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  • The program ranges from giving direct financial aid to the poorest families; to many diverse areas, such as creating cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid, creating popular restaurants with low prices, educating about healthy eating habits, distributing vitamins and iron supplements, supporting family farming, giving access to credit by microcredit, and a few other programs. <br /> Bolsa Família provides financial aid to poor and indigent Brazilian families on condition that the children must attend school and be vaccinated. <br />
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Brazil Brazil Presentation Transcript

  • 1 The struggles of a modern, democratic society Brazil
  • 2 Imagine a country with a more representative, honest and accountable democratic government, one that could adequately house, feed, educate and protect its people.
  • 3 Urbanization - too much, too fast
  • 4 Natural Resource Depletion
  • 5 Poverty & Social Justice
  • 6 800,000 Street Children: City of God
  • 7 The Brazilian Government faces the task of enforcing public order and reducing a violent crime rate so high it has driven the rich to build higher fences, travel in helicopters, and contract private security; and the poor to
  • 8 A Blended Society: Race in Mixed Race 39% Black 6% Amerindia Asian n 1% Asia Amerindian n 0.4% Unknown 1% White 53%
  • 9 Religion Protestant 15% Atheist 7% Catholic 75% Spiritism 1% Candomblé 0% Other 2%
  • 10 The Beginning of Brazil: Treaty of Tordesillas
  • 11 Historical Periods
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política inflation and unemployment
  • 11 Historical Periods 1494 - 1821: Empire of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves 1822 - 1888: Empire of Brazil 1889 - 1930: The Old Republic 1930 - 1964: Estado Nôvo and Populism 1964 - 1985: Military Authoritarian arbertura política inflation and unemployment loss of elite support
  • 12 Redemocratization: 1985 to Constitution 1988 - 3 years after civilian control of legislature 1990 - First democratically elected President, Fernando Collor de Mello
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Central Government
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central Government
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Government
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- ation for 4-year term
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Federal District (26)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District (26)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors (26)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Elect state deputies by proportional representation for (26) 4-year terms
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Municípios (5,513)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios (5,513)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors (5,513)
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors (5,513) Elect local councilors in proportional elections for 4-year terms
  • 13 Constitution of 1988 Executive Legislative Senate Elect President to 4-year term by majority, popular vote Central President Elect 81 senators statewide by plurality, 8-year terms Government Chamber of Elect 513 deputies statewide by proportional represent- Deputies ation for 4-year term States & Elect governors for 4-year term by majority vote Federal District Governors Legislative Elect state deputies by proportional representation for Assemblies (26) 4-year terms Elect mayors for 4-year terms Municípios Mayors Councils (5,513) Elect local councilors in proportional elections for 4-year terms
  • 14 Brazilian New Federalism Revenue Redistribution 21.5% to States 22.5% to Municípios Balanced Bicameralism Senate - 3 from each state Chamber of Deputies - 8 minimum, 70 maximum from each state Courts Supreme Court Labor Courts Electoral Courts Military Courts
  • 15 Electoral System
  • 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote.
  • 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote. First Past the Post Senators and Mayors of cities with less than 200,000 voters
  • 15 Electoral System Majority Vote President, State Governors, and Mayors of cities over 200,000 voters Runo between top two candidates if no candidate captures 50% of vote. First Past the Post Senators and Mayors of cities with less than 200,000 voters Open-List Proportional Representation Deputies Individual vote totals determine the order of deputies on the party list
  • 16 Presidential Elections Candidates Votes % 1st round Votes % 2nd round Luiz Inácio Lula 46,662,365 48.61 58,295,042 60.83 da Silva Geraldo Alckmin 39,968,369 41.64 37,543,178 39.17 (PSDB, PFL, PPS) Heloísa Helena 6,575,393 6.85 - - (P-SOL, PSTU, PCB) Cristovam 2,538,844 2.64 - - Buarque (PDT) Ana Maria Rangel 126,404 0.13 - - (PRP) José Maria 63,294 0.07 - - Eymael (PSDC) Luciano Bivar 62,064 0.06 - - (PSL) Total (turnout 95,996,733 100.00 95,838,220 100.00 83.2 and )
  • 17 Parties Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Votes % Seats Votes % Seats 2006 Workers' Party (Partido dos 16,222,15 13,989,859 15.0 83 19.2 11 2 Trabalhadores) 9 Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 10,148,02 13,580,517 14.6 89 12.0 15 4 (PMDB) 4 10,547,77 Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) 12,691,043 13.6 65 12.5 15 5 8 Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente 21,653,81 10,182,308 10.9 65 25.7 18 6 Liberal) 2 6,662,309 7.1 42 4,228,431 5.0 1 1 Progressive Party (Partido Progresista) Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido 5,732,464 6.2 27 2,143,355 2.5 3 1 Socialista Brasileiro) Democratic Labour Party (Partido 4,854,017 5.2 24 5,023,041 6.0 5 1 Democrático Trabalhista) Brazilian Labour Party (Partido 4,397,743 4.7 22 2,676,469 3.2 4 3 Trabalhista Brasileiro) 4,074,618 4.4 23 696,501 0.8 3 1 Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular 3,630,462 3.9 21 1,232,571 1.5 1 1 Socialista) 3,368,561 3.6 13 1,425,765 1.7 0 0 Green Party (Partido Verde) Communist Party of Brazil (Partido 1,982,323 2.1 13 6,364,019 7.5 2 1 Comunista do Brasil)
  • 18 The Economy
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan privatization of state industries
  • 18 The Economy Mercantile System Plantation agriculture and slavery First wave of industrialization Import-Substitution Heavy industrialization Debt service Real Plan privatization of state industries Fiscal Responsibility Law
  • 19 Income Distribution Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Richest 47.44% 47.02% 46.19% 45.31% 45.31% 10% Poorest 12.58% 12.98% 13.22% 13.85% 14.07% 50% Gini 0.596 0.589 0.583 0.572 0.569 Coeficient
  • 20 Worldwide Income
  • 21 Poverty Policies Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) The program ranges from giving direct financial aid to the poorest families; to many diverse areas, such as creating cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid, creating popular restaurants with low prices, educating about healthy eating habits, distributing vitamins and iron supplements, supporting family farming, giving access to credit by microcredit, and a few other programs. Bolsa Família One positive eect of the program which is not immediately apparent is that it makes a significant impact on the ability of the poorest families to eat. Children in public school receive one free meal a day — two in the poorest areas — and so less of their family's limited income is needed to pay for food. In 2006, Bolsa Família is estimated to cost about 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and about 2.5% of total government expenditure. It will cover about 11.2 million families, or about 44 million Brazilians
  • 22 Violence and Disorder