Start with get to know audience Nisha Botchwey, MCP, PhD, Associate Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning and Public Health Sciences, University of VirginiaLillian Peake, MD, MPH, Director, Thomas Jefferson Health District, Charlottesville/Albemarle District Moderator: Ruth Garre Bernheim, J.D., M.P.H Director, Division of Public Health Policy and Practice School of Medicine Department of Public Health Sciences Associate Director, Institute for Practical Ethics University of Virginia; Associate Professor of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine; Associate Director, Institute for Practical Ethics and Public Life
This session will provide an overview of Health Impact Assessments (HIAs), Why, history and in the US, steps for conducting them present examples from across the nation, and outline steps for completion using Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) 2008 data from Charlottesville, VA. The session will also engage participants in devising alternative scenarios to development proposals using the HIA tool. At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to: (1) Describe Health Impact Assessments (2) List three examples of HIAs performed domestically (3) Discuss alternative scenarios resulting from HIA application to development proposals
Having talked a bit about “sprawl,” let’s move to the second concept in the title—health. There is no better definition of health than the World Health Organization’s, set forth over half a century ago.
To summarize, we can identify at least nine ways in which sprawl might affect health.
HIAs are widely used in Europe and have a recent history of use in the United States. They are a tool like zoning. They help planners and other decision-makers better recognize the health consequences of the decisions they make.
Add more here on EIAs
Revise this slide to introduce the framework the class developed
Must consider these things if want to improve air quality when new construction occurs. Materials can emit VOCs which are linked to cancer and liver and kidney damage in addition to inreaseing affects of asthma. Ventilation is key as well, and above all walkability must be facilitated. This means that less cars = less air polution so walking must be encouraged.
Health Impact Assessments to Promote Healthy Neighborhoods History and Overview Nisha Botchwey, Ph.D. University of Virginia Associate Professor of Urban + Environmental Planning and Public Health Sciences MAPP Lilian Peake, MD, MPH Director, Thomas Jefferson Health Department Charlottesville/Albemarle District VAPHA’s Annual Conference Advancing Health Equity from Theory to Practice September 10-11, 2009
“A combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy , program or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population , and the distribution of those effects within the population .”
Voluntary vs. Regulatory Approach to Using an HIA
Voluntary (a tool used by a health officer to inform a planning commission)
Simpler, less expensive, less litigious
Less likely to be used if not required
More politically acceptable
Regulatory (modeled on a required environmental impact statement)
More complex, more expensive, more litigious
More likely to be used if required
Less politically acceptable
HIAs MAPP Evaluating Sites for FQHC
Environmental Impact Assessments Performed by planners, consultants, environmental scientists, etc. Explores effect of policies, programs and projects on the environment Began in US in the 1970s Statutory requirement in many countries to undertake EIA EIA does not typically include assessment of health effects; when it does it may be narrowly focused and solely quantitative in nature. HIAs MAPP Evaluating Sites for FQHC
HIA Relationship to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
HIA components could logically and legally fit within an EIA process
HIA incorporated into EIA is necessarily regulatory
Extending an EIA to include an HIA may work in some settings
America’s Healthiest City “ All residents have access to high-quality health care services. We have a community-wide commitment to personal fitness and wellness, and all residents enjoy our outstanding recreational facilities, walking trails, and routes to schools. We have a strong support system in place for families and for the elderly and disabled. Our emergency response time is among the nation’s best.” -Charlottesville City Council Vision Statement HIAs MAPP Evaluating Sites for FQHC
Demographics HIAs MAPP Evaluating Sites for FQHC