world inland capture fisheriesPresentation Transcript
VARIOUS WORLD INLAND FISHERIES RESOURCES
MAJOR FISHING AREASAND FISH SPECIES PRESENT
FRESH WATER ZOO GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
STATUS AND TRENDS OF WORLD INLAND FISHERIES
PROBLEMS AND MANAGEMENT
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM - MARINE AND INLAND.
INLAND-MAIN SOURCES - STANDING WATER AND RUNNING WATER.
DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES.
INLAND PRODUCTION - CAPTURE AND CULTURE.
What is Inland fisheries???
Inland fisheries exist in natural areas such as streams, rivers, swamps, lakes and inland seas, in temporary water bodies such as floodplains and seasonal ponds, and also in artificial and modified habitats such as irrigation systems, rice paddies, reservoirs and enclosed natural water bodies (e.g. ox-bow lakes).
Fishing techniques also range from small hand-held nets in rice paddies to industrial-scale trawlers on inland seas .
Major Inland Fishing Areas
Lakes, reservoirs and wetlands important for inland fisheries cover a total area of about 7.8 million sq km.
Relatively high proportions of land are covered with surface waters in;
east and central West Africa
northern part of Asia
Europe and South America
DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS SURFACE WATERS FAO
LAKES,SWAMPS AND WETLANDS OF THE WORLD
Lakes area contributes to about 1.7 million km.
Swamps and wetlands contributes to about 4 million km.
Lakes >> north america stands first in area.
major lakes include --- Caspian sea, lake Superior, lake Victoria etc.
RIVERS OF THE WORLD
Largest number in South America and least number in Oceania.
important rivers of the world
RESERVOIRS OF THE WORLD
Man made structures.
More than 60000 numbers of large reservoirs.
Area more than 6500 km 2.
Area wise- Asia stands first followed by north America.
Asia - 65% by number and 31% by volume.
MAJOR RESERVOIRS OF THE WORLD
LAKE VOLTA (8482 KM^2) GHANA.
SMALL WOOD RESERVOIR (6527 KM^2)CANADA.
KUYBYSHEV RESERVOIR (645O KM^2)RUSSIA.
FLOOD PLAINS OF WORLD
Contributes abouts 4 million km.
Major share is by USSR.
FAO MAJOR FISHING AREAS
Both for marine and inland.
Inland - 8 major regions.
MAJOR SPECIES FOUND IN MAJOR INLAND FISHING AREA
Africa - nile perch, tilapia, grass carp, African cat fish, mullet
North America - tilapia, common carp, white fish, cat fish, river prawn, cray fish.
South America - members of characins and cat fishes, rainbow trout, tilapia, river prawn.
Asia - common carp, silver carp, barbs, tilapia, snakeheads, mullets, river prawns.
Europe - fresh water breams, pikes, salmons, spats, Cray fishes.
Oceania - tilapia, river eels, cat fishes, giant perches.
FRESH WATER ZOO-GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
TO UNDERSTAND THE DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH WATER FISHES.
6 REGIONS-PROPOSED BY ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE.
NORTH AMERICA EXCLUDING MEXICO.
14 FAMILIES-950 SPECIES.
MAIN FAMILIES-CYPRINIDAE,CATOSTOMIDAE,ICHALURIDAE, PERCIDAE,CENTRACHIDAE.
ABOUT 75 SPECIES ARE ENDEMIC TO THIS REGION.
MIDDLE AND SOUTH AMERICA INCLUDING MEXICO.
32 FAMILY WITH 4475 VALID SPECIES-APPROX 3000 ENDEMIC
IMPORTANCE-FRESHWATER STINGRAYS,HERRING,NEEDLE FISH,SOLES ETC.
Europe and Asia (North of Himalayan mountains).
Main species -minnows, loaches, cat fishes, perches etc.
546 native species.
Whole of African continent.
27 families-2000 species.
Main species include minnows, characins and cat fishes.
Indian sub-continent, south-East Asia, Philippines and most of Indonesia.
28 family of fishes.
main families includes siluriformis and cypriniformis.
Contains Australia, New guinea, Newzealand.
18 families of fishes.
STATUS OF INLAND FISHERIES
WORLD TOTAL FISH PRODUCTION
Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods of people in many parts of the world, in both developing and developed countries.
provide economic opportunities
“ safety net” that allows for continued food production when other sectors may fail.
In developed countries, and in an increasing number of developing countries, inland fisheries are used for recreation rather than for food production, another avenue to economic development and growth.
An overall increase of 1.6 million tonnes in the period 2004–08
In 2008 the sector contributed 10.2 million tonnes to global capture fisheries production – a record contribution.
Provide significant employment and income-generating opportunities through recreational and fishing and environmentally related activities.
WORLD INLAND PRODUCTION
WORLD PRODUCTION - 145.1 MILLION TONNES (2009)
INLAND PRODUCTION - 45.1 MILLION TONNES (31.08%)
INLAND CAPTURE - 10.1 MILLION TONNES(22%)
INLAND CULTURE - 35 MILLION TONNES(78%)
CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS INLAND FISHING AREAS
1 st Asia - 2/3 rd production.
2 nd Africa- 2.4 million Tonnes production.
followed by America, Europe and Oceania.
1 st in both capture and culture – china (95% of capture)
capture 2 nd Bangladesh.
culture 2 nd India.
major group of fish-miscellaneous group.
Inland capture fisheries: major producer countries
TRENDS IN GLOBAL INLAND FISH PRODUCTION
In 1950, inland fisheries produced about 2 million tonnes in terms of fish landings.
about 5 million tonnes in 1980
With steady growth of 2–3 percent per year, 10 million tonnes in 2008.
Asia and Africa regularly account for about 90 percent of reported landings.
10 percent is split between North and South America and Europe.
FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE
Distribution of inland fisheries catch in developing and developed countries
Cyprinids returned as the dominant group after being exceeded for some years by the tilapias group.(in 2002 also by freshwater crustaceans)
Catches of freshwater molluscs have decreased significantly since 2002, and this may be due totheir extreme vulnerability to habitat degradation, overexploitation, and predation by alien species.
poor quality of inland water catch statistics reported to FAO.
WORLD AQUACULTURE PRODUUCTION
The inland fisheries sector is extremely diverse.
Hand-held gear to small trawls or purse seine operated by commercial fishing vessels.
Fisheries means not only the harvesting of fish the actual fishing operations
Also includes processing and other post-harvest and supporting activities.
TYPES OF INLAND FISHERIES
Inland fisheries include
commercial and industrial fisheries
small-scale fisheries and
each with a different economic and social structure.
commercial and industrial fisheries
Income is a primary motivation for many fishers.
require specialized catch preservation and distribution,
usually involving high-capital-input gear
significant inputs of professional labour .
Commercial and industrial inland fisheries are mainly known from lake
Commercial fisheries are usually found where resource availability and access to markets justify significant investment (financial, human resources and/or in the construction of gear) and where access can be controlled.
Fisheries in developed countries, from the Great Lakes in Africa and from sturgeon fisheries in the Caspian Sea.
river fisheries occur in Southeast Asia, such as the “fishing lots” and the dai or bagnet fisheries of Cambodia, the “fishing inns” of Myanmar.
Latin America, industrial fisheries for migratory catfish are carried out in the Amazon and for sábalo ( Prochilodus spp.) in the Plate River.
Small-scale inland fisheries
constitute a dynamic and evolving sector employing labour-intensive harvesting, processing and distribution technologies to exploit the fisheries resources.
pure subsistence fisheries are rare ???
excess production would be sold or exchanged for other products or services even in the smallest fishery
not a commercial activity – the catch is usually not sold.
for pleasure or competition
second objective to catch fish for own consumption.
Inland fisheries in developing countries………….
The bulk (about 90 percent) of inland fish is caught in developing countries and 65 percent is caught in low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs).
Landlocked areas inland fisheries are more important than marine fisheries for food security and income generation.
about 1 million people are employed in larger-scale commercial inland fisheries and 60 million in small-scale inland fisheries.
the majority of them (41 million) live in Asia.
This is more than the 55 million people who are engaged in the marine fisheries sector in developing countries.
PROBLEMS OF INLAND FISHERIES RESOURSES
INTRODUCTION OF ALIAN SPECIES.
DAMS AND MIGRATION OF FISHES.
OVER –EXPLOITATION OF TARGETED FISHERIES.
EUTROPHICATION DUE TO NATURAL AND MAN MADE CAUSES.
In remote rural areas, fishery management, monitoring and reporting are difficult and often non-existent.
Inland water fishing is often a subsistence or recreational activity
Fishing sites geographically scattered
Making gathering information very difficult.
Habitat loss and degradation, water abstraction, drainage of wetlands.
Excessive agricultural effluents, e.g. agrochemicals and harmful waste, can cause pollution and eutrophication of inland waters
Agriculture is responsible for draining wetlands, abstracting a tremendous amount of water through irrigation.
Water scarcity in most regions of the world are threatening inland fish production.
Land clearing and deforestation cause increased erosion and siltation in the watershed.
Effects of climate change.
TRANS -BOUNDARY TALKS.
RIVER PROTECTION PROGRAMMES.
FISH-WAYS ON RESERVOIR.
RESTRICTION ON THE GEAR AND DISTRUCTIVE FISHING METHODS.
GENE CONSERVATIONS (IN SITU & EX SITU CONSERVATION)
Policies and regulatory environment
Closely integrated with those of other stakeholders and sectors.
More access to fishing grounds and fishing practices than for regulation of other threats to fish resources and their ecosystems.
addition to the CCRF, they include
the Convention of Biological Diversity,
the Convention on MigratorySpecies
the World Heritage Convention.
Comanagement has been introduced in inland fisheries in recent years.
Production-oriented policies to increase fish production through aquaculture development and culture-based fisheries.
In spite of the trend of gradually increasing the abundance of inland water species populations declined by 28 percent between 1970 and 2003.
Inland fisheries are an important source of cash and high-quality protein, particularly in poorer countries.
Ways to reduce the fishing pressure should be developed with all stakeholders involved.
The sector is highly dynamic with possibilities for people to enter or leave it or increase or decrease their participation in response to developments and available opportunities inside and outside fisheries.
There will be increased competition from aquaculture as that sector continues to grow. However, aquaculture is not commonly an activity or source of food for the poorest of the poor – for these people, inland fisheries will continue to be important.
Better data on the size and importance of the fisheries are required for planning.
STATE OF WORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE 2010;FAO PUBLICATION
SOFIA 2006;FAO PUBLICATION.
INLAND FISHERIES –COURSE MANNUAL,PUBLISHED BY FISHERIES COLLEGE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,TOOTHUKUDI.