Data insertion :- Alternatively, again checking the RF field and also the secure channel can be used to protect against attacks.
This provides a degree of security and makes NFC suitable for crowded areas .In contrast to Bluetooth and infrared NFC is compatible to RFIDOnce the device is linked up using NFC, they can continue communication using long range and faster protocols such as Bluetooth or wireless Internet (WiFi).
The process of activating Bluetooth on both sides, searching, waiting, pairing and authorization will be replaced by a simple "touch" of the mobile phones.
the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless cardReader Mode : the NFC device is active and read a passive RFID tag.P2P Mode
. NFC is based on existing contactless infrastructure around the world that is already in use by millions of people on a daily basis. NFC is not a fashionable nice-to-have technology
Near field communication
-the one touch instant communication..!By- Vaibhav Gopal Chandak111008021TY IT
The image shows a Samsung Galaxy S3 transferring a video to another nfc-enabled device via nfc..!NFC used in latest smart phones
Near Field Communication (NFC) is a technology forcontactless short-range communication With just a point or a touch, NFC enables effortless useof the devices and gadgets we use daily. An NFC-enabled phone functions much like standardcontactless smart cards that are used worldwide incredit cards and in tickets for public transit systems.
Based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), ituses magnetic field induction to enablecommunication between electronic devices The technology operates on unlicensed radiofrequency band.
NFC communicates through two loop antennas are locatedwithin each others near field, effectively forming an air-coretransformer. It operates within the globally available and ISMband of 13.56 MHz, with a bandwidth of almost 2 MHz. Working distance with compact standard antennas: up to 20cm . Supported data rates: 106, 212, or 424 kbit/s Communicates via 2 modes :- Active and Passive.
The distinction between active and passive devicesspecifies the way data is transmitted. Passivedevices encode data always with Manchestercoding and a 10% ASK. Instead, for active devices one distinguishesbetween the modified Miller coding with 100%modulation if the data rate is 106 kbps, and theManchester coding using a modulation ratio of 10%if the data rate is greater than 106 kbps. The modulation ratio using modified Miller codingis of high importance for the security of the NFCdata transfer.
A low-to-high transition expressesa 0 bit, whereas a high-to-lowtransition stands for a 1 bit.Consequently, in the middle ofeach it period there is always atransition. Transitions at the startof a period are not considered.This line code is characterized bypauses occurring in the carrier atdifferent positions of a periodWhile a 1 is always encoded in thesame way, coding a 0 is determinedon the basis of the preceded bit . Manchester Code Modified Miller code
NFC is a proximity coupling technology closely linked to the standard ofproximity smart cards. NFC Devices are capable of three different operating modes :- 4.1.1 PEER-TO-PEER MODE (NFC) : This mode is the classic NFCmode, allowing data connection for up to 424 kBit/sec. 4.1.2 READER/WRITER MODE (PCD):NFC devices can be used as a reader/writer for tags and smart cards. In thiscase the NFC device acts as an initiator and the passive tag is the target. Inreader/writer mode data rates of 106 kBit/sec are possible. 4.1.3 TAG EMULATION MODE (PICC):In this mode the NFC device emulates a smart card chip integrated in the mobile devices isconnected to the antenna of the NFC module. A legacy reader can’t distinguish amobile phone operating in tag emulation mode from an ordinary smart card. This is anadvantage of NFC technology as already existing reader infrastructures do not need tobe replaced.
DATA INSERTION This attack can only be implemented if there is enough time to send aninserted message before the real device starts to send his answers. If acollision occurs the data exchange would be stopped at once. In orderto prevent such attacks the device should try to answer with no delay. DATA DESTRUCTIONOne possibility to disturb the signal is the usage of a so called RFIDJammer. There is no way to prevent such an attack, but it is possible todetect it. NFC devices are able to receive and transmit data at thesame time. That means, they can check the radio frequency field andwill notice the collision.
EAVESDROPPING NFC offers no protection against eavesdropping. RF waves for thewireless data transfer with an antenna enables attackers to pick up thetransmitted Monitoring data. The question how close an attacker has to be located to retrieve anusable RF signal is difficult to answer. This is depending on a numberof parameters, such as: RF filed characteristic of the given sender device (i.e., antennageometry, shielding effect of the case, the PCB, the environment) Characteristic of the attacker’s antenna (i.e., antenna geometry,possibility to change the position in all 3 dimensions). Quality of the attacker’s receiver. Quality of the attacker’s RF signal decoder.
Compared to other short-range communicationtechnologies, which have been integrated into mobilephones, NFC simplifies the way consumer devices interactwith one another and obtains faster connections. Theproblem with infrared, is the fact that a direct line of sightis required, which reacts sensitively to external influencessuch as light and reflecting objects. The significant advantage over bluetooth is the shorter set-uptime. Instead of performing manual configurations toidentify the other’s phone, the connection between twoNFC devices is established at once (<0,1s).
Plenty of applications are possible, such as: Mobile ticketing in public transport — an extension of theexisting contactless infrastructure. Mobile payment — the device acts as a debit/ credit paymentcard. Smart poster — the mobile phone is used to read RFID tags onoutdoor billboards in order to get info on the move. Bluetooth pairing — in the future pairing of Bluetooth 2.1devices with NFC support will be as easy as bringing them closetogether and accepting the pairing.
Near Field Communication is an efficient technology forcommunications with short ranges. It offers an intuitive andsimple way to transfer data between electronic devices. Asignificant advantages of this technique is the compatibilitywith existing RFID infrastructures. Additionally, it wouldbring benefits to the setup of longer-range wirelesstechnologies, such as Bluetooth , Wifi Actually a technology that makes peoples liveseasier – easier to pay for goods and services, easier to usepublic transport, and easier to share data between devices.