Urbanization in Pakistan


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National Status of Peri-Urbanization in Pakistan

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Urbanization in Pakistan

  1. 1. National Status of Peri-Urbanization in Pakistan Dr. Vaqar AhmedSustainable Development Policy Institute 1
  2. 2. State of Urbanization1981: 28 % (24 million) 1998: 32.5% (43.5 million) 2010: 36.3% (63.1 million) 2030: 45.6% (121 million) How clear is the distinction between rural and urban?2
  3. 3. Distinction between Urban and Rural• Definition Issues – In the first three censuses (1951, 1961, 1972), settlements of 5,000 and above population which had urban characteristics could be considered as urban – At the time of 1981, 1998 censuses, definition of urban was changed to mean only those human settlements which had municipal governments – As a result of this change, 1,483 settlements of over 5,000 were not considered urban in the 1981 Census 3
  4. 4. Distinction between Urban and Rural• Boundaries – Administrative boundaries of most urban areas do not include their peri-urban settlements• Ribbons – ribbons of development along highways, between major centers and industrial satellite areas have developed – These developments have urban characteristics but are not classified as urban 4
  5. 5. Current Characteristics• Urban areas contribute 78% of GDP• The pattern of urbanization across provinces exhibits large variation• More than half of the total population of the country is clustered in and around eight cities• Expanding middle class comprising young generation• Most smaller towns are located in the neighborhood of the 1 million plus towns and along the national highway• Over 63.7% of internal migrants move to urban areas 5
  6. 6. Repercussions• Welfare issues (Ahmed et al. 2011) – Housing deficit – Service delivery issues (education & health) – Infrastructure (transport & energy) – Growth combined with under or unemployment• Environmental issues (Planning Commission 2011) – Water contamination – Waste management & sanitation – Various forms of pollution 6
  7. 7. Repercussions• Administrative issues (Haider & Badami 2010) – Checkered history of local government initiatives – Poor state of municipal service delivery – Multiple government agencies in municipal affairs • Implication for attached towns• Financing urban development (Planning Commission 2011) – Reliance on provincial governments – No attempts to mobilize own resources – No attempts to mobilize private investment – Legal framework needs up gradation 7
  8. 8. Urban Settlement and Domestic CommerceTaskforce on Urban Management (2010) – Downtown and city center development discouraged – Zoning remains unfriendly: • density • high rise • mixed use development • commercial uses – Commercial development is punitively taxed – Rental market destroyed – Urban development and domestic commerce – delinked 8
  9. 9. Overlap in Urban Management Responsibilities – Ministry of Environment (devolved) – Ministry of Housing & Works – Ministry of Local Governments and Rural Development (devolved) – Planning Commission – Ministry of Communications Large chunks out of the jurisdiction of above authorities 9
  10. 10. Land Records• Very difficult to obtain and verify land records• Records maintained by public agencies not enough proof of ownership• Pakistani law also recognizes oral gifts as valid transfers of property• It also recognizes concept of “benami” ownership 10
  11. 11. Public Sector and Urban Policy• Taskforce on Urban Management• Framework for Economic Growth• Provincial Medium-term Development Plans 11
  12. 12. Competitiveness and growth• Promote cluster development [Sialkot, Gujranwala, Hyderabad]• Build local government capacity [public-private interaction]• Skill development opportunities in urban centers• Manage energy demand• Improve legal framework for domestic commerce 12
  13. 13. Cities & Clusters• Agglomeration• Economies of Scale• Spatial Comparative Advantages PESHAWAR ISLAMABAD RAWALPINDI SIALKOT SARGODHA GUJRANWALA LAHORE FAISALABAD QUETTA MULTAN Clusters BAHAWALPUR Population size SUKKUR 10M + 5M + 2M + 1M + 0.5M + HYDERABAD KARACHI 2011
  14. 14. Land Use• Review unregulated conversion of peri-urban agricultural/waste land in to housing for identifying the environmental and social damage• Expand land supply in urban areas through high density and mixed use• Smooth process for the conversion of agricultural/ government/ community lands to urban use• Reserve state land with metropolitan areas for low-income housing and deliver this land through market mechanisms• Privatize state-owned land• Politics of construction permits and capacity issue 14
  15. 15. Byelaws & Zoning Regulations• Laws and regulations anti-street, anti-pedestrian, anti-mixed land use, anti-high densities and anti- public space• Create a governing body to: – Monitor standards among property developers – Regulate property dealers – Enforce professionally set standards• Amend the zoning and building regulations and match the market preferences at different locations 15
  16. 16. Byelaws & Zoning Regulations• Make it mandatory for developers to provide facilities to the city in return for the use of land (e.g. auditoriums, cultural centers and related public spaces)• Review byelaws, such as those levying commercialization charges, as these have become severe constraint on development of rental premises for residential and commercial purposes• Introduce certification for the property dealers in the formal sector that ensures a minimum knowledge of property law, property transference and the dynamics of property markets• Emphasize the importance of certification through the media 16 so that these practices infiltrate into the informal sector as
  17. 17. Physical Infrastructure – Brief Facts• 40 per cent water is wasted through leakages/theft in the water distribution networks• Weak water treatment facilities• Sewage is collected through open drains in most of the cities and discharge into rivers, streams, lakes and canals without treatment• Only 5 per cent households have proper access to municipal garbage collection systems• Use of public transport discouraged 17
  18. 18. Physical Infrastructure – Proposals• Discontinue building open drains for sewage disposal in small towns.• Divert sewerage for horticulture• Install bulk water metering for specific purposes and areas so that water theft and usage can be easily monitored• Explore private sector involvement in solid waste management• Support all road construction and street paving through an effective, open and paved drainage system so that road surfaces are not damaged 18
  19. 19. Social Infrastructure• Develop and implement guidelines for an aesthetically pleasing, energy efficient, socially responsive architecture, signage and street furniture. Seek support of academia and professional organizations in this regard• Integrate heritage conservation into the overall cities/towns planning and development process• Allocate space for educational/academic pursuits and recreational activities based on a study of demand• Develop and strictly enforce laws to protect land earmarked for these activities. 19
  20. 20. Housing & Real Estate• Undertake land appraisal at the district level to act as the baseline inventory of land situation• Establish Housing Price Index (HPI) and Housing Access Index (HAI)• Develop a Housing Resource Centre in each district• Re-vitalize HBFC by encouraging it to venture into new avenues such as community mortgage programs• Identify laws, byelaws, zoning regulations and procedures that constrain the delivering of housing to low and lower- middle-income groups• Take steps to remove impediments in the free and secure transfer of title 20
  21. 21. Transport• Consider rapid transport options for lower cost and the flexibility in selection and change of routes• Replace rolling stock for bus and rail systems every six to seven years as opposed to thirty years• Consider floating of municipal bonds to raise funds for the financing of transportation systems.• Give priority/precedence to transport projects/investments over road projects• Subsidize public transport fares for the urban poor 21
  22. 22. Recent Pressures on Peri-Urban Areas• Municipal jurisdiction• Revenue and expenditure management• Sectoral change: Crop sector degradation Vs. Livestock retreat 22
  23. 23. Thank Youvaqar@sdpi.org www.sdpi.org 23