Nature of Group Influences Size of group Large Small General and indirect Specific and direct Types of group influence on the individual Cultures Social classes/ Subcultures Reference groups Household
Cultural Influence Culture: The set of values, ideas, artifacts , and other meaningful symbols that help individuals communicate, express, interpret, evaluate and understand members of a society. The complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, laws, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of a society. The meanings that are shared by most people in a social group including: common affective reactions, typical cognitions, and characteristic patterns of behavior.
Ethnicity Gender Restricted Group Religion Geography Age Functional Basic Language History & Tradition Entire Society (most citizens) Correlated w/ National & Hemispheric Boundaries Basic Culture Sub-Culture macroculture microculture
Purpose of Culture Culture provides people with the sense of identity, belonging, and guidelines for acceptable behavior within a society. In a sense, it provides a system of values and sanctions that directs our behaviors, communication, expectations and response. Some key attitudes/behaviors impacted by culture: Sense of Self & Space Language & non-verbal communication Dress & appearance Food & eating habits Time & time consciousness Relationships (family, government, organizations) Work & play: roles, habits and practices Methods of teaching/learning Beliefs, attitudes
Values, Norms, Sanctions, and Consumption Patterns Cultural Values Norms Specify Ranges of appropriate Behavior Sanctions Penalties for violating norms Consumption Patterns
Cultural IS: Learned Inculcated Manifest Inevitable Adaptive Complex Pervasive Enduring
Cultural Norms & Values Family Societal Values Religious Institutions Schools Early Lifetime Experiences PEERS Individual Internalized Values External Messages & Cues Intergenerational transmission of Values
Sub-cultures (microcultures) Geographic & Bordered-Regional Subcultures Age (Cohort) Subcultures Ethnic Subcultures Gender Subcultures Sexual Orientation Subcultures
Intergenerational Motivating Factors Cohorts Depression Survivors (pre-WWII consumers) Interpersonal Generation - Early Baby Boomers (children in 50s/ early 60s) Self-Generation - Late Baby boomers (children in late 60s & early 70s) GenerationX (children in mid 70s /80s) GenerationY (children in late 80s/90s)
Value Orientations Influence Behavior Other- Oriented Values Environment- oriented values Self- Oriented Values Society’s view of relationships between people Consumption Purchase Communications Society’s view of relationships with environment Objectives/approaches to life society finds desirable
Other Orientation Values Other- Oriented Values Society’s view of relationships between people Individual ---------------------> Group Limited Family -------> Extended Family Child Focus -------> Adult Focus Competition -------> Cooperation Masculine-------> Feminine Age (respected) -------> Age (not respected)
Self- Orientation Values Self- Oriented Values Desirable Approaches to Life Humorous ---------------------> Seriousness Openness -------------------> Reservedness Sensual Gratification -------> Abstinence Material Focus -------> Non-Material Focus Hard Work -------> Leisure Activity --------------> Passivity Invest for Later -------> Consume Now
Environment Orientation Values Environment- Oriented Values Society’s view of relationships with its external environments Clean ---------------------> Grungy/Messy Nostalgia/Tradition -------> Newness/Change Risk Taking -------> Security Functionality -------> Status Respect Nature -------> Defeat Nature Problem Solving -------> Fatalism
Changing Institutions Declining Family Values Changing Religious Influences Changing Educational Institutions Shift in Family Roles Changes in Family Structure Information Technology
Language Consumer Behavior Demographics Values Nonverbal Communications Marketing Strategy Cross-Cultural Variations in Consumer Behavior
Time Consumer Behavior Symbols Agreements Friendship Factors Influencing Nonverbal Communications Space Things Etiquette
Symbol for mourning or death in the Far East. Happiness, purity in United States. Associated with death in many Latin American countries Connotation of femininity in Holland; masculinity in Sweden, United States. Unlucky or negative in Chad, Nigeria, Germany; positive Denmark, Rumania, Argentina. Brides wear red in China, but it is a masculine color in the United Kingdom and France Sign of death in Mexico; infidelity in France. Suggestion of death in England. Unlucky in Ghana, Kenya, Singapore; lucky in Morocco, India, Czechoslovakia, Nicaragua, United States. Negative in Hong Kong, Korea, Taiwan; positive in Colombia. Wisdom in United States; bad luck in India Speed, grace in United States; homosexuality in Brazil. The meaning of numbers, colors and other symbols White: Purple: Blue: Red: Yellow flowers: White lilies: 7: Triangle: Owl: Deer:
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