Stimulants Silong Y.

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  • 1. STIMULANTS the drugs that get you going  Ben Weissman Alex Casler Silong Yang
  • 2. WHAT ARE STIMULANTS?
    • Similar to monoamine neurotransmitters
      • Similar chemical structure to
        • Dopamine
        • Norepinephrine
        • Serotonin
    SEROTONIN
  • 3. MONOAMINES
    • Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain
  • 4. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Norepinephrine
  • 5. SOME STIMULANTS
    • Amphetamine
    • Methamphetamine
    • Cocaine
    • Ephedra
    • Ibogaine
    • Nicotine
    • Caffeine
  • 6. http://www.canpages.ca/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/image-of-cocaine.jpg http://www.clivir.com/pictures/smoking/cigarettes1.jpg  COCAINE CIGARRETES (NICOTINE) 
  • 7. HISTORY OF STIMULANTS
    • Chinese physicians used the ephedra plant (Ephedra vulgaris) over 5000 years ago
      • Ephedrine isolated in 1880s
    • South Americans chewed leaves of Coca plant (Erythroxylon coca) 2000 years
      • Cocaine isolated in 1800s
    • Leaves of the Khat shrub (Catha edulis) have been chewed in East Africa and Middle East
      • Cathinone isolated in 1970s
  • 8. HISTORY OF STIMULANTS
    • Native North and South Americans have been chewing and smoking tobacco for at least 500 years
      • Nicotine isolated in 1828
    • Amphetamine synthesized in Germany in 1887
      • Starting in the 1920s, it was used to treat various diseases and conditions
        • epilepsy, schizophrenia, alcoholism, opiate addiction, migraine, head injuries, irradiation sickness, ADHD, narcolepsy
        • Used heavily by US soldiers in Vietnam War
    • Crystal Methamphetamine synthesized in Japan in 1919
  • 9. BANNING STIMULANTS
    • Cocaine outlawed by USA (without prescription) in 1914
    • All amphetamines (including meth) followed in 1965
  • 10. CLINICAL USES - COCAINE
    • Sigmund Freud suggested it was a “miracle drug” in 1880s
      • Anasthesia, depression, indigestion, asthma, neurosis, syphilis, drug addiction, alcohol addiction
    • Used in Coca-Cola
      • Now the leaves are used with the cocaine removed beforehand
    • Only approved use now is as local anasthetic
  • 11. CLINICAL USES - AMPHETAMINES
    • First used to treat narcolepsy
      • Not curative but quelled symptoms
    • Since then, has been used widely
      • Treatment of Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, psychopathic states, ADHD, obesity
    • Used by soldiers to increase both long- and short-term wakefullness
  • 12. HOW STIMULANTS WORK
    • Increase synaptic activity of monoamine neurotransmitters
      • Dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin
    • Stimulants are indirect agonists
      • Increase ability ability of neurotransmitters to act without directly affecting the receptors
    • Each drug in this group works differently, but has the same final outcome
  • 13. HOW COCAINE WORKS
    • Blocks destruction of monoamines in brain
      • This increases time that the monoamines can bind to receptors
  • 14. HOW AMPHETAMINES WORK
    • Stimulate release of dopamine and norepinephrine from terminals
    • Inhibits reuptake, increasing ability to activate receptors
    • Inhibits monoamine oxidase, which destroys monoamines
    • Can directly activate catecholamine receptors, increasing monoamine activity
  • 15. Benefits of Cocaine
    • Increases wakefulness/alertness
    • Elevates mood
    • Euphoria
    • Increased athletic performance
    • Decreased fatigue
    • Clearer thinking
    • Increased concentration
    • Increased energy
  • 16. Negatives of Cocaine
    • Irritability
    • Insomnia
    • Restlessness
    • Confused/disorganized behavior
    • Fear
    • Paranoia
    • Hallucinations
    • Antisocial
    • Agressive
  • 17. Dangers of Cocaine
    • Increased blood pressure/heart rate
    • Increased body temperature and sweating
    • Faster breathing rate
    • Decreased sleep/appetite
    • Seizures
    • Strokes
    • Heart attacks
    • Death
  • 18. Benefits of Meth
    • Increased energy/alertness
    • Decreased need for sleep
    • Increased sexuality
    • euphoria
  • 19. Negatives of Meth
    • Weight loss
    • Sweating
    • Grinding teeth
    • Anorexia
    • Decreased labido
    • Itching
    • Delusions of grandeur
  • 20. Dangers of Meth
    • Hallucinations
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Hyperactivity
    • Shortness of breath
    • Moodiness
    • Anxiety/nervousness
    • Panic/paranoia
  • 21. Dangers of Meth Cont.
    • Uncontrollable movements and twitching
    • Violent behavior
    • Severe depression/ suicide
    • Fatal kidney and lung diseases
    • Brain damage
    • Psychological problems
    • Weakened immune system
    • Liver damage
  • 22. Benefits of Amphetamines
    • Increased alertness
    • Increased motivation
    • Increased talkativeness
    • Sense of well-being
  • 23. Negatives of Amphetamines
    • Anorexia
    • Flushing
    • Loss of coordination
    • Restlessness
    • Headache
    • Insomnia
    • Numbness
    • Itchy skin
  • 24. Dangers of Amphetamines
    • Agressiveness
    • Increased heartbeat
    • Irregular heartbeat
    • Increased breathing rate
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Fever
    • Diarrhea
  • 25. Dangers of Amphetamines Cont.
    • Blurred vision
    • Impaired speech
    • Dizziness
    • Uncontrollable movements
    • Impotence
    • Convulsions
    • Acne/sores
    • Psychotic episodes
  • 26. Benefits of Nicotine
    • Relaxation
    • Sharpness
    • Calmness
    • Alertness
    • Reduced appetite resulting in weight loss
  • 27. Dangers of Nicotine
    • Increased blood pressure/heart rate
    • Heart attack
    • stroke
    • Respiratory illnesses
    • Extremely addictive
  • 28. Caffeine
    • Positives
    • Alertness
    • Reduces boredom
    • Increased physical stamina
    • Negatives
    • Anxiety
    • Nervousness
    • insomnia
  • 29. Benefits of Ephedrine
    • Induces perspiration
    • Warms body
    • Relieves wheezing
    • Moves fluids
  • 30. Negatives of Ephedrine
    • Overuse causes amphetamine-like effects
    • Elevated blood pressure
    • Insomnia
    • Dry mouth
    • Heart palpitations
    • Nervousness
    • Muscle disturbances
    • Heart failure
  • 31. Withdrawal Effects from Stimulants
    • Craving
    • Exhaustion
    • Depression
    • Mental confusion
    • Restlessness and insomnia
    • Deep or disturbed sleep
    • Extreme hunger
    • Psychotic reaction
    • Anxiety
  • 32. Social Effects of Stimulants
    • Isolation
    • Devastating financial strain
    • Dysfunctional relationships
    • Destruction of families
    • Job loss
  • 33. Economic Effects of Stimulants
    • Users become broke
    • Users steal money; tax dollars pay for addicts
    • Money for education and public services wasted
    • Prevent otherwise able people from contributing to society/economy