Social Class 15.10.09

3,236 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,236
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
135
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Social Class 15.10.09

  1. 1. Influences on the Consumer Purchase Decision Process <ul><li>. </li></ul>Marketing mix influences <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul>Promotion Influences <ul><li>Purchase task </li></ul><ul><li>Social surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Physical surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal effects </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent states </li></ul>Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behaviour Consumer Decision Process Psychological Influences <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Values, beliefs and attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul>Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Personal influence </li></ul><ul><li>Reference groups </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Social class </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul>
  2. 2. SOCIAL CLASS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  3. 3. Social Class <ul><li>Social Class may be defined as the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be grouped. </li></ul><ul><li>Social class is determined by : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Income Level </li></ul><ul><li>3. Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>4. Educational attainment </li></ul><ul><li>5. Possessions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Associations or interactions </li></ul><ul><li>7. Level of Influence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Class Affects Access to Resources <ul><li>Marx believed that position in society was determined by one’s relationship to the means of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Weber believed that rankings of people depended on prestige ( status groups ), power ( party ) and wealth ( class ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Class Influence <ul><li>Social class represents an interesting way to look at a market; influenced by such factors as education, occupation, and place of residence. </li></ul><ul><li>May be used as a basis for segmenting markets, and may reflect the aspirations of consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Social classes exist whether people care to admit it or not; differences in beliefs and attitudes exist across class boundaries; and social class may be a better predictor of buyer behaviour than income. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3 Types of Social Influence <ul><li>Conformity : a change in behavior to match the responses/actions of others (with no pressure necessarily). </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance : a change in behavior in response to a direct request. </li></ul><ul><li>Obedience : a change in behavior in response to a direct order from an authority figure. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Components of Social Class <ul><li>Occupational Prestige: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “worth” of people based on what they do for a living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Income: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of wealth is important to marketers because it determines buying power and market potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Relationship Between Income and Social Class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class is a better predictor of purchases that have symbolic aspects but low to moderate price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income is a better predictor of major expenditures that do not have status or symbolic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class and income are both needed to predict purchases of expensive, symbolic products </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Social Standing Influences Behavior
  9. 9. The Consumption Patterns of Specific Social Classes <ul><li>The Upper Class </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White collar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Working Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue collar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Homeless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scavenging </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Social Class System The Upper Class (2%) <ul><li>The Upper (Old Money) </li></ul><ul><li>The Lower (New Rich) </li></ul>The Middle Class (45%) <ul><li>The Upper (12%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately successful business people, professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Lower (32%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White collar workers, technicians, small business owners </li></ul></ul>The Lower Class (54%) <ul><li>The Upper (38%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue collar (working class) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Lower (16%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unskilled, chronically unemployed, welfare poor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Advertisements Appealing to Different Classes
  12. 12. Advertisement Catering to Different Classes contd…
  13. 13. Advertisements Appealing to Different Classes Contd…
  14. 14. Contd..
  15. 15. Social Mobility <ul><li>Social Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The passage of individuals from one social class to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from one position to another roughly equivalent in social status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downward Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from one position to another position that is lower in social status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upward Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from one position to another position that is higher in social status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential fertility: Middle class reproduce fewer children than lower class. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Upward-Pull Strategy
  17. 17. Examples of mobility <ul><li>Horizontal Mobility </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mobility <ul><li>Upward mobility </li></ul>Upward Shift A good example can be the Maruti 800 Ad camp. Of Rs 2599 which appeals to all the two wheelers and the lower middle class people , who are looking for an upward mobility in Status moving from a scooter to a Car
  19. 19. Measuring Social Class <ul><li>Problems with Measures of Social Class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dated measures which are no longer valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing anonymity of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputational method: Extensive interviews within a community to determine reputations of individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status crystallization: Assesses the impact of inconsistency on the self and social behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overprivileged: Income is 25 to 30 percent greater than one’s social class median </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underprivileged: Income is 15 percent less than one’s social class median </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierogamy: Physically attractive trend to “marry up” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Measuring Social Class (cont.) <ul><li>Problems with Social Class Segmentation: A Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have ignored status inconsistency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have ignored intergenerational mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have ignored subjective social class. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have ignored consumers’ aspirations to change their class standing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The have ignored the social status of working wives. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Complex Variance Within a Class <ul><li>Incredible range of income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>underpriveleged/ overpriveleged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of family/household structures </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incredible range of lifestyle choices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>across aspects of a person’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from 1 product to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes parody display </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Income & Social Class <ul><ul><li>Overprivileged: Income is 25 to 30 percent greater than one’s social class median </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underprivileged: Income is 15 percent less than one’s social class median </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class better predictor of symbolic purchases with low to moderate price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income better predictor of major expenditures that do not have status or symbolic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class and income are both needed to predict purchases of expensive, symbolic products </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Income <ul><li>. </li></ul>Consumer Demand Ability to Buy Willingness to Buy Market Potential
  24. 24. Discretionary income <ul><li>The money available to a household over and above that required for a comfortable standard of living </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Sociocultural influences , which evolve from a </li></ul><ul><li>consumer’s formal and informal relationships with </li></ul><ul><li>other people, can exert significant impact on consumer </li></ul><ul><li>behaviour. Sociocultural influences include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Personal influence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reference groups </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Family </li></ul><ul><li>4. Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>5. Culture </li></ul><ul><li>6. Subculture </li></ul>
  26. 26. BUYING-DECISION PROCESS Need recognition Identification of alternatives Evaluation of alternatives Purchase and related decisions Postpurchase behaviour INFORMATION Commercial sources Social sources SITUATIONAL FACTORS When consumers buy Where consumers buy Why consumers buy Conditions under which consumers buy PSYCHOLOGICAL FORCES Motivation Perception Learning Personality Attitude SOCIAL AND GROUP FORCES Culture Subculture Social class Reference groups Family and households Copyright © 2000 McGraw Hill Ryerson Limited
  27. 27. Lifestyle & VALS <ul><li>Lifestyle is a mode of living that is identified by how </li></ul><ul><li>people spend their time and resources (activities), what </li></ul><ul><li>they consider important in their environment </li></ul><ul><li>(interests), and what they think of themselves and the </li></ul><ul><li>world around them (opinions). </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle analysis focuses on identifying consumer </li></ul><ul><li>profiles. The most prominent example of this type of </li></ul><ul><li>analysis is the Values and Lifestyles (VALS) Program </li></ul><ul><li>developed by SRI International. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The VALS segmentation system: An 8-part typology <ul><ul><ul><li>Groups with High Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actualizers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfilleds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiencers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups with Lower Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strivers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strugglers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Social Stratification <ul><li>Social Stratification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The artificial divisions of society “by which scarce and valuable resources are distributed unequally to status positions that become more or less permanent” partly as a result of the distribution system itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hegemonic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How those currently in power distribute resources to stay in power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominance-submission hierarchy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each individual in the hierarchy is submissive to those higher in the hierarchy and is dominant to those below them in the hierarchy </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Social Stratification Typically defined by family background, occupation, and income. Class: some social mobility Caste: Virtually no mobility Class Consciousness: May play a role in a firm’s operations
  31. 31. <ul><li>It is the artificial division of society “by which scarce and valuable resources are distributed unequally to status positions, that become more or less permanent” partly as a result of the distribution system itself </li></ul>Social Stratification
  32. 32. Functional Necessity of Stratification <ul><li>In order to function, society must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate the proper members for proper positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate the persons filling these positions to do the required duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation is often based on rewards </li></ul>
  33. 33. Functional Necessity of Stratification <ul><li>Types of rewards include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>things that contribute to Sustenance and Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>things that contribute to Humor and Diversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>things that contribute to Self-respect and Ego-expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The differential distribution of those awards according to position are part of the social order and give rise to stratification </li></ul>
  34. 34. Nature of Social Class <ul><li>It is a group consisting of a number of people who have approximately equal positions in a society </li></ul><ul><li>These positions may be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascribed, or inherited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved, or earned </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes Exhibit Status </li></ul><ul><li>Status refers to one’s rank in the social system, as perceived by other members of the society </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s status is a function of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social class to which he belongs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal characteristics, for example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scientist – employed in a prestigious research institute – earning Rs 2 lakh p.a. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scientist – employed by a small firm – earning Rs 75K p.a. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><ul><li>personal contributions to society –– for example, a scientist discovering a breakthrough in laser technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors Important in Determining Status are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority over others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership of Property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& Lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes are Multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>They are multidimensional, being based on numerous components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes are Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>They have a vertical order to them, ranging from high status to low status </li></ul><ul><li>They exist as a position on the social scale </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals may be placed within a class on this hierarchy, based on status criteria </li></ul>
  39. 39. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes Restrict Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between the classes is limited because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people are comfortable and find reinforcement with people having similar values, lifestyles, educational backgrounds, occupations, income levels, and behaviour patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Members of the same social class tend to associate with each other, and to a lesser extent with members from other classes </li></ul>
  40. 40. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes are Homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>They may be viewed as homogeneous divisions of society in which people within a class have similar attitudes, activities, interests, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>This homogeneity allows the marketers to predict that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>groups of people are exposed to similar media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purchase similar products & services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shop in similar stores </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Characteristics of Social Class <ul><li>Social Classes are Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification systems in which people have some opportunity for upward or downward movement are ‘Open Systems’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in such systems have Achieved status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social stratification systems in which people have either no opportunity for movement, or they are unable to leave are ‘Closed Systems’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in such systems have Ascribed status </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>It occurs whenever people move across the social class boundaries, perhaps in their own life time or through generations, or from one occupational level to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward Mobility : movement from one position to another position that is lower in social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward Mobility : movement from one position to another position that is higher in social status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-Generational Mobility : compares parents’ levels to that of their children </li></ul>Social Mobility
  43. 43. <ul><li>In medieval society, Feudal and Caste societies were ‘closed’ - a person's position was largely based on ascribed characteristics (such as family origin, or ethnic group) </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmin – teachers & priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatriya – warriors & rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaisya – land owners & merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudra – artisans & servants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>such as potters, barbers, carpenters, leatherworkers, butchers, launderers, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untouchables – Harijans or Dalits </li></ul></ul>Indian Society – ‘ Then ’
  44. 44. <ul><li>In today’s changing society, the caste inequalities exist and to some extent these ascribed characteristics are still socially significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The classification is now done in three broad categories : Upper, Middle, Lower Classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But in modern India greater emphasis is placed on Achievement, i.e. what people can do </li></ul><ul><li>This has paved a way for two more segments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techno Class </li></ul></ul>Indian Society – ‘ Today ’
  45. 45. A] Working Class <ul><li>More focused on immediate needs than long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Depend more heavily on relatives for emotional support </li></ul><ul><li>Orient themselves toward community rather than the world </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to be conservative and family oriented </li></ul>
  46. 46. B] Techno Class <ul><li>Such structure centers around the amount of computer skills that a person possesses. Those who lack necessary computer skills find themselves to be “ underclassed ” and “ disadvantaged ” </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of literacy , familiarity , and competency with technology, especially computers and the Internet, appears to be a new basis for a kind of “ class standing ”, or status or prestige </li></ul>. . .
  47. 47. <ul><li>Consumers throughout the world believe that it is critical to acquire a functional understanding of computers in order to ensure that they do not become obsolete or hinder themselves socially or professionally </li></ul><ul><li>Parents in all social-class groupings are seeking out early computer exposure for their children </li></ul><ul><li>At the other end of the life and age spectrum (i.e. 55-yr-old & above), professionals who were initially reluctant to learn computers, are now seeking personal computer training </li></ul><ul><li>Gadgets like iPods, camera phones and portable DVD players are must-have fashion accessories for kids, teens, and adults </li></ul>
  48. 48. Social Class Structure <ul><li>Five–Category Social Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper-Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Social Class Structure <ul><li>Nine–Category Social Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper-Upper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper-Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper-Lower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-Upper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-Lower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-Upper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower-Lower </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Coleman and Rainwater Approach <ul><li>Social-Psychological Approach : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on personal and group prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects how people interact with one another – as equals, superiors, or inferiors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is influenced most heavily by educational credentials and occupation (including income as its success measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but, ultimately relates to a person’s social circle of acceptance </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Coleman-Rainwater View Upper-Lower Upper-Middle Middle Working Class Lower Lower-Lower Upper-Upper old family names accepted new money collegiate credentials expected white-collar associations blue-collar life style below the mainstream the welfare world
  52. 52. India follows a 5-Tier System <ul><li>Consumer Group </li></ul><ul><li>Very Rich </li></ul><ul><li>Consuming Class </li></ul><ul><li>Climbers </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirants </li></ul><ul><li>Destitute </li></ul>Annual Income 2,15,000 2,15,000–45,000 45,000-25,000 25,000-16,000 16,000 & Below
  53. 53. <ul><li>As per National Council of Applied Economic Research’s report, based on a national population that was estimated to be 900 million, it was revealed that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Rich , consist of about 6 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consuming Class , about 150 million people (17%) and is expected to triple, reaching 450 million people by 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climbers , about 275 million people (30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirants , about 275 million (30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destitute , estimated to be 210 million (23%) </li></ul></ul>Growing Indian Middle Class
  54. 54. Measurement of Social Class <ul><li>Three Kinds of Measurement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective Measure – Based on the self perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputational Measure – Based on consumption and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective Measure – Based on demographic and socio-economic variables </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Variables <ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Manners and style </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Genealogy </li></ul>
  56. 56. Operationalizing Household Social Class Occupation Education Income Residence Age of Head(s) of Household Household Structure Prestige Association Values
  57. 57. Operationalizing Household Social Class Social Class Occupation Education Income Residence Age of Head(s) of Household Household Structure Prestige Association Values
  58. 58. Social Structure Mobile Managers Hard to Build Teams Lack of Loyalty Entrepreneurship Individual Western Lack of Entrepreneurship Lifetime Employment Identity Group Eastern Nonmobile Managers Group two or more individuals with a shared sense of identity
  59. 59. Every Society <ul><li>U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassed about it, ideal is equality & meritocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intergenerational mobility limited but possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Europe: vestiges of aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Central and South America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More dichotomized (2% control 95%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> hegemony breaks down  instability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very hierarchical, large middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caste system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China: “Classless” </li></ul>
  60. 60. Class vs. Caste <ul><li>Achieved Versus Ascribed Status: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved status: Status earned through hard work or diligent study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascribed status: Status one is born with </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward Mobility: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from one position to another position that is lower in social status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward Mobility: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from one position to another position that is higher in social status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differential fertility: Middle class reproduce less than replacement value, allowing for upward mobility </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. India <ul><li>A Caste System </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation & Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmin: teachers & priests </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya: warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Vaisya: merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Sudra: dirty work </li></ul>
  62. 62. CASTE IN INDIA <ul><li>Basis is kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Associated occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly separated, self-regulating groups </li></ul><ul><li>No individual mobility in one lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>No intercaste marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Religious interpretation ranked by purity </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Brahmin scholars and priests </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriya political leaders and warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Vaishaya merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Shudras menial workers, artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchable </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Castes interdependent economically but system relies on coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-caste can try to gain higher position over time or convert to try to escape system. </li></ul><ul><li>Caste officially illegal in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative action type laws </li></ul>
  65. 65. Occupations and Class <ul><li>All three dimensions of social stratification: class, status and authority are reflected in a person’s occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Different occupations have different relations to the means of economic production… </li></ul><ul><li>Different levels of social status… </li></ul><ul><li>And different levels of authority to command. </li></ul>
  66. 66. CLASS <ul><li>Basis is economic: income, occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Associated lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility is possible: downward and upward </li></ul><ul><li>Interclass marriage is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Class at birth affects life chances: ability to fulfill one’s potential </li></ul><ul><li>Persons in the same class more likely to associate with each other, intermarry, have similar hobbies, tastes, political views </li></ul><ul><li>American mythology: open class system where all have equal opportunity to succeed </li></ul>
  67. 67. CLASS <ul><li>Basis is economic: income, occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Associated lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Continuum: endpoints clear, divisions in middle are vague </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility is possible: downward and upward </li></ul><ul><li>Interclass marriage is possible </li></ul>

×