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Amity University

  3. 3. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms quot;human resource managementquot; and quot;human resourcesquot; (HR) have largely replaced the term quot;personnel managementquot; as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. FEATURES Its features include: Organizational management I Personnel administration O Personnel management P Manpower management P Industrial management M But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even industrial relations and employee relations are confusingly listed as synonyms,although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies. The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process.
  4. 4. HRM is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organisations. Synonyms such as personnel management are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. So if we move to actual definitions, Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: “a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilledquot; (p. 49). While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to: quot;.......those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage”.
  5. 5. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Strategic human resource management is a complex process which is constantly evolving and being studied and discussed by academics and commentators. Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) is an area that continues to evoke a lot of debate as to what it actually embraces. Definitions range from 'a human resource system that is tailored to the demands of the business strategy' (Miles and Snow 1984) to 'the pattern of planned human resource activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals' (Wright and McMahan 1992). Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is a concept that integrates traditional human resource management activities within a firm's overall strategic planning and implementation. SHRM integrates human resource considerations with other physical, financial, and technological resources in the setting of goals and solving complex organizational problems (Legnick-Hall & Legnick- Hall, 1988) SHRM also emphasizes the implementation of a set of policies and practices that will build employee pool of skills, knowledge, and abilities (Jackon and Schulerm 1995) that are relevant to organizational goals. Thus a larger variety and more complete set of solutions for solving organizational problems are provided and the likelihood that business goals of the organization will be attained is increased (Mechelin, 1996). Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) is an area that continues to evoke a lot of debate as to what it actually embraces. Definitions range from 'a human resource system that is tailored to the demands of the business strategy' (Miles and Snow 1984) to 'the pattern of planned human resource activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals' (Wright and McMahan 1992).
  6. 6. Although the difference between these two seems subtle, the implications of the difference are considerable. Where in the first definition human resource management is a 'reactive' management field in which human resource management becomes a tool to implement strategy, in the latter definition it has a proactive function in which human resource activities actually create and shape the business strategy (Sanz-Valle et al. 1999). Strategic HRM can be regarded as a general approach to the strategic management of human resources in accordance with the intentions of the organization on the future direction it wants to take. It is concerned with longer-term people issues and macro-concerns about structure, quality, culture, values, commitment and matching resources to future need. It has been defined as: APPROACHES OF SHRM attempts to link Human Resource activities with A competency based performance measures attempts to link Human Resource activities with business c surpluses or profit These to approaches indicate two factors in an organizational setting. The first one is the human factor, their performance and competency and the later is the business surplus. An approach of people concern is based on the belief that human resources are uniquely important in sustained business success. An organization gains competitive advantage by using its people effectively, drawing on their expertise and ingenuity to meet clearly defined objectives. Integration of the business surplus to the human competency and performance required adequate strategies. Here the role of strategy comes into picture. The way in which people are managed, motivated and deployed, and the availability of skills and knowledge will all shape the business strategy. The strategic orientation of the business then requires the effective orientation of human resource to competency and performance excellence.
  7. 7. BENEFITS OF SHRM 1. Identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company's success. 2. Provides a clear business strategy and vision for the future. 3. To supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in the strategic planning process. 4. To recruit, retain and motivate people. 5. To develop and retain of highly competent people. 6. To ensure that people development issues are addressed systematically. 7. To supply information regarding the company's internal strengths and weaknesses. 8. To meet the expectations of the customers effectively. 9. To ensure high productivity. 10. To ensure business surplus thorough competency. BARRIERS OF SHRM Barriers to successful SHRM implementation are complex. The main reason is a lack of growth strategy or failure to implement one. Other major barriers are summarized as follows: 1. Inducing the vision and mission of the change effort. 2. High resistance due to lack of cooperation from the bottom line. 3. Interdepartmental conflict. 4. The commitment of the entire senior management team. 5. Plans that integrate internal resource with external requirements. 6. Limited time, money and the resources. 7. The status quo approach of employees. 8. Fear of incompetency of senior level managers to take up strategic steps. 9. Diverse work-force with competitive skill sets.
  8. 8. 10. Fear towards victimization in the wake of failures. 11. Improper strategic assignments and leadership conflict over authority. 12. Ramifications for power relations. 13. Vulnerability to legislative changes. 14. Resistance that comes through the legitimate labour institutions. 15. Presence of an active labour union. 16. Rapid structural changes. 17. Economic and market pressures influenced the adoption of strategic HRM. 18. More diverse, outward looking approach.
  9. 9. HR PRACTITIONERS ROLE The HR managers have keen role in the effective planning and implementation of the policies and decisions that in tune with the business changes. They should act as strategic partners and be proactive in their role than mere reactive, passive spectators. The HT managers should understand how far their decisions contribute to business surplus incorporating human competency and performance to the organisation. Strategic HR managers need a change in their outlook from seeing themselves as relationship managers to strategic resource managers. Kossek (1987, 1989) argues that major HRM innovations occur when senior management takes the lead and adoption of innovative SHRM practices is dependent on the nature of relationship of the HR Department with the CEO and the line managers. Legge (1978) commenting on the actions of the personnel practitioner in the innovation process suggests that adoption of an innovation by an organization depends largely on HR practitioners' credibility with information and resource providers. HR Department and HR managers in these innovative organizations play a strategic role (Ulrich, 1997) linking the HR strategy with the business strategy of the organization. A crucial aspect concerning SHRM is the concepts of fit and flexibility. The degree of fit determines the human resource system's integration with organization strategy. It is the role of HR Managers to ensure this fit in between Human Resource System with the Organization Strategy.
  10. 10. HERITAGE OF THE COMPANY Established in 1895 at Lahore, undivided India, Punjab National Bank (PNB) has the distinction of being the first Indian bank to have been started solely with Indian capital.The bank was nationalised in July 1969 along with 13 other banks. From its modest beginning, the bank has grown in size and stature to become a front-line banking institution in India at present. ---A professionally managed bank with a successful track record of over 110 years. ----Largest branch network in India - 4525 Offices including 432 Extension Counters spread throughout the country ---Strategic business area covers the large Indo-Gangetic belt and the metropolitan centres ---Strong correspondent banking relationships with more than 217 international banks of the world. ---More than 50 renowned international banks maintain their Rupee Accounts with PNB. ---Well equipped dealing rooms; 20 different foreign currency accounts are maintained at major centres all over the globe. ---Rupee drawing arrangements with M/s UAE Exchange Centre, UAE, M/s Al Fardan Exchange Co. Doha, Qatar,M/s Bahrain Exchange Co, Kuwait, M/s Bahrain Finance Co, Bahrain,M/s Thomas Cook Al Rostamani Exchange Co. Dubai,UAE, and M/s
  11. 11. Musandam Exchange, Ruwi, Sultanate of Oman. PROFILE OF THE COMPANY With its presence virtually in all the important centres of the country, Punjab National Bank offers a wide variety of banking services which include corporate and personal banking, industrial finance, agricultural finance, financing of trade and international banking. Among the clients of the Bank are Indian conglomerates, medium and small industrial units, exporters, non-resident Indians and multinational companies. The large presence and vast resource base have helped the Bank to build strong links with trade and industry. Punjab National Bank is serving over 3.5 crore customers through 4540 Offices including 421 extension counters - largest amongst Nationalized Banks. Punjab National Bank with 112 year tradition of sound and prudent banking is one among 300 global companies and seven Indian companies which are expected to emerge as challengers to World’s leading blue chip companies. While among top 1000 world banks, “The Banker”, the leading magazine in London, has placed PNB at the 248th position, the bank features at 1308th position among Forbe’s Global 2000 list of global giants and fast growing companies. At the same time, the bank has been conscious of its social responsibilities by financing agriculture and allied activities and small scale industries (SSI). Considering the importance of small scale industries bank has established 31 specialised branches to finance exclusively such industries.
  12. 12. Strong correspondent banking relationship which Punjab National Bank maintains with over 200 leading international banks all over the world enhances its capabilities to handle transactions world-wide. Besides, bank has Rupee Drawing Arrangements with 15 exchange companies in the Gulf and one in Singapore. Bank is a member of the SWIFT and over 150 branches of the bank are connected through its computer-based terminal at Mumbai. With its state-of-art dealing rooms and well-trained dealers, the bank offers efficient forex dealing operations in India. The bank has been focussing on expanding its operations outside India and has identified some of the emerging economies which offer large business potential. Bank has set up representative offices at Almaty: Kazakhistan, Shanghai: China and in London. Besides, Bank has opened a full fledged Branch in Kabul, Afghanistan. Keeping in tune with changing times and to provide its customers more efficient and speedy service, the Bank has taken major initiative in the field of computerization. All the Branches of the Bank have been computerized. The Bank has also launched aggressively the concept of quot;Any Time, Any Where Bankingquot; through the introduction of Centralized Banking Solution (CBS) and over 2409 offices have already been brought under its ambit. PNB also offers Internet Banking services in the country for Corporates as well as individuals. Internet Banking services are available through all Branches of the Bank networked under CBS. Providing 24 hours, 365 days banking right from the PC of the user, Internet Banking offers world class banking facilities like anytime, anywhere access to account, complete details of transactions, and statement of account, online information of deposits, loans overdraft account etc.
  13. 13. PNB has recently introduced Online Payment Facility for railway reservation through IRCTC Payment Gateway Project and Online Utility Bill Payment Services which allows Internet Banking account holders to pay their telephone, mobile, electricity, insurance and other bills anytime from anywhere from their desktop. Another step taken by PNB in meeting the changing aspirations of its clientele is the launch of its Debit card, which is also an ATM card. It enables the card holder to buy goods and services at over 99270 merchant establishments across the country. Besides, the card can be used to withdraw cash at more than 25000 ATMs, where the 'Maestro' logo is displayed, apart from the PNB's over 1094 ATMs and tie up arrangements with other Banks
  14. 14. Organisational Structure Head Office Circle Offices (58) Branches (4267)
  15. 15. VISION To evolve and position the bank as a world class progressive,cost effective and customer friendly institution providing comprehensive financial and related services ,integrating frontiers of technology and serving various segments of society especially the weaker sections ,committed to excellence in serving the public and also excelling in corporate values. MISSION To provide excellent professional services and improve its position as a leader in the field of financial and related services , build and maintain a team of motivated and committed workforce with high work ethos , use latest technology aimed at customer satisfaction and act as an effective catalyst for socio economic development.
  16. 16. IMPACT OF RECESSION ON PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK According to the HR of PNB the impact of recession on the bank has been minimal .There has not been any salary cuts , since it is a government run bank.