Mba Gen Slides Without Examples4 AmizonePresentation Transcript
PERCEPTION Aparna Goyal
How we see the world in and around us
Consumer as Perceiver
The objective reality of the product matters a little and what matters is the consumers perception about the product/ brand
The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world is called Perception.
Amity Business School
THE MESSAGES TO WHICH WE DO CHOOSE TO PAY ATTENTION OFTEN WIND UP DIFFERING FROM WHAT THE SPONSORS INTENDED, AS WE EACH PUT OUR PERSONAL SPIN ON THINGS BY ADOPTING MEANINGS CONSISTENT WITH OUR OWN UNIQUE EXPERIENCES, BIASES AND DESIRES.
ADVERTISING ANGLE TO PERCEPTION OF CONSUMERS
Factor Shaping Perception is SENSATION
SENSATION - The immediate and direct response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli.
A perfectly unchanging environment provides little to no sensation at all.
PERCEPTION - Process by which people select, organize and interpret these sensations.
Focus is on what we ADD to these raw sensations in order to give them meaning
Decreased Sensory inputs
Increased Sensory inputs
Lowest intensity of a stimulus that can be registered on a sensory channel
Minimum stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel
Small print characters
Ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli
Minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli is the J.N.D.
It concerns the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different).
Marketing Applications of the JND
We need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for our products.
so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public
so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers
Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness.
Perceptual Process- MARKETING
SIGHTS EYES EXPOSURE
SOUNDS EARS ATTENTION
SMELLS NOSE INTERPRETATION
TASTE MOUTH MEMORY
SOFTNESS OF A CASHMERE PULLOVER
TASTE OF A NEW FLAVOUR OF ICE-CREAM
SMELL OF FRESH ROSES
HEARING FAVOURITE SONG
SEEING A NEAR & DEAR ONE AFTER YEARS
MULTISENSORY, FANTASY AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF CONSUMERS’ INTERACTIONS WITH PRODUCTS
Home cleaners with exotic scents – competitive advantage
Extra attention to the impact of sensations on product experiences
Our senses decide which products appeal us and which stand out
Tactile stimulation or haptic sense
Winter wind bite
Feel & compare textures
More sure about what we perceive when we touch
Need For Touch (NFT) scales
Touch products in a retail store
Silk as luxury, denim as practical & durable
STIMULUS – RANGE - SENSORY RECEPTOR NERVES
PLACEMENT IN RELEVANT ENVIRONMENT even when not paying attention
MINUSCULE FRACTION OF STIMULI
SELF-SELECTED ACTIVE AND DELIBERATE TO ACHIEVE SHORT OR LONG TERM GOALS
RANDOM IN DAILY ACTIVITIES
ZIPPING ~ FAST FORWARD RECORDED COMMERCIALS
ZAPPING ~ SWITCHING CHANNELS DURING COMMERCIALS
MUTING ~ SOUND OFF DURING COMMERCIAL BREAKS
AVOIDANCE ~ *SITUATION *AMOUNT OF CLUTTER* AD PLACEMENT * HOUSEHOLD
JND- minimum brand difference but noticed (candy, tissue roll, water glass – high imagery stimulus)
CONSUMER INFERENCES – value assigned missing attribute
CONTEXTUAL PRIMING EFFECTS-positive or negative programming
Information Processing Exposure Random Deliberate Attention Low Involvement High Involvement Interpretation Memory Active problem solving Stored experiences Values, decisions, rules, feelings High Involvement Low Involvement Short Term Long Term Perception Purchase and consumption decisions
PERCEPTUAL DEFENSES INFORMATION AVAILABLE LIMITED EXPOSURE SMALL % ATTENTED PASSED TO CNS INTERPRETATION LIMITED ACTIVE MEMORY INDIVIDUALS NOT AS PASSIVE RECIPIENTS OF MARKETING MESSAGES
PROGRAM INVOLVEMENT (MAGAZINE,
FOCAL STIMULUS (AD)
SUBLIMINAL STIMULI- masked, slow, fast, soft to seeing/hearing
STIMULUS MARKETING Gestalt theory – meaning from totality Closure principle – people perceive incomplete picture as complete, filling up the blanks.. Principle of similarity – consumers group together objects that share similar physical characteristics Figure-ground principle – one part of stimulus will dominate(figure) and other part recedes into background (ground) – focal point Hyperreality – process of making real what is initially hype
Examples of Perceptual Positioning
Depends on two major factors
Consumers’ previous experience
Unexpected Attracts Attention
Biases in perceptual process
Figure and ground
Grouping - easy to remember when we associate
Influences of Perceptual Distortion
Stereotypes e.g Benetton adds
Jumping to Conclusions
People tend to add to or subtract fm the stimuli to which they are exposed on the basis of their Expectations and motives.
Product Positioning and Repositioning
Positioning of Services
Retail Store Image
A research technique that enables marketers to plot graphically consumers’ perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brands.
Pricing Strategies Focused on Perceived Value
20% to 70% Off! Was $199 Now $99 Sale!
Evaluations least favorable for ads stating the minimum discount level
Ads stating maximum discount levels are better than stating a range