Mba Gen Slides Without Examples4 Amizone

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  • People see what they want to see. Horror movie Stimuli which conflict sharply attract attention. Stronger the need greater the motivation.
  • Formulas and point. Circle or Arch The moment we hear familiar music we try to complete it. Messages require to fill in is to increase the participation of the consumer.
  • Models are percieved as having more knowledge regarding enhancing pdts. But not regarding problem sloving pdts.Acne, dandriff.
  • Mba Gen Slides Without Examples4 Amizone

    1. 1. PERCEPTION Aparna Goyal
    2. 2. <ul><li>PERCEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>How we see the world in and around us </li></ul>
    3. 3. Perception <ul><li>Consumer as Perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>The objective reality of the product matters a little and what matters is the consumers perception about the product/ brand </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world is called Perception. </li></ul>Amity Business School
    4. 4. <ul><li>THE MESSAGES TO WHICH WE DO CHOOSE TO PAY ATTENTION OFTEN WIND UP DIFFERING FROM WHAT THE SPONSORS INTENDED, AS WE EACH PUT OUR PERSONAL SPIN ON THINGS BY ADOPTING MEANINGS CONSISTENT WITH OUR OWN UNIQUE EXPERIENCES, BIASES AND DESIRES. </li></ul>ADVERTISING ANGLE TO PERCEPTION OF CONSUMERS
    5. 5. Factor Shaping Perception is SENSATION <ul><li>SENSATION - The immediate and direct response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>A perfectly unchanging environment provides little to no sensation at all. </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION - Process by which people select, organize and interpret these sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on what we ADD to these raw sensations in order to give them meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cont…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Decreased Sensory inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Sensory inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Differential threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Subliminal perception </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Absolute Threshold </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest intensity of a stimulus that can be registered on a sensory channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whispering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small print characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Differential Threshold <ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli is the J.N.D. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>It concerns the perceived differentiation between similar stimuli of varying intensities (the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different). </li></ul>Weber’s Law
    10. 10. Marketing Applications of the JND <ul><li>We need to determine the relevant j.n.d. for our products. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so that product improvements are very apparent to consumers </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Subliminal Perception <ul><li>Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received below the level of conscious awareness. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Perceptual Process- MARKETING <ul><li>SIGHTS EYES EXPOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>SOUNDS EARS ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>SMELLS NOSE INTERPRETATION </li></ul><ul><li>TASTE MOUTH MEMORY </li></ul><ul><li>TEXTURES SKIN </li></ul>
    13. 13. EXAMPLES <ul><li>SOFTNESS OF A CASHMERE PULLOVER </li></ul><ul><li>TASTE OF A NEW FLAVOUR OF ICE-CREAM </li></ul><ul><li>SMELL OF FRESH ROSES </li></ul><ul><li>HEARING FAVOURITE SONG </li></ul><ul><li>SEEING A NEAR & DEAR ONE AFTER YEARS </li></ul>
    14. 14. HEDONIC CONSUMPTION <ul><li>MULTISENSORY, FANTASY AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF CONSUMERS’ INTERACTIONS WITH PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>Home cleaners with exotic scents – competitive advantage </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>SENSORY MARKETING </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Extra attention to the impact of sensations on product experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Our senses decide which products appeal us and which stand out </li></ul>
    17. 17. Vision <ul><li>Colours </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Package </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Trade dress </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    18. 18. VISION
    19. 19. SMELL <ul><li>Odours </li></ul><ul><li>Invoke memories </li></ul><ul><li>Relieve stress </li></ul><ul><li>Store environment </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates </li></ul>
    20. 20. TOUCH <ul><li>Tactile stimulation or haptic sense </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola bottle </li></ul><ul><li>Massage </li></ul><ul><li>Winter wind bite </li></ul><ul><li>Feel & compare textures </li></ul><ul><li>More sure about what we perceive when we touch </li></ul><ul><li>Need For Touch (NFT) scales </li></ul><ul><li>Touch products in a retail store </li></ul><ul><li>Silk as luxury, denim as practical & durable </li></ul>
    21. 21. TASTE <ul><li>Electronic mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Spicy </li></ul><ul><li>Bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul><ul><li>Sour </li></ul><ul><li>Hot </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul>
    22. 23. STEPS
    23. 24. EXPOSURE <ul><li>STIMULUS </li></ul><ul><li>RANGE </li></ul><ul><li>CUSTOMERS SENSORY </li></ul><ul><li>RECEPTOR NERVES </li></ul>
    24. 25. EXPOSURE <ul><li>STIMULUS – RANGE - SENSORY RECEPTOR NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>PLACEMENT IN RELEVANT ENVIRONMENT even when not paying attention </li></ul><ul><li>MINUSCULE FRACTION OF STIMULI </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-SELECTED ACTIVE AND DELIBERATE TO ACHIEVE SHORT OR LONG TERM GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>RANDOM IN DAILY ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE :- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZIPPING ~ FAST FORWARD RECORDED COMMERCIALS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZAPPING ~ SWITCHING CHANNELS DURING COMMERCIALS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MUTING ~ SOUND OFF DURING COMMERCIAL BREAKS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AVOIDANCE ~ *SITUATION *AMOUNT OF CLUTTER* AD PLACEMENT * HOUSEHOLD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFOMERCIALS </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 27. ATTENTION <ul><li>STIMULUS </li></ul><ul><li>“ SEEN” – interesting or less interesting </li></ul><ul><li>SENSATION TO BRAIN PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>( Perceptual Selection) </li></ul>
    26. 28. ATTENTION <ul><li>STIMULUS – ACTIVATION – SENSORY RECEPTOR NERVES – SENSATIONS – BRAIN PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORS :- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STIMULUS – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics – SIZE & ATTRACTION, INSERTION FREQUENCY, INTENSITY (LOUDNESS/BRIGHTNESS/LENGTH) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COLOUR & MOVEMENT – BRIGHT, FAST MOVING </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POSITION – placement in visual field, centre/edges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISOLATION – separation from other objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORMAT – arrangement, presentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTRAST </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXPECTATION – unexpected </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFORMATION QUANTITY </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SITUATION </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 29. PERCEPTUAL SELECTION FACTORS <ul><li>EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>FILTERS </li></ul><ul><li>VIGILANCE (needs) </li></ul><ul><li>DEFENSE </li></ul><ul><li>ADAPTATION (habituate) </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul>
    28. 31. INTERPRETATION <ul><li>MEANING ASSIGNED </li></ul><ul><li>SENSATIONS RECEIVED </li></ul>
    29. 32. MEMORY <ul><li>SHORT-TERM USE </li></ul><ul><li>MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE DECISION MAKING </li></ul><ul><li>LONGER RETENTION </li></ul>
    30. 33. INTERPRETATION AND MEMORY <ul><li>MEANING ASSIGNED TO SENSATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION OF STIMULUS/INDIVIDUAL/SITUATION eg.sale </li></ul><ul><li>COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION – STIMULI PLACED IN EXISTING MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>AFFECTIVE INTERPRETATION – STIMULI TRIGGERS EMOTIONS/ FEELINGS </li></ul><ul><li>INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS – LEARNING AND EXPECTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS – mood, time, temperatuire, message, distractions, news </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULUS CHARACTERISTICS – package, colour, message, music, product placement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar Stimulus discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JND- minimum brand difference but noticed (candy, tissue roll, water glass – high imagery stimulus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONSUMER INFERENCES – value assigned missing attribute </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTEXTUAL PRIMING EFFECTS-positive or negative programming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>SEMANTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL
    31. 35. INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>ACTIVITY SERIES </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULI </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEIVED </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSFORMED INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>STORED </li></ul>
    32. 36. Information Processing Exposure Random Deliberate Attention Low Involvement High Involvement Interpretation Memory Active problem solving Stored experiences Values, decisions, rules, feelings High Involvement Low Involvement Short Term Long Term Perception Purchase and consumption decisions
    33. 37. PERCEPTUAL DEFENSES INFORMATION AVAILABLE LIMITED EXPOSURE SMALL % ATTENTED PASSED TO CNS INTERPRETATION LIMITED ACTIVE MEMORY INDIVIDUALS NOT AS PASSIVE RECIPIENTS OF MARKETING MESSAGES
    34. 38. <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>INTEREST (GOALS) </li></ul><ul><li>NEED </li></ul><ul><li>INVOLVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM INVOLVEMENT (MAGAZINE, </li></ul><ul><li>NEWSPAPER, PROGRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>FOCAL STIMULUS (AD) </li></ul><ul><li>TIME PRESSURES </li></ul><ul><li>CROWDED STORE </li></ul><ul><li>UNPLEASANT ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SHOPPING PAL </li></ul><ul><li>NONFOCUSED ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>SUBLIMINAL STIMULI- masked, slow, fast, soft to seeing/hearing </li></ul>SITUATIONAL FACTORS
    35. 40. STIMULUS MARKETING Gestalt theory – meaning from totality Closure principle – people perceive incomplete picture as complete, filling up the blanks.. Principle of similarity – consumers group together objects that share similar physical characteristics Figure-ground principle – one part of stimulus will dominate(figure) and other part recedes into background (ground) – focal point Hyperreality – process of making real what is initially hype
    36. 41. Examples of Perceptual Positioning <ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Price leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Atributes </li></ul><ul><li>Product class </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Occassions </li></ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul>
    37. 43. Perceptual Selection <ul><li>Depends on two major factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers’ previous experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers’ motives </li></ul></ul>
    38. 44. Unexpected Attracts Attention
    39. 45. Biases in perceptual process <ul><li>Gestalt </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Blocking </li></ul>
    40. 46. Perceptual Organization <ul><li>Figure and ground </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping - easy to remember when we associate </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
    41. 47. INTERPRETATION- <ul><li>Influences of Perceptual Distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Appearances </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes e.g Benetton adds </li></ul><ul><li>First Impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Jumping to Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul>
    42. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>People tend to add to or subtract fm the stimuli to which they are exposed on the basis of their Expectations and motives. </li></ul>
    43. 49. Consumer Imagery <ul><li>Product Positioning and Repositioning </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning of Services </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Price </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Retail Store Image </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers Image </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Risk </li></ul>
    44. 50. Perceptual Mapping <ul><li>A research technique that enables marketers to plot graphically consumers’ perceptions concerning product attributes of specific brands. </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing Strategies Focused on Perceived Value </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction-based Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency Pricing </li></ul>20% to 70% Off! Was $199 Now $99 Sale!
    45. 51. <ul><li>Evaluations least favorable for ads stating the minimum discount level </li></ul><ul><li>Ads stating maximum discount levels are better than stating a range </li></ul>Save 10% or more Save upto 50%
    46. 52. ASSIGNMENT

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