SEMINAR 2011-2012          Vaisali K        B070225AR
CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION                    o   INTRODUCTION                    o   BACKGROUND                    o   APPR...
WHAT IS BIOMIMETICS?               Biomimetics is the term used to describe the               substances, equipment, mecha...
• Biomimicry originates from two Greek words                             Bios = Life                          Mimesis= imi...
15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE              VAISALI K                                       CONCEPT   B070225AR     ...
FLIGHT OF BIRD                        LEONARDO DA VINCI’S FLYING MACHINE             AEROPLANE TODAY                    WR...
GECKO TAPE             Inspiration                    Precedence                Product                              SHARK...
HOW DID IT BEGIN?       • American biophysicist and         polymath.       • Coined the term Biomimetics in         1950’...
HOW DID IT BEGIN?   • American writer and scientific observer     from Montana.   • Wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation...
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY                       There are two approaches to Biomimetic design15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHIT...
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY                                       DESIGN TO BIOLOGY                                          ...
APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY                                        BIOLOGY TO DESIGN                                         ...
PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                               VAISALI K                      ...
PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY      •      Nature runs on sunlight.      •      Nature uses only the energy it needs.      •    ...
NATURE AS A MODEL             NATURE AS A MEASURE             NATURE AS A MENTOR15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE      ...
STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMCRY                                                              Biologize the                       ...
LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY                 ORGANISM LEVEL                 BEHAVIOUR LEVEL                 ECOSYSTEM LEVEL15-11-2...
Form/ process mimicry at ORGANISM LEVEL      Waterloo International Terminal , London15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE ...
Process/function mimicry at BEHAVIOUR LEVELEastgate                                                                      C...
Function mimicry at ECOSYSTEM LEVEL   Mithūn Architects and GreenWorks Landscape   Architecture   Lloyd Crossing Project p...
WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?         "Sustainable development is development that         meets the needs of the prese...
CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K             ...
In order to tackle the issue of global climate change two approaches can             be adopted:                          ...
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK1. SITE & CLIMATE ANALYSIS: analysing site, orientation, exposure, climate,topographical facto...
5. MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEMS: construction and assembling methods tofacilitate substitution, repair, maintenance, diversifi...
15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE   SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY    VAISALI K                                     ...
EXAMPLE-           COUNCIL HOUSE 2Architecture (CH2), Mick Pearce with DesignInc., 2005Maximum Six Green Starrating  15-11...
“DIVERSIFY AND COOPERATE TO FULLY USE THE HABITAT”     Same amount of     foliage on the     building as original    Harve...
“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Sustainable timber selection                                                     Recycled structu...
“USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Use waste as amenities                                        Recycled                           ...
“GATHER AND USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY”                                        Gas-firedmicro-turbine (co-generation)         ...
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K                             ...
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K                             ...
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K                             ...
“OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                VAISALI K                             ...
“DON’T DRAW DOWN RESOURCES”  Water • 72% reduction in mains water consumption compared to the existing Council House of si...
ANALYSIS15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE               VAISALI K                                       ANALYSIS   B070...
Materials                                                                                       Level ofName of building  ...
Inspiratio     Materials                                                                               Level ofName of bui...
Name of                       Materials                                                                                   ...
Material                                                                                       Level ofName of building   ...
•Buildinginspired by plants /flower:                 Self-sustainable                 Energy efficient                 ...
APPLICATION15-11-2011   BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE                  VAISALI K                                       APPLICATI...
INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN • Large & clear unobstructed areas               • Triangulated exoskeleton or                 ...
CONCLUSIONTo echo, listen, steward and immerse in nature   Biomimicry presents itself as a basis, a foundation of a new re...
CONCLUSION              For nature has been field-tested for millions of years through evolution 15-11-2011    BIOMIMETIC ...
BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE
BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE
BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE
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BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE

  1. 1. SEMINAR 2011-2012 Vaisali K B070225AR
  2. 2. CONTENTS OF PRESENTATION o INTRODUCTION o BACKGROUND o APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY o PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY o STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMICRY o LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY o SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY o CASESTUDY o ANALYSIS o INFERENCE o APPLICATION o CONCLUSION15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONTENTS B070225AR 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS BIOMIMETICS? Biomimetics is the term used to describe the substances, equipment, mechanism and systems by which humans imitate natural systems and designs.15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INTRODUCTION B070225AR 3
  4. 4. • Biomimicry originates from two Greek words Bios = Life Mimesis= imitate • Biomimicry operates on the principle that in its 3.8 billion year history, nature has already found solutions to many problems we are trying to solve. • Biomimicry is multi-disciplinary subject involving wide diversity of other domains like architecture, electronics, medicines, biology, chemistry, mathematics etc.15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INTRODUCTION B070225AR 4
  5. 5. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 5
  6. 6. FLIGHT OF BIRD LEONARDO DA VINCI’S FLYING MACHINE AEROPLANE TODAY WRIGHT BROTHER’S FIRST PROTOTYPE15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 6
  7. 7. GECKO TAPE Inspiration Precedence Product SHARKLET TECHNOLOGIES Inspiration Precedence Textiles Surfaces15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCEPT B070225AR 7
  8. 8. HOW DID IT BEGIN? • American biophysicist and polymath. • Coined the term Biomimetics in 1950’s. • Developed Schmitt trigger by studying the nerves in squid. • Attempted to engineer a device that replicated the system of nerve propagation. Otto Schmitt (1913-1998)15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K BACKGROUND B070225AR 8
  9. 9. HOW DID IT BEGIN? • American writer and scientific observer from Montana. • Wrote the book “Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature” in 1997 • The books gives an insight on how significant biomimicry is in shaping the future. • In 1998 she co-founded the Biomimicry Guild which helps inform , inspire and empower the bridging of nature’s wisdom Janine M. Benyus (b 1958) with human knowledge.15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K BACKGROUND B070225AR 9
  10. 10. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY There are two approaches to Biomimetic design15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 10
  11. 11. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY DESIGN TO BIOLOGY • More fuel efficient due to aerodynamic body mimicking BOX FISH • More material efficient due The approach requires designers to identify problems to mimicking tree growth and biologists to match these to organismsform structure. patterns that have solved similar issues.The car not new approach to • transportation but improvement to existing technology DaimlerChrysler’s Bionic Car15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 11
  12. 12. APPROACHES TO BIOMIMICRY BIOLOGY TO DESIGN • Lotus flower emerges clean from swampy waters. • Lotusan paint enables buildings to be self cleaning. The approach requires to have relevant biological or • Biology can influence humans in ways outside ecological knowledge and research rather than design predetermined design problem problem. • This will result in previously unthought-of technologies or systems or approach to design solutions. Lotus inspired’s Lotusan Paint15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPROACHES TO BIOLMIMICRY B070225AR 12
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 13
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY • Nature runs on sunlight. • Nature uses only the energy it needs. • Nature fits form to function. • Nature recycles everything. • Nature rewards cooperation. • Nature banks on diversity. • Nature demands local expertise. • Nature curbs excesses from within. • Nature taps the power of limits15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 14
  15. 15. NATURE AS A MODEL NATURE AS A MEASURE NATURE AS A MENTOR15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K PRINCIPLES OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 15
  16. 16. STEPS TO ADOPT BIOMIMCRY Biologize the question: ask Develop a design from nature’s brief of human perspective. Find the needs ideas Develop repeating Look for and solutions Evaluate the based on and patterns the champions in design against processes within naturalwho solve nature model Life’s Principles nature that the challlenges achieve success15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K STEPS TO BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 16
  17. 17. LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY ORGANISM LEVEL BEHAVIOUR LEVEL ECOSYSTEM LEVEL15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 17
  18. 18. Form/ process mimicry at ORGANISM LEVEL Waterloo International Terminal , London15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 19
  19. 19. Process/function mimicry at BEHAVIOUR LEVELEastgate CouncilCentre , House 2,Harare Melbourne 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 21
  20. 20. Function mimicry at ECOSYSTEM LEVEL Mithūn Architects and GreenWorks Landscape Architecture Lloyd Crossing Project proposed for Portland, Oregon.15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K LEVELS OF BIOMIMICRY B070225AR 23
  21. 21. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 24
  22. 22. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 25
  23. 23. In order to tackle the issue of global climate change two approaches can be adopted: MITIGATION ADAPTATION15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 26
  24. 24. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK1. SITE & CLIMATE ANALYSIS: analysing site, orientation, exposure, climate,topographical factors, local constraints and natural resources2. FLEXIBLE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: investigating structural characters,permanence/temporariness, integration with building components, etc3. RENEWABLE BUILDING MATERIALS: analysing efficiency of a material or aproduct, size, standardization, structural adequacy, complexity,appropriateness, cost, labour involved, plantation origin, method of growth,embodied energy, recycled and reused content, toxicity, etc.4. BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: control of energy flows that enter (or leave)an enclosed volume, including consideration of orientation, seasonalvariations, surrounding environment, function, and typology. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 27
  25. 25. 5. MODULAR BUILDING SYSTEMS: construction and assembling methods tofacilitate substitution, repair, maintenance, diversified lifetime, etc.6. RENEWABLE & NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS: integrating sourcesof energy that do not reduce or exhaust their point of origin;7. INNOVATIVE HVAC SYSTEMS: implementing strategies to provide thermo-hygrometric and air quality comfort, exploiting mechanically regulated, hybrid,or, preferably, totally passive techniques;8. WATER COLLECTION & STORAGE SYSTEMS: adopting methods, system andstrategies to collect, store, distribute, use, recycle and re-use water. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 28
  26. 26. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BIOMIMICRY VAISALI K B070225AR 29
  27. 27. EXAMPLE- COUNCIL HOUSE 2Architecture (CH2), Mick Pearce with DesignInc., 2005Maximum Six Green Starrating 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 30
  28. 28. “DIVERSIFY AND COOPERATE TO FULLY USE THE HABITAT” Same amount of foliage on the building as original Harvests site state of sunlight, cool night air, water, wind of natural Use and rain convection, thermal mass, ventilation stacks and water for cooling 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 31
  29. 29. “USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Sustainable timber selection Recycled structural concrete PVC minimisationRecycled structural steel 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 32
  30. 30. “USE WASTE AS RESOURCES” Use waste as amenities Recycled Untreated from old housing frames 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 33
  31. 31. “GATHER AND USE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY” Gas-firedmicro-turbine (co-generation) Electricity micro- turbinelifts  generate power in breaking Waste heat Used in A/Cmode plant Heating hotsolar hot water produced by 48 water;square metres of solar hot waterpanels on roof, supplemented by gas cooling viaboiler absorption chillersolar power (PV cells) : 3.5kWenergy  used to power Westerntimber shutters 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 34
  32. 32. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 35
  33. 33. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 36
  34. 34. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 37
  35. 35. “OPTIMIZE RATHER THEN MAXIMIZE” 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 38
  36. 36. “DON’T DRAW DOWN RESOURCES” Water • 72% reduction in mains water consumption compared to the existing Council House of similar size • Multi-Water Reuse (MWR) sewer mining plant • Sprinkler water reclaim and rainwater collection Waste • building waste during construction was recycled (87%) • recycling carried through within building after operations  waste separation 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CASESTUDY B070225AR 39
  37. 37. ANALYSIS15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K ANALYSIS B070225AR 40
  38. 38. Materials Level ofName of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved used Biomimicry The outward flares at base resemble Can withstand bending the upper curved portion of femur. and shearing effects Exposed The internal wrought iron braces1.Eiffel Tower Thigh bone iron closely follow design of original due to wind Ventilation problem Organism level trabeculae within femur. solved Controls the amount of sunlight entering the Steel, glass2.L’institute Du Cladded with screens with automated lens to building, keeping it cool and Iris of eye & Organism levelMonte Arabe control light flooding room with natural Aluminium light.3.Waterloo The glass panel fixing that makes up the Ability to move in response Steel & structure mimic the flexible scale to the imposed air pressureInternational Pangolin glass arrangement of Pangolin. forces when trains enter and Organism levelTerminal depart. The building is designed with a unique ventilation system, which draws outside air and cools or warms it Temperature remains depending on temperature. regulated all year around4. Eastgate Centre, Termite The central open space draws more air Concrete without using conventional Behaviour levelHarare mound with help of fans and is pushed up air-conditioning or heating through ducts located in the central systems. spine of the buildings,
  39. 39. Inspiratio Materials Level ofName of building Application in design Problem solved n used Biomimicry Protects spectators from elements Provides acoustic “Cushion system” adopted where façade is insulation,5.Beijing Steel, in-filled with translucent ETFE panels just Bird’s nest Reduces maintenance Behaviour LevelNational Stadium ETFE like a nest is insulated by small pieces of cost material. Reduces dead load, Filters sun rays The epidermis provides CH2 uses ventilation strategy similar primary sun and glare to termite mould using natural control while creating convention, ventilation stacks, a semi-closed micro- thermal mass, phase change material environment. and water for cooling The wavy design helps The façade is composed of dermis it efficient collection and epidermis, which provides and channelling out of microclimate Concrete, heated air.6. Council House Termite Ventilation stacks are implemented recycled The vaulted ceiling also Behaviour level2, Melbourne mound on the north and south facades of the timber allow more filtration of building natural light to the The ceilings are wavy shaped to deeper parts of the optimise surface area to increase space. thermal mass capacity Shower towers provide The west façade is covered with a reduction of 4-13 system of timber louvers to optimize degrees C from the top the penetration of natural light and of the tower to the views. bottom.
  40. 40. Name of Materials Level of Inspiration Application in design Problem solved building used Biomimicry Minimum possible energy used in the7. Sinosteel form of conventional Concrete, The windows are designed in five different energy.International Bee hive steel and sizes of hexagon, placed in an energy- The skin removes the Organism levelPlaza glass efficient configuration. need for internal structures The exterior designs as living skin which serves connection between Electricity not exterior and interior, like stomata on required during day leaf surface. Air and wind filtered Stomata of Designed as The surface automatically positions to provide clean air8. Habitat 2020 leaves living skin itself according to the sunlight and let and natural air Organism level it in conditioned Surface absorbs water and converts Recycling of water air waste to biogas energy and waste The building sits on 12 columns to Tensile allow other species to develop around Effective air conditioning at9. Rafflesia Rafflesia environment it, trying to change traditional independent zones Behaviour levelHouse flower ally friendly definitions of its characteristics. fabric Concave and convex internal walls to regulate flow of air inside.10. National The bubbles collect solar The surface is covered with membrane of lit Water Steel, energy to heat swimming OrganismAquatics Centre, bubbles ETFE blue bubbles or pneumatic cushions made of pools. levelBeijing EFTE creating bubble effect Temperature regulation
  41. 41. Material Level ofName of building Inspiration Application in design Problem solved s used Biomimicry Its aerodynamic, Glazed shape Using a series of triangulations minimizes wind loads and on the exterior similar to those maximizes natural light and of a glass sponge ventilation, reducing the buildings11. Swiss Re The building ventilates air in a energy consumption Steel & similar fashion just like glassHeadquarters, Glass sponge glass sponge filters nutrients from the Triangulations on the exterior Organism levelLondon similar to those of a glass sponge water by sucking water from its makes the structure stiff enough to base and expelling it through the resist lateral structural loads holes at its top without extra reinforcements. It uses minimal construction The southern façade would be materials, while making maximum made of photovoltaic panels that use of the enclosed space.12.Treescraper convert sunlight into electricity. All of the water in the building is Growing of Steel & A combined heat-and-power recycled.Tower of tree glass plant installed, to be fuelled by All products, from building Behaviour levelTomorrow natural gas, to supply the power materials to furnishings, could be that the solar panels cannot. recycled or returned safely to the earth Sun shades on the windows can be opened or closed to suit the prevailing13. Ministry of temperature , mimicking the activity of Temperature regulated. Steel &Municipal and Cactus plant glass the cactus which performs Absorption and loss of heat Behaviour levelAgriculture transpiration at night rather than controlled. during the day in order to retain water.
  42. 42. •Buildinginspired by plants /flower: Self-sustainable Energy efficient Recycling Aesthetically appealing Low maintenance•Building inspired by organisms: Resistant to imposed forces Structural stability Controlled entry of sunlight Regulation of internal temperature Aesthetics Acoustics•Buildings inspired by natural forms:  Effective channelling of wind  Increase thermal mass capacity  Dynamic form  Acoustics.  Energy efficiency 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K INFERENCE B070225AR 45
  43. 43. APPLICATION15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K APPLICATION B070225AR 46
  44. 44. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING DESIGN • Large & clear unobstructed areas • Triangulated exoskeleton or frame inspired from glass sponge, thigh bone ,beehive • Proper lighting ( Natural and Artificial) • Louvers, living skin which etc. or • can regulate entry of span load distribution& long daylight inspired from or inspired by water lily stomata fly leave or dragon of wings • Ventilation • • Cushion effect of Birds nest, • Irissystem which utilises A of eye ventilation mechanism of resources available locally termite moulds, embedded with minimum • Acoustical treatment • Curved walls recycles for energy and ceilings to channelling like growth of maximum air. • Cushion effect of Birds nest, tree or two layer skin( dermis and • emulate natural forms like • Energy-efficiency epidermis) to act as passive termite mound for sound buffer or to reduce cost and systems insulation15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE energy consumption. K VAISALI APPLICATOIN B070225AR 47
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONTo echo, listen, steward and immerse in nature Biomimicry presents itself as a basis, a foundation of a new research methodology instead of mere serendipity. Biomimicry has to be approached in a multi-disciplinary order of thought in order to understand the principles of nature to achieve a holistic design solution. 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCLUSION B070225AR 48
  46. 46. CONCLUSION For nature has been field-tested for millions of years through evolution 15-11-2011 BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE VAISALI K CONCLUSION B070225AR 49
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