummation of marriage after girl attains maturity/puberty or the virtual transfer of girl from her family to conjugal family, after few days or years of formal marriage.
    • AkshyaTritiya or AkhaTeej: A day of Mass Child Marriages, the third day of the bright fortnight of Baishakh (May-June). People do not consult almanac or Pandit.
    • Mausar and Gangoj: is a practice of giving a feast to relatives, villagers and people of same caste on 12th and 13th day of death of an elder person. These occasions Mausar (12th day) and Gangoj (13th day) are utilized by those who are not well off to get their child married.
    • Nata (Re marriage): After marriage when a woman establishes marital relation with another man with her will or by her parents wish or force.
    • Mayas and Jhagra: parents do not perform Gauna of their married daughter and remarry her to another person, in return they get money from new husband (Mayas). Previous husband get compensation or bride price known as “Jhagra”. The amount of Jhagra is decided by caste and community leaders.
    • Aata-Sata: parents used to marry their daughters in the same family where their son is married or vice versa.
    17
  • RATIONALE
    Women, a weaker and depressed section Indian Society. The neglect and discrimination of the woman is subjected to severe and deep-rooted criticism. The “lost years” of adolescence, can be harnessed fruitfully, and girls can be equipped for a better and more productive life if they are addressed to a special target category of developmental programmes. They need to be educated, confident and have decision-making skills. This would have far-reaching implications for the status of women in the coming generations.
    Most studies have focused on the impact of early marriage on fertility rather than to better understand psycho-social consequences. The present investigation was planned to examine the marital age and its determinants in varying socio-cultural set up and psycho-social consequences of marriage age on development of a girl child or women. From the cited literature and personal observations, it was found that early marriages are more common in rural area with its hard consequences, especially in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state. It was felt necessary to study the effects of various socio-economic and other factors on the pattern of age at marriage and its psycho-social consequences in certain selected rural areas.
    18
  • OBJECTIVES
    • To assess the socio- economic status (SES) and demographic components of the respondents under study.
    • To find out the significant differences and impact of SES components on age at marriage (M-age) and age at Gauna (G-age) of the respondents belonging to different SES.
    • To find out the significant differences and impact of determinants of early marriage (DEM) components on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different SES.
    • To find out the significant differences and impact of M-age and G-age on psycho-social consequences (PSC ) components of the respondents belonging to different SES.
    • To find out the significant differences and impact of M-age and G-age on life satisfaction (LS) components of the respondents belonging to different SES.
    • To predict the determinants of age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study.
    • To predict the psycho-social consequences and overall life satisfaction in relation to age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study.
    • To find out relationship (a) among determinants of early marriage and psycho-social consequences components and (b) inter correlation of SES components and life satisfaction components.
    19
  • HYPOTHESES
    • SES components will show significant differences and impact on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status.
    • DEM components will show significant differences and impact on M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status.
    • M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status will show significant differences and impact on their PSC components.
    • M-age and G-age of the respondents belonging to different socio- economic status will show significant differences and impact on their LS components.
    • Age at marriage (within different age groups) of the respondents under study will be significantly predicted by the determinants.
    • Psycho-social consequences and overall life satisfaction of the respondents will be significantly predicted by their age at marriage (within different age groups).
    • (a) There will be a significant relationship between determinants and psycho-social consequences of early marriage. (b)There will be a significant inter-correlation among SES components and LS components.
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  • METHODOLOGY
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  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
    Early Marriage/Age at Marriage (M-age): In the present study the term age at marriage (early marriage) used is understood as child marriage i.e. below the age of 18 years for female as prescribed by law, categorized in three groups i.e. 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 years.
    Age at effective marriage (Gauna) (G-age): In rural context, especially for Rajasthan age at marriage itself does not depict the virtual transfer of girl from her family to conjugal family. After few days or years of formal marriage husband returns to take her wife back to his home to live with him permanently and this occasion is known as “Gauna” ceremony. In demographic literature it is known as effective marriage which marks the time when sexual union between husband and wife starts. For the present study G-age is categorized in three groups i.e. 0 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years.
    Socio- economic Status: For the present study socio-economic status can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 15 items of socio- economic status scale developed by investigator.
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  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
    Determinants of early marriages (DEM): For the present study determinants of early marriage can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 60 items under 6 dimensions of DEM scale developed by investigator.
    Psycho-social consequences (PSC): For the present study psychosocial consequences can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 66 items under 6 dimensions of PSC scale developed by investigator.
    Life Satisfaction (LS): For the present study life satisfaction can be operationally defined as scores obtained on 60 items under 6 dimensions of tool developed byAlam and Shrivastava (1973).
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  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
    Locale of the study: Rural areas of Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state were selected purposively as the locale of study.
    Sample and its selection: The multistage sampling procedure includes selection of Tehsils, villages and finally, selection of respondents.
    Criteria of sample selection
    Socio-economic status – The subjects belonging to different socio-economic status i.e. Upper, middle and lower were included in the sample.
    Age at marriage- Respondents married before the legal age of marriage i.e. 18 years.
    Duration of marriage – minimum 5 years to maximum 15 years.
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  • SAMPLING PROCEDURE
    Sampling procedure
    State RajasthanPurposive
    District BhilwaraPurposive
    Tehsils Random
    Households (n=600) Purposive
    Respondents(n=300) Purposive
    Upper SES Middle SES Lower SES
    n1 = 100 n2 = 100 n3 = 100
    (n1=5X20) (n2=5X20) (n3=5X20)
  • Time Plan
    Activities
    RESEARCH DESIGN
    Population Universe (600 HHs)
    Village Mapping and Wealth Ranking
    SES (self developed scale)
    Research Design
    n = 300
    Frequency, Percentage, Mean, z test, ANOVA, Pearson’s ‘r’ and Regression
    Presentation, interpretation, & discussion of results
  • MEASURING TOOLS
    MEASURING TOOLS
    The following tools were used:
    Baseline Pro forma: (self developed) It consists of 10 questions on background information of the subjects i.e. current age, marital status, marital duration, age of marriage, age at Gauna, education, family composition, exposure to media, legal awareness etc.
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  • Socio- Economic Status Scale (SES scale):
    Socio- Economic Status Scale (SES scale):
    For determining the SES of subjects, a self framed SES scale was used. This tool aims to gather general socio-economic information of the respondents and includes total 15 items such as Caste, Occupation, Education Level, Total monthly income, Family type, Family size, Asset-1, Asset-2, Social membership and Social participation.
    Asset-1& Asset-2: consists of check list and the total scores depends on number of asset possessed by the Ss.
    Asset-1: consists of items on house type, land size and land type. Total scores obtained in this group were kept in three categories from low to high i.e. Score 1 to 8 (low), Score 9 to 12 (middle) and Score 13 to 18 (high).
    Asset-2: consists of items on household equipments, available vehicle, agriculture instruments and livestock and scores obtained in this group was also categorized in three sub groups i.e. Score 1 to 10 (low), Score 11 to 18 (middle) and Score 19 to 23 (high).
    The total scores were obtained by counting the tick mark (√) against each item.
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  • Determinants of Early Marriages (DEM scale):
    A self made questionnaire cum interview schedule was developed to find out the determinants of early marriage. The tool consists of 60 questions on the following components (10 questions each):
    D – 1 Traditions and customs
    D – 2 Lack of education
    D – 3 Childhood residence
    D – 4 Caste
    D – 5 Protection of girls & absence of father
    D – 6 Exposure to mass media
    The question needs to be responded in yes or no. one score was given for yes response and zero score for no response. The maximum score one could obtained is 60 and minimum is zero.
    Determinants of Early Marriages (DEM scale):
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  • Psycho-Social Consequences (PSC Scale):
    Psycho-Social Consequences (PSC Scale):
    A self made questionnaire cum interview schedule was developed to find out the psychosocial consequences of early marriage. The tool consists of 66 questions on the following components (11 questions each):
    C – 1 Exploitation of girl child as loss of adolescence
    C – 2 Denial of education
    C – 3 Denial of freedom
    C – 4 Personal development & inadequate socialization
    C – 5 Access to contraception
    C – 6 Violence & abandonment
    The question needs to be responded in yes or no. one score was given for yes response and zero score for no response. The maximum score one could obtained is 60 and minimum is zero.
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  • Life Satisfaction Scale (LS scale):
    Life Satisfaction Scale (LS scale):
    The standardized tool by Alam and Shrivastava (1973) was used to measure life satisfaction. The scale consists of 60 items on six components viz., health, personal, economic, marital, social and job. The responses are to be given in yes/no. Yes responses were marked as one and no as zero. Higher the score, higher the life satisfaction. Test retest reliability is 0.84 and validity of the scale was obtained by correlating with Saxena’s adjustment inventory and Srivastava adjustment inventory, which is 0.74 and 0.82 respectively.
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  • Case studies
    Case studies: were conducted separately with 20 percent of the selected respondents.
    Focus group discussions: were done with selected respondents and their families.
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  • RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
    • Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna in selected villages
    • Mean age at marriage and Gauna
    • Socio-economic Status and Early marriage
    • Determinants and Early Marriage
    • Psychosocial Consequences and Early Marriage
    • Life Satisfaction and Early Marriage
    • Age at Marriage: Its Determinants and Psycho-Social Consequences
    • Relationship between Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences
    • Inter-correlation among SES components and LS components
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  • Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna
    Frequency distribution of age at marriage and age at Gauna in selected villages
    (Lower age to Higher age of marriage)
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  • Mean age at marriage and Gauna of different SES respondents
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  • Socio-economic Status and Early marriage
    Socio-economic Status and Early marriage
    SES Components and M-age & G-age
    M-age
    G-age
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  • Mean distribution of M_age and G_age according to SES Components
    Socio-economiAssettus and Early marriage
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  • One way ANOVA for SES Components among M-age and G-age
    One way ANOVA for SES Components among M-age and G-age
    **
  • Determinants and Early Marriage
    Percentage responses of DEM components with regard to early marriage
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  • Determinants and Early Marriage
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    Percentage responses of DEM components with regard to early marriage in different SES
  • Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of DEM components in different SES
    Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of DEM components in different SES
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  • One Way ANOVA for DEM components with M-age and G-age
    One Way ANOVA for DEM components with M-age and G-age
    The traditions and customs were found highly significant cause of early marriage Chandrasekhar (1996); Santhya, Haberland & Singh (2006). Savitridina (1997) Childhood residence has an effect on age at marriage and those who were brought up in villages were more likely to get married early. Parents may genuinely feel that their daughters will be better off and safer with a regular male guardian (Caldwell, John & Pat, 1977).
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  • 44
    Percentage responses of PSC components with regard to early marriage
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    Percentage responses of PSC components with regard to early marriage in different SES
  • Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of PSC components in different SES
    * significant at 0.05 level, ** significant at 0.01 level
    Mean, S.D. and ‘Z’ value of PSC components in different SES
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  • One Way ANOVA for PSC components on M-age and G-age
    One Way ANOVA for PSC components on M-age and G-age
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  • Percentage responses of LS components with regard to early marriage
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  • Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups for Determinants of Early Marriage
    Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups for
    Determinants of Early Marriage
    According to Sagade (2005); Singh (2008), in most cases, marriage is the mere transference of the father's domination over a woman in favour of a husband's. When done at an early age, it is felt, it is easy to get the bride to adapt well to her socially determined position. It also helps to control her sexuality and reproduction. Another author Santhya, Haberland & Singh (2006) showed that pressure to abide by societal norms was cited as a reason for the persistence of early marriage. Kulkarni (1994) also found that anxiety about grown-up daughters is another reason forcing less educated or illiterate parents to marry their daughters early..
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  • Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups and Psycho-Social Consequences
    Standardized Regression Coefficients for different age groups and
    Psycho-Social Consequences
    Saxena (1999) corroborated that the “Inadequate socialization, discontinuation of education, great physiological and emotional damage due to early marriage and repeated pregnancies devastates these girls.” Santhya & Jejeebhoy (2006) documented several studies in India indicating that young women's early sexual encounters within marriage are often described as frightening and non-consensual.
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  • Pearson’s correlation with Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences
    Pearson’s correlation with Determinants and Psycho-social Consequences
    ** Significant at .01 level, * Significant at .05 level
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  • Implications of the Study
    Present study had shown psychosocial consequences of early marriage on girls where parents are found to show interest in marrying off their daughter as soon as possible due to many determinants.
    Parents should be encouraged to evaluate and empower their daughter with life skills enhancing their self esteem rather than escaping from their responsibilities. If they do so they should be given some incentive in the form of cash or employment or some financial support in name of their daughter’s marriage.
    Community leaders, social workers should also be sensitized and mobilized to change the mind set of the people. The person or the society should be awarded and recognized as a role model and be provided some extra financial help to improve the status of women.
    Religious leaders can play the most important role in changing attitudes of the people. They can force the public to delay the marriage of the girls following the legal norms and justifying the status of girl.
    GO’s and NGO’s should jointly raise awareness through strict implementation of the acts about marriage preventing ill health of girl child.
    Media, an utmost and powerful source of change. Producers should take the themes of social relevance to spread the message of adverse consequences of early marriage eg. BalikaVadhu, Lado.
    Families and societies responsible for early marriage should be given legal and non bail able punishment and social boycott.
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  • Suggestions
    Present study was conducted on determinants of early marriages and its’ psycho-social consequences. Further study could be planned by taking different variables like physical health, mental health, and reproductive health, personal and marital adjustment.
    Present study was conducted in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan state. Samples from different districts of Rajasthan would cater in-depth understanding about determinants and consequences of early marriages.
    Only female were taken for present study. A comparative study of male and female could give clearer picture of their married life.
    A comparative study of urban and rural setting could be planned by taking wide samples.
    Intervention programmes can be planned to raise awareness at micro, meso and exo level for unmarried boys and girls and their parents.
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  • Major Findings
    • Early marriages are more prevelant in those villages, which are at distance from connecting road to tehsil or district headquarter or remote villages have little awareness of ill effects of early marriages, lack of media awareness and less approach of GOs and NGOs programmes. Also it was found that early marriage is customary in those villages, which are densely populated with Jat, Gurjar, Jogi and Rebari castes.
    • The SES of a person does have major role in determining the age of marriage or effective marriage. It was found that age of marriage and Gauna is low among the people belonging to lower castes and illiterate or less educated. The lower occupational level or agriculture base of the respondent also seems to be related with early age of marriage.
    • Major differences were observed in mean age at marriage and age at effective marriage or Gauna among upper, middle and lower socio- economic status i.e. 13.72, 10.69 and 6.69 years for age at marriage and 15.33, 14.51 and 13.32 years for age at effective marriage respectively.
    • It is found that childhood residence is highly and significantly affect the age at marriage, followed by traditions & customs, castes, lack of education, Protection of Girls & Absence of Father and Exposure to Mass Media. Among all, lower SES families were more rigid in following traditions and customs, had less educated, more affected by rural culture, blindly follow the caste ethics, more protecting in nature and less expose to mass-media.
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  • Major Findings
    • It was found that early marriage denies the right of education of girl child followed with denial of freedom, violence & abandonment, personal development and inadequate socialization, exploitation of girl child as loss of adolescence and less access to contraception, and lower level to life satisfaction. Also it was found that Psycho-social consequences of early marriage are significantly different among different SES groups.
    • Correlation between determinants and psychosocial consequences of early marriage shows that respondents’ castes significantly affect the exploitation of girl child and loss of adolescence, whereas traditions and customs not only deny education of a girl child but freedom also. This pathetic situation leads to very low life satisfaction. At tender age she has to bear lots of responsibilities of house hold chores.
    • Lack of education, as a determinant of child marriage, leads to less access of contraception for girl and violence against wife and abandonment. Overall scenario says lack of education means lack of life satisfaction. less the exposure to media, more the denial of education and denial of freedom. Also, access to contraception is significantly very low. Higher exposure helps in personal development and proper socialization of a girl. Exposure to mass media and life satisfaction is highly interrelated. SES level of a respondent is highly significant with denial of education and freedom. Personal development and socialization is highly is affected with a very low life satisfaction. Socio- economic status level is significant with access to contraception and violence abandonment.
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  • THANKS
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