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Web 2.0: characteristics and tools (2010 eng)
 

Web 2.0: characteristics and tools (2010 eng)

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Training course on Web 2.0 (version 2010 for BHAS in Bosnia)

Training course on Web 2.0 (version 2010 for BHAS in Bosnia)

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Web 2.0: characteristics and tools (2010 eng) Web 2.0: characteristics and tools (2010 eng) Presentation Transcript

  • Web 2.0 blog, wiki, tag, social network: what they are, how to use them and why they are important
  • This material is distributed under the Creative Commons "Attribution - NonCommercial - Share Alike - 3.0", available at the following website http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ . Part of the slides is the result of a welcome distance collaboration with prof. Roberto Polillo, University Milan Bicocca; the course is available on Polillo's blog http://corsow.wordpress.com/
  • Program * Introduction, course program and start course tools * The "old" Web and Web 2.0 * Web 2.0 in general * What is a blog * Web 2.0 contents features * What is a wiki * Wikipedia in theory and in practice * Technical Web 2.0 Specifications (Ajax, RSS, ...) * Tagging and social networks (Flickr, facebook, ...) in theory and in practice * The Google World: the algorithm, docs.google, Android, ... * Web 2.0 and Social characteristics : users number and characteristics * Social bookmarking and mash-up in theory and in practice Some theory: * Metcalfe's Law, Reed and Pareto, power curves, long tail, network theory, ...
  • Presentation Course organization Web 2.0 experiences: blogs, wikis and social networks (R/W) On the site http://web20bih.ning.com slides, communications and exercises
  • Web and Web 2.0 Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4CV05HyAbM (Information Revolution) http://www.worldofends.com
    • The Internet isn't complicated
    • The Internet isn't a thing. It's an agreement
    • The Internet is stupid
    • Adding value to the Internet lowers its value
    • All the Internet's value grows on its edges
    • Money moves to the suburbs
    • The Internet has three virtues:
    a. No one owns it b. Everyone can use it c. Anyone can improve it
  • the Web today http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm Net Neutrality: - "dumb, minimal network" with smart terminals, vs. the previous paradigm of the smart network with dumb terminals - no data discrimination (all bits are equal) - access freedom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_neutrality http://www.savetheinternet.com/
  • web history (by Polillo) CERN World Wide Web Mosaic (NCSA) W3C by Tim Berners-Lee Netscape IPO, MS IE, Amazon, eBay NASDAQ Boom and fall Google IPO; Firefox WEB 1.0 WEB 2.0 crisis prehistory AOL buys Netscape; born Google 9/11 Napster Financial Crisis crisis 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 90
  • the Web today World web sites – 1995-2010 ( http://www.netcraft.com )
  • Web 2.0 definition See http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 : “ Web 2.0 describes the changing trends in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aim to enhance creativity , secure information sharing, collaboration and functionality of the web. Web 2.0 concepts have led to the development and evolution of web-based communities and hosted services, such as social-network sites, video sharing sites, wikis, blogs, and folksonomies.”
  • “ Web 1.0 was all about connecting people. It was an interactive space, and I think Web 2.0 is of course a piece of jargon, nobody even knows what it means. If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along. And in fact, you know, this Web 2.0, quote, it means using the standards which have been produced by all these people working on Web 1.0. It means using the document object model, it means for HTML and SVG and so on, it's using HTTP, so it's building stuff using the Web standards, plus Javascript of course. So Web 2.0 for some people it means moving some of the thinking client side so making it more immediate, but the idea of the Web as interaction between people is really what the Web is. That was what it was designed to be as a collaborative space where people can interact.” http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/podcast/dwi/cm-int082206.txt Web 2.0 according to Tim Berners Lee
  • Web 2.0 map
  • Web 2.0 map
  • http://web2magazine.blogspot.com/2007/01/thanks-for-web-2.html 2.0 tools: a list
  • Web 2.0 general characteristics The most important features of Web 2.0 are:
    • Web 2.0 sites are platforms that allow a strong interaction between users
    • Users benefit from innovative services using powerful graphical interfaces
    • Users provide the value added by the self-production of contents and knowledge sharing. In this way we exploit and enhance the collective intelligence, real engine of Web 2.0
    • The services offered are constantly updated , so as to quickly correct mistakes and add new features as they become available (this feature is also called " perpetual beta ")
  • Web 2.0 general characteristics From a functional point of view, what characterizes Web 2.0 is basically the central and leading role of the user by user becomes more and more a controller of your data and navigating content, making the same producer of information and, simultaneously, the main Judge of the products from other All the great success stories of Web 2.0 show a true reversal of the paradigms of communication that our generation was used to. The communication " one to many " moves to " many to many " video “The Machine is us/ing us”
  • Web 2.0 first examples Google Page Rank , based on "opinions" (links) of other sites Wikipedia encyclopedia with entries determined and constructed by users Ebay , where each seller and buyer has a public reputation given by other users depending on his behavior Google Maps where users use standardized data in creative ways, giving rise to new services Blog , where participation replaces communication Social networks (Flickr, Myspace, Facebook) that collect and organize content provided by users
  • Blog http://it.youtube.com/watch?v=NN2I1pWXjXI (Blog) Short for web log (event log) public diary: website maintained by specialized software (from CMS family), designed for simple publishing of text and multimedia images The units of content ( posts ) are published in temporal sequence Template usage for the User Interface From one to three columns, header, ev. footer In the bottom of each post, signature, date / time, permalink http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog
  • Blogs use RSS feeds (see below) and “tagging” (see below) Installed on your server or on existing website (free / fee) Born in 1997, exploded in 2002, the number today? http://www.technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere/ The most complete survey: who, what, why, how, money http://www.sifry.com/main/ http://it.blogbabel.com/metrics/ http://vaccaricarlo.wordpress.com Blog
  • Corporate Blog Corporate blog is a blog written and edited by a company to share information about their products and services Unlike a website, where communication is directed to users, a corporate blog is to exchange bidirectional. In fact, a corporate blog is a new marketing model: tools born for consumer used for business A corporate blog is a way by which producer and consumer of information. The very fact of opening a blog means to start a process of analysis of company weaknesses http://blog.ducati.com/ http://mariosundar.wordpress.com/2008/05/05/top-15-corporate-blogs-ranked-may-2008/
  • Microblogging Constant publication of little contents in the network, in the form of text messages (usually up to 200 characters), images, video, MP3 audio, but also bookmarks, citations and notes These contents are published on a social networking site, visible to everyone or only to people in your community. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro-blogging http://www.twitter.com http://it.youtube.com/watch?v=ddO9idmax0o (Twitter)
  • User Generated Content ! (Read/Write Web) The user becomes an “active” protagonist Now it's important not only read the Web but also know how to write the Web (Jenkins): is this the new Digital Divide? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-generated_content one billion users, more than 100 million web sites (blogs included...) Content re-use and aggregation Web 2.0 contents - 1
  • Re-use Contents do not finish their life cycle when they are first published online, but thanks to re-use, are used for third party service, coupled with similar content, submitted for discussion or evaluation, tagged and socially shared, etc. . The main reuse is the aggregation of online content: join content from different sources The technology that aggregates is the syndication , namely the provision of contents from Web sites and online services. The main form of syndication is the Really Simple Syndication ( RSS ) a system for distributing content via XML files, allowing to constantly update users of the service each time the content is updated Web 2.0 contents - 2
  • Folksonomy - Tags and metadata In Web 2.0, tag means that labels are posted up to content, characterizing it by categories and keywords The idea behind the tag is simple: ensure that their content becomes searchable, linkable and useful based on semantic parameters (qualitative and quantitative) defined by users 2.0 applications allow to combine at each content one or more tags, selected by the user. This happens for all types of content, from text (blogs) to photographs, to the videos on YouTube. Web 2.0 contents - 3
  • Folksonomy and Semantic Web The idea of providing a system of classification (taxonomy) shared, open and bottom-up for the Net contents, is clearly at odds with the principles of the Semantic Web, whose goal is to build an order from the top Tagging instead produces, in a completely anarchic and efficient way, a folksonomy (neologism formed from the combination of folk (people) and taxonomy (classification)), whose goal is not to produce the absolute order, but the "best disorder possible ", ie one that meets the searches and knows how to adapt to an evolving set of content, constantly changing its system of classification according to mental model emerging among the users http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web Web 2.0 contents - 4
  • Geotagging Geotagging may be understood as a particular application of the tagging. You can categorize contents even from a geographical point of view: to affix a tag that contains geographic information in an image, text or video is very easy and can lead to a significant increase in the content's value es. flickr http://flickr.com/photos/37385373@N00/161862482/ and photo http://picasaweb.google.it/vaccaricarlo/Francigena2008/photo#map Web 2.0 contents - 5
  • Geotagging From the user's point of view geotagging means being able to create an annotated map, customized and shared with third parties GIS in the Web 2.0 becomes Geoweb, a system that grants users to access information via a map rather than using keywords - Geoweb: new services like Google Earth, NASA World Wind, Windows Live Local, Yahoo Maps, etc. Unlike GIS, used mostly by businesses and institutions, the Geoweb is a tool that reaches a much larger number of users. http://maps.google.com - Other – Photo How to insert Google maps into appications http://www.google.com/intl/en/press/annc/embed_maps.html Web 2.0 contents - 6
  • Wiki: introduction Wikis, invented in 1995 by Ward Cunningham, have emerged as one of the simplest means to collaborate online. A wiki, a term in the Hawaiian language that means "quick" or "very fast", is a web-based environment for sharing and managing documents and files where users can view and add content, but also to modify existing content posted by other users http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY (wiki) The term wiki also refers to the software used to create a wiki website Wikipedia is the most famous website based on wiki technology A wiki enables documents to be written collaboratively in a simple language using a web browser Wiki technology is the easiest way by which web pages can be created and updated
  • Wikipedia: introduction Wikipedia is one of the major Web 2.0 sites Wikipedia was created in 2001 with the goal of an encyclopedia free and reliable. Jimmy Wales, founder of the project, spoke of "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language." The result went beyond all expectations: Wikipedia, with over 14 million entries and 20 million registered users, is the largest collection of human knowledge. Wikipedia exists in over 270 different languages and receives over 60 million hits per day http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia
  • Wikipedia: some number http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_of_Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics In 2006 the journal Nature compared Wikipedia and the prestigious Encyclopaedia Britannica, reaching an opinion of equal authority (3.86 mistakes per article for Wikipedia, the Encyclopedia Britannica 2.92). Started GFDL, now Creative Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal vandalism, wikilinks
  • Wikipedia: follow "The point is not that each entry is probabilistic, but that the entire encyclopedia behave probabilistic ... To put it another way, in the Britannica quality varies from, say, 5 to 9 with an average of 7. In Wikipedia ranges from 0 to 10, with an average of, say, 5. But given that Wikipedia has ten times the voices of the Britannica, you have a better chance of finding an entry on Wikipedia sensible on any topic " "What makes Wikipedia really extraordinary is the fact that improves over time: it treats itself as if its huge and growing army of workers was an immune system" "The true miracle of Wikipedia is that this system, open to contributions from non professional users, does not collapse into anarchy" C. Anderson, The Long Tail
  • Wikipedia: follow Who is modifying Wikipedia? (2.0 application) http://www.lkozma.net/wpv/index.html Other projects Wikimedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_Foundation#Projects Humour http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Silly_Things Vandalism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Vandalism Wikipedia quality is not a surprise: as Eric Raymond says "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus%27_Law
  • Enterprise Wiki Wikis can be a valuable support to the work activities. So a company can acquire its own wiki platforms, providing a service wiki for use by employees. The use of wikis can be a useful tool for managing business information, customers, projects and document workflow. http://www.wiki.istat.it e http://wiki.istat.it
  • Web 2.0 techniques From AJAX: HTML liberation from - Post / Get - asynchronous model (stateless) http://gmail.com with the "WIMP" (windows, icons, menus and pointers) GUI, the Web comes close to desktop applications are born and Rich Internet Applications (RIA) Technical tools: AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) ATOM - RSS API integration - interaction MASH-UP: Hybrid - Plugins (XUL!)
  • Web 2.0 – moving to servers Centralization – decentralization cycle Technology mainframe -> LAN / fat client -> Web / thin client Monopolist IBM -> Microsoft -> Google Data Central (local) -> Decentralized (local) -> Central (global)
  • Web 2.0 – AJAX AJAX Components - XHTML and CSS to format the information - DOM objects, manipulated through Javascript, to interact with the information presented - The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the server - XML as a format for exchanging data between servers and clients First use of the term: http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000385.php (see schema) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_%28programming%29 http://gmail.com : first AJAX appearance ... (see source) In deep: http://www.w3schools.com/Ajax/Default.Asp http://www.onajax.com/
  • Web 2.0 : development tools 2.0: agile technologies:
    • constant evolution
    • development phases divided in little interactions
    • care to current project needs
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development Frameworks available:
    • Ruby On Rails, fw open MVC based on Ruby (OO)
    • Django, fw open MVC Python
    • Symfony fw open MVC PHP5 with AJAX support
    • Zend framework fw open PHP5
    • Google web toolkit fw open java, plugin for Eclipse/NetBeans
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_web_application_frameworks W3C http://www.w3.org/2006/rwc/ manages a group on “Rich Web Clients Activity” to improve client-side Web functionalities
  • RSS RSS (acronym for RDF Site Summary or for Really Simple Syndication) is based on XML, from which inherits simplicity, extensibility and flexibility. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0klgLsSxGsU (RSS) Almost alternative to traditional Web page RSS since 1999, Atom since 2004 Advantages compared to newsletter:
    • possibility of having a single aggregator for various sources
    • avoid spam
    • receive real-time information selected and customized
    • Aggregators even for browsers: Firefox bookmarks Live, WizzRSS and other plugins
  • Aggregators: Netvibes Broadband and billions of Web pages are valuable resources only if used carefully and intelligently. So we have to optimize time, streamlining navigation path and not get lost in the cognitive overload that often becomes chaos. For example, Netvibes allows you to organize information sources into customized grids. The personalized page, easy to implement with simple drag and drop, let you keep an eye on the updates of sites of interest, mail, news, etc.. We should not worry about going to look for information on the web but these are coming in automatically, to our aggregator. http://www.netvibes.com/
  • Aggregators As well as Netvibes (now available on mobile phones) Google Reader has recently achieved a very cool feature, the plug-in Gears, which allows you to read feeds offline (good also for Gmail etc.) Grazr is one of the latest online services offered , a platform that lets you organize the information found on the web, a great way to store feed and links of interest, and share them with others. http://www.google.it/reader/ Google reader
  • Web 2.0 tecniche: XUL XUL (XML User Interface Language) is a language used to define graphical interfaces Used for Firefox, Thunderbird and their extensions and plugins http://blog.mozilla.com/addons/2008/11/19/1-billion-add-on-downloads/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XUL : film references
  • Web 2.0 : mash-up Meaning: mash = mixture, medley to mash = to crush, to squeeze (term used even in music) Web application that integrates dynamic content or services from multiple sources (eg RSS or via API) to create a new service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid) a good presentation: http://www.slideshare.net/valicac/mashups-87355#slideshow_stats
  • Web 2.0 : examples of mash-up http://www.deeario.it/2006/08/21/mashup-mappa-dei-blog-italiani/ http://pipes.yahoo.com/pipes/ MashMaker di Intel http://softwarecommunity.intel.com/articles/eng/1505.htm http://code.google.com/apis/gdata/basics.html http://www.housingmaps.com/ http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/ http://mashupawards.com/winners/
  • Mobilize web sites http://carlo1.mofuse.mobi/ created by http://snapple.mofuse.com/users/ RSS is a technology that allows to uncouple web site and visualization
  • Tagging Tagging is the issuance of one or more keywords (tags, in fact) to files on online platforms for sharing (documents, video, audio, etc) as YouTube videos or Flickr photos Tagging comes from different needs including the need to manage the huge amount of data online: in web 1.0, and even more in 2.0, information overload (cognitive overload) is an important issue and a classification is necessary for retrieving relevant information.
  • Tagging The tagging can be seen as an evolution of classical taxonomy: from taxonomy to folksonomy where folksonomy is a neologism that means a more collaborative categorization using freely chosen keywords. It 'a term which in effect belongs to the 2.0 world: in its definition, it refers to the methodology used by groups of people who work voluntarily to organize information into categories available through the web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy
  • Tag cloud The keyword cloud (tag cloud) provides a representation of common tags. The tag cloud is a visual representation of labels or keywords used on a website (or in a document). The list is typically presented in alphabetical order, with the characteristic of a larger font used for the most important words. Example: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tags/ History: http://www.10people.net/blog/index.php/2007/05/30/tag-clouds-cosa-sono-da-dove-vengono/ http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tag_cloud http://tagcrowd.com/
  • Google: searching Each search engine has three components: - Crawler - Database - Interface and query software The crawler is a software program which surfs the net and brings the pages in the index. The crawler also takes note of the links it finds and uses them to gradually reach new pages with new links ... The index is a huge database where pages are stored with all metadata and where all the words are "reversed" by creating indexes / keys for each The interface receives the user's request, try to interpret it and passes the request to the "query processor" that works on the index
  • Google: searching The searches are usually very short: 20% use a word, almost 50% is composed of two or three words, only 5% more than six words Also the "searches" are distributed according to a "long tail" curve, approximately 50% of daily searches are unique. Do you know GoogleWhacking? About 90% of users use the first four engines: G Y AOL and Bing (G> 50%) The traffic on search engines has two peaks in the morning (in the office) and one in the evening (once returned home). The approx cost of acquiring a customer ranges from $ 70 mail advertising, online advertising to $ 50, $ 20 of the yellow pages up to $ 8 (!)for links related
  • Google: “old” searching First search engines: Archie 1990 (ftp command line query), then 1993 with Veronica Gopher (search only documents title). Then (1994) WebCrawler, the first to index the text of the pages. First good search engine: AltaVista (1995), born in DEC laboratories; thanks to Alpha 64bit processor it could launch a thousand crawler simultaneously. AltaVista answered the first year to 4 billion searches! Sold to Compaq, AltaVista was transformed into a portal Yahoo! Born as "David's and Jerry's Guide to the WWW" with a directory approach (see archive.org), a great success thanks to the link with Netscape. Yahoo! used its own directory service and for the search it used outboard engine: OpenText, AltaVista, then Inktomi and Google. 2009: Yahoo! and Microsoft Bing
  • Google: born Brin and Page studied at Stanford and Page had the degree thesis on “the Web as a graph” with Terry Winograd. The project BackRub (1995) was a system to find links on the Web, store and republishing them for analysis to see which pages pointing to a given page. In 1996 BackRub began to index the Web and, through the interpretation of graphs, also to assess the relative importance of sites. So was born the basic concept of Page Rank algorithm, that takes into account both the number of links a site receives and the number of links to each of the sites linked to the first. In 1998 Brin and Page released the features of PageRank in paper "The Anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine" and founded Google Inc. based in classic garage.
  • Google: the algorithm The secret of Google success is in the algorithm, obviously covered by secret, even if the network are its most important features. A SEO expert has developed the “Randfish theorem" http://www.seomoz.org/ (Keywords used * 0.3) + (Domain revelance * 0.25) + (Links in input * 0.25) + (User data * 0.1) + (Content Quality * 0.1) + (Manual push) - (Penalty automatic & manual) = PunteggioGoogle
  • Google: the algorithm Factors in the keywords use : * Keywords in title tag * Keywords in header tags * Keywords in the document text * Keywords in internal links pointing to page * Keywords in domain name and / or URL
  • Google: the algorithm Domain relevance: * History of registration * Domain “age” * Importance of links pointing to the domain * Domain relevance on the subject, based on incoming and outgoing links * Links historical use & patterns to the domain Score of incoming links: * Links “age” * Quality of domains that send the link * Quality of pages sending the link * Links text * Assessment of quantity / weight of the links (PageRank) * Relevance of pages sending the link
  • Google: the algorithm User data: * All-time percentage of clicks (CTR) on the results page of search engines * Time spent by users on the page * Number of searches for URL / domain name * History of visits / usage of the URL / domain name that Google users can monitor (toolbar, wifi, analytics, etc.) Content quality: * Potentially given by hand for searches and the most popular pages * Provided by Google internal evaluators * Automated algorithms to assess the text (quality, readability, etc.)
  • Google: the algorithm The original patent (1998) U.s Patent file # 6,285,999 ; METHOD FOR NODE RANKING IN A LINKED DATABASE A method assigns importance ranks to nodes in a linked database, such as any database of documents containing citations, the world wide web or any other hypermedia database. The rank assigned to a document is calculated from the ranks of documents citing it. In addition, the rank of a document is calculated from a constant representing the probability that a browser through the database will randomly jump to the document. The method is particularly useful in enhancing the performance of search engine results for hypermedia databases, such as the world wide web, whose documents have a large variation in quality. Inventor: Page; Lawrence (Stanford, CA) Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University (Stanford, CA)
  • Google: the algorithm The simplified formula http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank Where: * PR[A] is PageRank value for A page * PR[B] ... PR[n] are PageRank values for pages B ... n linking to A * L[B] ... L[n] is the total numer of links in pages B ... n * d (damping factor) is the probability that an imaginary surfer who is randomly clicking on links will go on clicking. it is generally assumed that the damping factor will be set around 0.85. It represents the PageRank percentage passing from one page to another.
  • Google: l'algoritmo PageRank in detail (from www.google.com/corporate/tech.html ) PageRank reflects our view of the importance of web pages by considering more than 500 million variables and 2 billion terms. Pages that we believe are important pages receive a higher PageRank and are more likely to appear at the top of the search results. PageRank also considers the importance of each page that casts a vote, as votes from some pages are considered to have greater value, thus giving the linked page greater value. We have always taken a pragmatic approach to help improve search quality and create useful products, and our technology uses the collective intelligence of the web to determine a page's importance.
  • Google: the algorithm Hypertext-Matching Analysis: Our search engine also analyzes page content. However, instead of simply scanning for page-based text (which can be manipulated by site publishers through meta-tags), our technology analyzes the full content of a page and factors in fonts, subdivisions and the precise location of each word. We also analyze the content of neighboring web pages to ensure the results returned are the most relevant to a user's query.
  • Google The Google search-engine is now the most important access point to the network. Search on Google, or to google , is now part of common language. You don't know? Ask Google! Services offered by Google (BigG!) now are many. A big part of Web 2.0 world now belongs to Google: YouTube, Google Earth / Maps / Calendar / Reader, ... and now Google went in browser market with Chrome and in mobile market with Android and Gphone http://www.marketwatch.com/story/android-market-share-passes-iphones-npd-data-2010-05-10 http://images.dailytech.com/nimage/14435_large_browser-share-trend.png
  • Google Dance Google periodically updates engine algorithms to penalize what it considers spam by specialists SEM / SEO (Search Engine Marketing / Optimization): the position index is so important that many websites are written containing only links to "climb" the sites that pay. There is no doubt that these attacks continue against spamming trade also serves to "push" services AdWords advertising. https://adwords.google.it/select/Login Other frauds are possible with AdSense, where site owners earn from clicks on sponsored links on their sites; sometimes robot programs are used, sometimes workers offshore to click on the links and gain (an estimated 30% of advertising budgets so go missing) https://www.google.com/adsense/login/it/?hl=it&gsessionid=HlXsYrGNMiY AdSense has helped to create the long tail of advertising, bringing hundreds of thousands of businesses to advertise and thousands of sites offering it.
  • Google AdWords
    • AdWords (introduced in 2000) is the main advertising from Google, and the main source of revenue (more than $ 20.4 billion in 2008)
    • Advertisers specify the search words that bring their ads on the right of the results page of search engine ("sponsored links")
    • The advertiser pays when the user clicks on the ad (Pay Per Click) and the price per click is determined by complex rules (paying more than the ad shown first)
    • The service is self-service online: the software makes all the work (negotiations, sales, execution)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AdWords http://adwords.google.com
  • Google In 2007 Big Brother Award Italy has awarded Google the dubious prize of "most invasive technology”, motivating the decision this way: "Brin, one of the founders of Google likes to say its employees "Do not Be Evil" and this became the company slogan. The admiration for Google and his services and its success as a company can not hide the fact that every search, every e-mail, post on Google Groups is recorded and analyzed, even if anonymous, and all the analysis head on the profiling of the navigator. Google, given the size, is the entity in the world potentially more threatening to privacy. With the recent purchase of DoubleClick.com giant of advertising and online profiling, which enlarges the potential data mining of Google, it seems that the motto could now become "Do not Be Evil, buy the Devil." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Google
  • Google Operating Systems Android : open-source platform Linux-based for mobile device application developments per lo sviluppo di applicazioni per cellulari Google Chrome OS : netbooks platform “ Google Chrome OS is an open source, lightweight operating system that will initially be targeted at netbooks. Later this year we will open-source its code, and netbooks running Google Chrome OS will be available for consumers in the second half of 2010. (...) Google Chrome OS will run on both x86 as well as ARM chips and we are working with multiple OEMs to bring a number of netbooks to market next year. The software architecture is simple — Google Chrome running within a new windowing system on top of a Linux kernel.” http://googlesystem.blogspot.com/2009/07/google-chrome-operating-system.html
  • Google tricks Google tells what information is collected when using the search engine and what is done to protect the privacy of users: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iPkvNr2cpqg http://www.google.com/webmasters/docs/search-engine-optimization-starter-guide.pdf Search in the blogs: http://blogsearch.google.it/ Search history http://www.google.com/history Sites comparison: http://www.google.com/insights/search/ # Other: http://www.google.com/intl/en/options/ and http://labs.google.com/
  • Using Social Software software that gives users a way to connect (usually through the contents sharing). - Value sharing: social applications where increased users participation increases in quality and quantity of content and therefore a higher value of the service. The collective dimension, then, is the guarantee of the existence and quality of service. Ex Wikipedia - Value sharing and cooperation : cooperation on contents not only shared but co-created, becomes an additional element of value. The ability to "create together" contents inrcreases of an order of magnitude the degree of relationship between people and promotes sociability from the moment of creating content. Ex docs.google.comenti: Web 2.0 social aspects 1
  • Which is the value of the contents of Web 2.0 applications As a service acquires contents (and value) through the direct participation of users and visitors, Web 2.0 applications are in a sense "hostage" of the user High and sustained user participation is a condition of survival of social networking sites The popularity of Web 2.0 service seems to be a critical element that sometimes overwhelm the same quality Web 2.0 social aspects 2
  • Participation Many services adopt mixed policies to promote participation. (Eg some parts of the site visible to everyone) Another factor to consider is the degree of customization of users participation. Systems such as WordPress, for example, allow the owners of the blog to set up different levels of access to content production and to enable comments at all or only to registered users. Another aspect to consider: many Web 2.0 services combine free use and use fee ( freemium ). Of course the paying customers are guaranteed the highest quality services, additional functionality, while not paying are excluded. Web 2.0 social aspects 3
  • New authorship dimensions: Copyright and Copyleft Production, sharing, assessing and putting some content in the network open a lot of issues related to copyright, putting sometimes in crisis, the concept of copyright itself. Who owns, in fact, contents shared and commented? It is wholly owned by those who wrote or you can assign to writer AND commentators? And if so, what measures? Are sufficient and suitable only quantitative criteria to determine the degree of Authorship? All this, moreover, is complicated in the case of collective or co-created content in distributed editors: for example, who is the author and owner of publishing rights of Wikipedia voices? Creative Commons … see licences Web 2.0 social aspects 4
  • Web 2.0 users Web 2.0 sites are since many years in the first positions as users number: web 2.0 is become a “mass” phenomenon http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none
  • Web 2.0 users During 2007-2008 the media gave prominence to a narrow subset of Web 2.0 sites, YouTube and Second Life first But which sites are actually the most visited and used? The answer is not simple, since the object “Web 2.0 sites” is not perfectly defined However, some studies have tried to shed light on some aspects of the phenomenon. According to the survey project JISC University of Oxford, Queen of Web 2.0 is Wikipedia http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2007/03/16/some-real-data-on-web-20-use/
  • Participation level For which concerns the user participation to “cooperative” websites, some author underlined a participation inequality, for which only 1% of users are really active http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1%25_Rule
  • Social network “ social networks” are the heirs of Usenet, the network of discussion groups (newsgroups) using nntp protocol Today the groups and their archives are under the "protection" of Google, which guarantees the continuation in "web" mode http://groups.google.it/groups/dir?hl=it&sel=33592333&expand=1 Many terms used in social networks (and in all 2.0 applications) were born in the Usenet community (post, thread, lurker, troll, ...)
  • Social network http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a_KF7TYKVc (social network) In social networks users create their “profile” (data and photo), and can be “friends” with other users (to confirm) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites facebook vs. MySpace http://www.google.com/insights/search/#q=facebook%2Cmyspace&date=1%2F2008%2012m&cmpt=q how many “friends” on facebook? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar%27s_number Trend: real-time (like Twitter) and location-based (GPS)
  • Social network - facebook Facebook: sudden expansion in Italy in 2008 (v. Google insight) – why? http://www.vincos.it/osservatorio-facebook/ Reed Law? (v.) Expansion in Bosnia: http://www.facebakers.com/countries-with-facebook/BA/ Social network sites historical analysis: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html Numbers: http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/2009/11/06/facebook-user-count-now-325-million-or-more http://mashable.com/2009/12/30/facebook-2009 http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
  • Social network - ning Ning allows anyone to easily, interactively, create a social network following his needs, whether public or private The service (which includes the hosting of the site) is free, with presence of advertising, otherwise payment Founded in 2004 by Marc Andreessen and Gina Bianchini In December 2009 reached 1.9 million social network! http://blog.ning.com/2009/12/happy-new-year-to-our-1-9-million-ning-networks.html see http://web20bih.ning.com
  • Social network – the digital self Audience unknown : in real life, we see our interlocutor and context of the meeting, in social networks we don't know who can see ourselves in the future, and in which context Merging separate contexts: in real life, we keep separate different aspects of our "self", in social netowrks it's very difficult Remarks: The social self http://www.slideshare.net/jtneill/lecture2-social-self-2 The widgetized self in the blogosphere http://www.slideshare.net/silvertje/the-widgetized-self-in-the-blogosphere Autocartography: mapping the self http://www.slideshare.net/rsmyth/autocartography-mapping-the-self
  • Social Bookmarking Based on tagging http://del.icio.us/ plugin http://www.stumbleupon.com/ plugin The service allows users to keep track of bookmarks, share with others, discover other users' favorites: everything is based on the association of keywords to your bookmarks No more the old browser bookmarks crowd: a set of tags that helps you to focus on aspects most relevant to you The mechanism for bookmarking and tagging is simplified by the ability to add buttons to your browser with which to mark your favorites and add keywords
  • Second Life The media have emphasized, often inappropriately, the success of Second Life, a virtual environment where users live a parallel life with 3D graphics. Each user can choose or customize a character (an avatar) and travel and live in a virtual world, spending or earning Linden dollars, convertible (the exchange rate fluctuates around 265 to 1 with the dollar). Obviously there are people who sail out of curiosity. The SL Universe is extremely diverse, ranging from the sale of "property" to gambling, drug-dealing to prostitution, etc.. Recently some investigations have greatly reduced the number of active users that the relevance of business
  • others 2.0 Storage: online storage, but also flickr, youtube, Office 2.0 ... general shift on servers Intranet 2.0: tags, desktop interfaces, sharing sites and materials, new search engines, Rich Intranet Search 2.0: Google CSE, semantic search engines ( http://www.grokker.com http://www.wolframalpha.com/ ) WOM: word of mouth, buzz_marketing Public Administration 2.0 - (e)Government 2.0
  • Software to test: Flock http://www.flock.com/ Based on the code of Firefox, Flock is characterized by the ability to integrate with the major social networking sites and blogging, including Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, WordPress, Blogger, Xanga and del.icio.us. This integration allows users to view contacts, content and online resources in a separate sidebar of your browser and share via simple drag and drop text, links, photos, videos and other digital content.
  • definizioni One of the first definition, the most cited: http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html Other definitions .-- comments? http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&defl=en&q=define:Web+2.0&ei=fG_xS4TrNs_e-QbnvNX9Bw&sa=X&oi=glossary_definition&ct=title&ved=0CBgQkAE Altri corsi http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~cac/nlu/web2.0/ http://corsow.wordpress.com/
  • Bibliography Tim Berners Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web, 2001 A.L. Barabasi, Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means,2003 Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, 2008 Chris Anderson, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More , 2006 Sergio Maistrello, La parte abitata della rete , Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 2007 Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: the Next Social Revolution , 2003 Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace , 1999
  • Web 2.0: some theory Laws: Metcalfe, Sarnoff e Reed The Long Tail Pareto Law Network analysis: “six-degrees of separation” and “small worlds” Eco, Sterling e Lèvy
  • Metcalfe's Law But why millions of people daily acce to platforms such as YouTube or Flickr. We have to go back to Metcalfe's Law: the law is named after its inventor, the American Robert Metcalfe, and dates from the end of the seventies: "The use and value of a network is equal to n(n-1), where n is the number of users. " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metcalfe%27s_law Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet, founder of 3Com and other companies, is also famous for having predicted the collapse of the internet in 1995 and for having "eaten" literally, as promised, the article in which the forecast was written
  • The Reed's Law Metcalfe's Law was an evolution of the law of Sarnoff (radio pioneer) argued that claimed the linear relationship between users on a network and its value. David Reed argues that the value of networks does not grow proportionally to the square of users, but exponentially. This applies to the GFN (Group Forming Network), networks where people use computer networks to form groups Image by www.kaltura.com
  • The expression ("The Long Tail") was coined by Chris Anderson to describe certain business and economic models such as Amazon.com or Netflix. The term is also used in statistical science to define patterns of wealth distribution or use of vocabulary. In these distributions, a population at high frequency or amplitude population is followed by a low frequency or amplitude, which decreases gradually. In many cases, events infrequent or low amplitude - the long tail - may exceed total number or importance of the initial portion of the curve, so that taken together represent the majority. Anderson argues that all the products in low demand and low sales volume can occupy a market share equal or superior to that of a few bestsellers and blockbusters, if the store or distribution channel are large enough. The Long Tail
  • The Long Tail http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html?pg=1&topic=tail&topic_set =
  • "The simple picture with few hits and many non-relevant hits is irrelevant now assuming the appearance of a confused patchwork of millions of mini-markets and micro-star ... the mass market is turning into a mass of niches. " "The new niche market is not replacing the traditional market of hits: it is only sharing, for the first time, the scene with it." "For a hundred years we have explored and discarded all but the best-seller, so to use as effectively as possible expensive display racks, screens, channels and attention." ... think of the distribution costs declined as a receding tide, revealing a new land that has always been there, but that was submerged“ The Long Tail
  • "98% Rule: in a world of packaging costs almost nonexistent and almost instantaneous access to all digital content, the consumer buys at least one copy of almost all products available (just 98%)." A typical example of "long tail": self-publishing services, such as http://www.lulu.com/it/ The Long Tail
  • "The first force, democratizing the production, populates the queue. The second force, democratizing distribution, make available any product. Should enter into scene the third force ... amplified word of mouth (the view of consumers) to meet supply and demand and help people find what they want in this new super-abundance of varieties, because the potential market for long tail can unfold in all its power. " Sturgeon's Law: "90% of everything is trash (crud)” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturgeon%27s_law Sturgeon's Law, which would block the users in physical libraries, in the Net becomes just a matter of filters (see Eco). We need efficient filters (Google!? education!) to separate signal and noise. The Long Tail
  • The Long Tail and Culture Evolution We are moving from a mass culture (mainstream) in a massively parallel culture There is an explosion of variety and choice of content, transforming mass culture in millions of micro-culture that coexist and interact ... "Ultraniches ... "Tribes of interest" cultural It's the end of the culture of "water bottle" or "prime-time television, where most of the population listens, reads and looks the same pool of hit and now we go toward the micro-cultures, where everyone is interested in different things Parallel phenomenon in the world of production: just-in-time, customization of the product and the elimination of stocks, but ... we are talking about bits, not atoms!
  • Mainstream TV Mainstream and Impact on Quality “ TV is not vulgar and prurient and dumb because the people who compose the audience are vulgar and dumb. Television is the way it is simply because people tend to be extremely similar in their vulgar and prurient and dumb interests and wildly different in their refined and aesthetic and noble interests.” ( D. Foster Wallace )
  • Pareto Principle The economist Pareto found that 20% of the population owned 80% of wealth, a ratio fairly constant over time and space. From this "law" the Rule 80 / 20 was born The linguist Zipf discovered that a similar law was valid for the frequency of words: some were very frequent, others much less, according to a report absolutely predictable: the frequency was equal to 1 / n, where n was the ranking (the second is used ½ of the first, third 1/3 and so on) ( Zipf's law ). The classic shape of the power distribution is y=ax k in which y is the diffusion and x the ranking by popularity (See Power Law )
  • Pareto Principle Note: 80 and 20 are proportions of various phenomena: they should not give 100! Often 10% of products gather 80% of sales! In "Long Tail" markets the 80/20 rule changes in three ways: - More products can be offered - The sales are spread more evenly between hits and tail (the tail swells) with filters and recommendations - The profit is divided equally between hit and non-hit In online marketplace "head" is much less important: eg. the first 5,000 titles in DVD reach 65-70% of offline sales and 40-50% of online sales
  • Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... topology Euler (1707-1789) laid the foundations for the current "graph theory", which allow you to outline situations or processes in order to analyze them in terms of algorithms. Subsequently, two Hungarian mathematicians of the twenties, Erdős and Renyi, studied the graphs and deduced that the complex phenomena of nature were random, without laws. Erdős Number http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erd%C5%91s_number is the “distance” between Erdős and other mathematicians See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Degrees_of_Kevin_Bacon
  • Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology In sociology Milgram studied the "degrees of separation”, the distance that exists between two points of a network based on their indirect links: between two distant strangers, between two web pages on the Internet or between two molecules of a cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_degrees_of_separation Milgram experiment in 1967 to understand the "distance" between U.S. citizens: selected citizens of Wichita and Omaha (see) must send a letter to two citizens of Boston putting it into the hands of “known” people ... an average of 5.5 steps (although many went missing). Barabasi, "how big is the Web? and how many degrees of separation? ". An experiment in 1998 estimated the "diameter" of the Web to around 19.
  • Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology An interesting and paradoxical thesis was provided by the sociologist Granovetter with the thesis of "weak ties": a person has more chance of success as the number of people with whom has superficial relationship increases (small worlds) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_world_phenomenon The "small worlds" are characterized by the existence of hubs or "connectors" (Gladwell). The connectors are described as "a handful of people who have the ability to forge a truly extraordinary exceptional number of friends and knowledge." Hubs exist in any field, for example in the Internet search engines act as hubs, in cells molecules ATP is one hub
  • Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology Find examples of "small world" networks in various sciences: chemistry, sociology, computer science
  • Networks, Nodes, Hubs ... Topology Against the hypothesis of chaos and absence of laws in networks, was formulated the mathematical formulation of a law: the idea inspired by the Italian sociologist Pareto lead to Power Law “scale-free”,according to which 'few major events determine the majority of the acts" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale-free_network
  • Peer-to-peer (p2p) networks “ Peer-to-peer networks aren't owned by any central authority, nor can they be controlled, killed, or broken by a central authority. Companies and concerns may program and release software for peer-to-peer networking, but the networks that emerge are owned by everyone and no one. They're faery infrastructure, networks whose maps form weird n-dimensional topologies of surpassing beauty and chaos; mad technological hairballs run by ad-hocracies whose members each act in their own best interests. In a nutshell, peer-to-peer technology is goddamn wicked. It's esoteric. It's unstoppable. It's way, way cool.” Cory Doctorow http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cory_Doctorow http://boingboing.net/
  • Umberto Eco "The student was saying that there is now the Internet, the Great Mother of all encyclopedias, where you can find Syria, cold fusion, the Thirty Years War and the endless debate on the highest of odd numbers. He was saying that the information the Internet provides is immensely larger and often more detailed than those available to the professor. It overlooked an important point: that the Internet says 'almost all' except how-to search, filter, select, accept or reject that information. Everybody is able to store new information, provided he has good memory. But deciding what should be remembered and what is not is a fine art. This makes the difference between those who took a regular course of study (also bad) and self-taught (though brilliant). Umberto Eco
  • Umberto Eco On the internet some years ago started a new controversy with Eco, born from an interview in which he reaffirms the importance of the filters in culture. Many argue that Web 2.0 is indeed developing its own techniques to better filter the big sea of network (tags, more powerful search engines, social bookmarking) http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/eco/eco.html
  • Bruce Sterling Vision Bruce Sterling created years ago the Dead Media Project (www.deadmedia.org) explaining that "Our culture is experiencing a profound radiation of new species of media. The centralized, dinosaurian from-one-to-many media that roared and trampled through the 20th century are poorly adapted for the postmodern technological environment" The media do not die, access tools die (the delivery, technology): the printed word has not supplanted the oral one, cinema did not kill theater, television has not killed radio. Old and new media have been forced to coexist The "black box fallacy" (all content will move to a single black box in our living rooms) ... black boxes in our homes continue to rise! But today we hear the music from the DVD player, car radio, the Walkman, mobile phone, radio web, PC, iPod ... (Jenkins)
  • Bruce Sterling Vision http://nova.ilsole24ore.com/nova24ora/2007/11/la-visione-di-b.html I would also speak about my vision of Web 2.0, which can be described as a network of ideas connected to each other: lines and circles that intersect and connect with each other. There are many things that distinguish Web 2.0 from Web 1.0. First, the network effects. Web 2.0 comes directly from the web - develops in itself – whilst Web 1.0 was transferred from paper to web. Not only: Web 2.0 is not intended to expand on a single network, but is designed to be ubiquitous, through any means. For example, I am always looking for something that works better than what already exists. The daily research of all of us brings to discover the future. Indeed, the future is where you find it.
  • Collective Intelligence by P. Lévy "Objects manufacturers are becoming increasingly rare and their work, extensive and mechanized, it is increasingly subject to automation. The work related to information processing are disappearing because communication networks auto-intelligent soon will discharge by themselves most of their duties. The final frontier will be the human being, which is not computerized: the opening of the sensible world, the invention, the relationship, the continuous creation of the collective. ... Everything happens as if the human in all its extent and variety, had become the new raw material. We struggle in order that the collective intelligence become the finished product par excellence. Collective intelligence: the source and goal of all the wealth, open and incomplete, paradoxical output because inner, qualitative and subjective. Collective intelligence: infinite product of the new human economy”
  • practice 1
    • Connect to the ning http://web20bih.ning.com
    • Create your personal page (My page) and add some data about you (and some photo?)
    • Put in the Forum your Web 2.0 definition
  • practice 2
    • Evolution of website http://yahoo.com : which 2.0 functionalities are now present? analyse evolution using “wayback machine” from http://www.archive.org
    • Sign up to www.twitter.com follow somebody and tweet something
  • practice 3
    • Let's change together a Wikipedia entry
    • Signup to Flickr or Picasa: explore it and upload some photo (analyse which options are available for privacy management)
    • Shortest GoogleWhacking (two-words)
    • Try one among following Office 2.0 applications:
    http://docs.google.com http://www.scribd.com/ http://www.zoho.com/ http://www.thinkfree.com/ http://workspace.officelive.com/it-IT/
    • All results and impressions on ning http:web20bih.ning.com
  • practice 3.1
    • Use Netvibes or Google Reader and define YOUR home-page
    • All results on ning!
  • Practice 4
    • Browse on http://technorati.com, find statistics on blogs
    • Try to “digg” some news
    • Try to manage “feeds” inside your browser
    • Explore http://www.newsvine.com
    • Try some service from Google Labs
  • Practice 5
    • Try www.whoishim.com or www.123people.com : search for some people you know
    • Design a simple web site with www.webs.com or www.webly.com
    • Review one mashup from www.mashupawards.com
    • Go to Yahoo!Pipes and realize a simple mashup (combining searches? or translating something like http://video.yahoo.com/watch/5260544/13878411 )
    • Signup to facebook, invite some friend and create some group
  • Practice 6
    • cooperative Intranet: http://backpackit.com/
    • Project management: http://basecamphq.com/
    • Contact management: http://highrisehq.com
    • Which is the business model for facebook, flickr and youtube?
  • Practice Creare un Create a profile on MySpace, facebook and a third social network of your choice Explore some social network run by www.ning.com and find three interesting social network on a topic of interest Experiencing a tool for building a personal profile Central (mEgo, retaggr or other)
  • Practice Browse the catalog of photo books of www.blurb.com , and indicate one of particular interest for this course Signup to www.lastfm.com , define a channel and try his social recommendation system Try www.anobii.com or www.bookerang.com