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GEOLOGY   AND  HYDROGEOLOGY OF SOLAPUR CITY AND SURROUNDING
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GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF SOLAPUR CITY AND SURROUNDING

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It is a scientific study of Solapur city and around, to understand the geology and its relation to ground water availability,its quality and storativity. With help of Electrical resistivity - …

It is a scientific study of Solapur city and around, to understand the geology and its relation to ground water availability,its quality and storativity. With help of Electrical resistivity - Geophysical method- attempts are made to evaluate lithological formations( Number of lava flow units) at depth, to further interpret for probable grondwater sauration depth zones.

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  • 1. GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY
    OF
    SOLAPUR CITY AND SURROUNDING
    BY
    Dr. VADAGBALKAR S. K.
    Head, Department of Geology,
    Dayanand College of Arts and Science,
    Solapur-413002
    Maharashtra State, INDIA
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. EKHRUK TANK
    480
    460
    460
    480
    480
    460
    460
    440
    OLD CITY
    440
    480
    SINA RIVER
    480
    KAMBAR TANK
    460
    ADILA NALA
    HOTAGI TANK
    HATTUR NALA
    460
    460
    420
    460
    420
    460
    440
    440
    CONTOUR MAP OF SOLAPUR CITY AND SURROUNDING
  • 8.
  • 9. Variation in Basalt Flow
    Vesicular/zeolitic with or without Red bole
    Massive
    Massive Jointed -with or without vesicles
  • 10. Two Basalt flows separated by red bole layer
    Bottom portion of Flow 1
    (Cuboidal jointing)
    Top portion of Flow 2
    (Weathered vesicular)
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Lithological Variation
  • 16.
  • 17. Flow no. 1
    Flow no. 1
    Flow no. 2
  • 18.
  • 19. Water storage capacity variation at depth in hard rocks
  • 20. Recharge to shallow ground water
    Vesicular- amygdaloidal basalts have horizontal sheet fractures and can store more ground water
    Compact basalts have no or limited vertical fracture and can not store ground water
  • 21. Bore No. 1
    Bore No. 2
    Bore No. 3
  • 22. Geologically the area is covered by Deccan basalt of the continental tholeiitic province of India having Cretaceous - Eocene age.(about 55 to 65 million years).
    Two distinct lava flows are recognized along with various flow units. The thickness of the various flow units in the lava flows vary laterally & vertically through out the city area.
    Due to which the ground water availability vary. Heterogeneity in the distribution of fracture pattern, weathering mantle etc. has hindered the movement of groundwater, which has resulted in separation of water pockets of different dimensions with variable storage. There is no continuity in groundwater flow mainly at deeper depths.
    Recharging of upper shallow aquifer during monsoon, takes place. As the stock/storage of water ceases after use, the groundwater availability is at stake, specially at depths.
  • 23. Groundwater as source
    Solapur Municipal Corporation is one of the main body in the Maharashtra State which has successfully launched the extraction of ground water through bore wells for the public.
    Mainly the bore wells are supplied with the hand pumps and very few are with electric pump. However private bore wells are generally having electric pump on large scale for pumping of ground water.
    In general hand pump working is seasonal and in summer they didn’t work due to depletion of water table. However they get recharged during monsoon.
    As per record of municipal corporation-
    1st bore well in Solapur city – in 1975 for 150’ depth
    Upto 1977 - 60 bores wells were drilled mainly in old city area.
    Upto 2001 - 2195 bore wells were drilled including extended area.
    In Solapur city area by electrical resistivity method, three different possible aquifer zones are investigated. The first one is shallow aquifer met at the depth of around 10 to 20 mts, or 20 to 40 mts. The second one is at deeper depths meeting at either 60 to 80mts. or 80 to 100mts. The third one is at still deeper depth of 120 to130 mts. or 140 to150 mts.
  • 24. Of these the shallow aquifer is found to get recharged during regular monsoon, while the other two at depths are normally not recharged and are probably stock waters.
    Reduction in percolation quantity and there by in storage due to
    urbanization, metallic & tarring of roads, concrete buildings, hardening and packing of grounds etc. caused depletion in ground water availability.
    Earlier in 1980 and 1990’s bore wells of about 100’ depth were sufficient in general for a small unit of 5 to 6 members of family, with daily requirement of about 500 To 600 liters per day. However with present situations, bores are yielding very less water or no water or intermittently stock water if is available through weak percolation, does not full fill the needs.
    However some bores are with depth of 300’ to 500’, which are tried in different areas by few individuals, contractors, and industrialist are yielding good waters. However it is found that these are having short duration and a temporary phase. The success rate of good yield of bores for relatively long duration is around 4 to 6 %.
    .
  • 25. However only 5% bores waters are considered usable for drinking purpose as per Standards i.e.95% are only usable waters.
    However the individual householders / fiat owners, societies industries, commercial centers etc. have drilled bore wells in their private area as standby or as regular source mainly in extended areas where corporation filter water is not available
    It is roughly estimated that probably there are total about 10,000 bore well drilled in the city area of which nearly 60% are seasonal and with low discharge (about 200 to 500 lit/day) nearly 30% are giving medium discharge (about 500 to 2000 lit /day) while nearly 10% are with high to very high discharge (more than 2000 lit /day)
  • 26. As per review study it is estimated that nearly 3 MLD water is made available through groundwater resources.
    Presently with consecutive drought years and more extraction of ground water more than 60% of bore wells have been modified to low to very low or no yield.
    With improper casing or damage of casing mixing of sewerage water, industrial liquid waste etc. these bore waters get polluted. The maintenance of these bores is very poor or nil.
    The quality of bore water is not regularly examined and no data on standards is available, though the water is used for drinking, washing, household and by many industrial sectors too.
    Ground water quality is deteriorating in many parts of the city. With no regular quality check up, the bore waters are used without any information by the citizens especially in adverse situations, even for drinking purpose with out any treatment. This has produced health regards in these parts.
  • 27. In different part of the city where the water are low to moderately polluted, include areas around MIDC areas and small scale hand looms & power looms & dying industries running through the residential houses and quarters mainly concentrated in eastern part of the city, the wells & bore water are polluted with traces of toxic compounds, metals & metalloids complexes.
    In and around the main Shelgi nala in parts of NE, North, NW and western part of the city the wells and bore water at places are of saline in nature due to thick black soil cover and sewerage mixing.
    In southern part of the city the water are relatively good but are naturally medium hard. It is an extension area, with no proper under ground drainage system. There is fear of mixing of surface drainage water with ground water and may pollute the source.