The term adolescence is derived from the Latin word “adolescere” meaning to grow, to mature.
It is a time of physical and emotional change as the body matures and the mind becomes more questioning and independent.
These are the formative years of life of an individual when major physical, psychological & behavioural changes takes place.
Period of preparation for undertaking greater responsibilities including healthy responsible parenthood.
SOME FACTS • 225 million adolescent comprise 22% of India’s total population. • Of this 12%-10-14year age group 10%-15-19 year age group • Female comprise 47% of adol.population • About 20% of total adol.female population are married before the age of 15 years are already mother.
>70% girls between 10-19 year age group suffer from severe or moderate anemia. • Mortality rate is higher in 15-19 year then 10-14 year age group. • Unmet need of contraception is much higher in this age group. • Over 35%of all reported HIV infection occur among 15-24 years age group. • Indicating young people are highly vulnerable and majority of them infected by unprotected sex.
Definitions: Adolescence: 10 – 19 years Early Adolescence: 10 – 13 years Middle adolescence: 14 – 16 years Late adolescence: 17 – 19 years Youth: 15 – 24 years Young people: 10 - 24 years
Characteristics: A – Aggressive, Anemic, Abortion D – Dynamic, Developing, Depressed O – Overconfident, Overindulging, Obese L –Loud but lonely & Lack information E – Enthusiastic, Explorative & Experimenting S – Social, Sexual, & Spiritual C – Courageous, Cheerful, & Concern E – Emotional, Eager & Emulating N – Nervous, Never say no to peers T – Temperamental, Teenage pregnancy
Why invest?????? Investments in young people will yield dividents in term of delaying age of marriage, reducing incidence of pregnancies meeting unmet needs of contraception and reducing incidence of STI/HIV/AIDS CATCH THEM YOUNG
10 -19 years a critical phase Risks Inadequately prepared for life Enter adult hood in poor health Unintended unwanted pregnancy/unsafe abortion Maternal mortality higher for young women Infant mortality higher for young mothers Sexual abuse /violence and unwanted sexual activity STIS including HIV/AIDS 10-19 YEARS CRITICAL PHASE
Reproductive and Child Health-II Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health(ARSH)
ARSH Strategy Objective is to contribute to RCH II goals of reduction of IMR,MMR,and TFR by: Reducing teenage pregnancies Meeting unmet contraceptive needs Reducing number of teenage maternal deaths Reducing incidence of STIs Reducing proportion of HIV positive in 10 – 19 years age group ARSH STRATEGY
Interventions by ARSH Services for adolescents to cover preventive , promotive ,curative and counseling services Capacity building of on meeting needs of adolescents Communication activities to be undertaken MIS indicators identified as per specific objectives Inter-sectoral linkages with NACP and NRHM
How to deliver friendly services within “public health system” Training of ASHA- adolescent health included
Implementation guide Part 1:Background - purpose of implementation guide -ARSH in RCH II Part 2: What to implement? - standards for adolescent friendly reproductive and sexual health services Part 3:How to implement? Service delivery package Organizing effective services Conducive environment at health facilities Capacity building of providers Environment building Communication with adolescents Monitoring and supervision Sample implementation Part 4 moving ahead Conclusion
Developing institutional and service linkages within ARSH framework to address HIV concerns
Strategies for promotion of adolescent health A =Adoption of healthy life style D =Develop appropriate i.e. strategy discourage early marriage and teenage pregnancy O =Organize adolescent/ youth friendly clinic L =Life skill training, legal support, liasion with peers, parents E =Educate about sexuality, safe sex, spirituality, responsible parenthood S =Safe, secure and supportive environment to be provided C =Counseling / curriculum in school inclusive of family life education E =Enable & empower for responsible citizenship N =Networking for experience sharing T =Training for income generation, teen clubs