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Hallucinogens Stacy Y.


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  • 1. Psychedelic Drugs
  • 2. Hallucinogens Overview
    • Some of these drugs are synthesized, others come naturally from plants
    • The cactus peyote and mushroom amanita have been used since prehistoric times
    • Some, such as these, have religious and spiritual use
    • Others were popular for just “having a good time”
  • 3. Psychedelics and the Brain
    • Agonists at Serotonin Receptors
        •  Strong Structural Similarities to serotonin
        •  Bind at serotonin receptors
    • Also inhibits reuptake of seretonin
    • Alters Seretonergic pathways
  • 4. Serotonin
    • Neurotransmitter
    • In Body: regulates intestinal movement
    • In Brain, it regulates:
      • Mood
      • Appetite
      • Sleep
      • Muscle contraction
      • Cognitive functions learning and memory
  • 5. But How Do Drugs Alter Behavior?
    • Normal Serotonin Activity Does Not Cause Hallucinogenic Behavior, So Why Do DRUGS ?
    • Scientists aren’t sure
    • Theory :
      • Drugs alter the receptors shape, then activate different effectors (end results) via different signaling pathways
      • Over-stimulation of receptors  increase EPSC’s  increase neuron firing in cerebral cortex
      • Also changes gene expression that change firing properties of neurons
  • 6. Look at the structures: ALL AT ONCE Psilocybin Psilocin LSD Muscarine Ayahuasca Peyote
  • 7. L S D : What is it?
    • Lysergic acid diethylamide; “Acid”
    • Odorless, colorless, bitter-tasting synthetic substance
      • made from ergot
    • Most common, non-addictive hallucinogen
  • 8. LSD: Mode of Action
    • After ingested by mouth or by eyes…
    • Scientists are unsure, but believe that LSD inhibits the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse
    • Serotonin primarily in cerebral cortex and locus coeruleus
      • Imbalance in cerebral cortex causes alteration in thought, mood, and perception
      • Imbalance in locus coeruleus
      • leads to bizarre sensory
      • experiences (auditory,
      • visual, and tactile
      • hallucinations)
  • 9. Effects of LSD
    • Begins to work 30 min. after ingested and can work for over 12 hrs
    • Physical Effects:
      • Dizziness, increased heart rate, nausea
    • Psychological Effects:
      • Sense of unreality, hallucinations, perception of time
    • Depending on:
      • Dose, emotions, setting, other drugs
  • 10. Bad Trips
    • LSD is unpredictable
      • Calm, spiritual trip
      • Or frightening, bizarre images and strong emotions
    • This can lead to feeling dizzy, anxious, disoriented, or paranoid
    • Taking LSD can destabilize people who are already predisposed to mental illness, such as schizophrenia
  • 11. FL-A--S---H----B-----A------c-------k--------s
    • Hallucinogen-Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)
    • After several trips, or even just one
    • Constant hallucinations while NOT on LSD
    • No treatment, but often ends on its own after months or years
    • Hallucination flashbacks could be just like other memories
    • Or could be result of permanent changes to the brain
  • 12. History of Discovery
    • 1938 Swiss doctor Albert Hoffmann
    • Pharmaceutical company, created LSD accidentally
    • Thought, along with other scientists, that LSD could cure schizophrenia, criminal behavior, and alcoholism
    • Experiments did not yield conclusive results
  • 13. LSD: Social Aspects
    • Scientists tested LSD
      • Many self-tested and shared the drug with friends
      • Some test subjects began smuggling LSD out of the lab
        • Became popular in the 1960s before made illegal in the 1970 Controlled Substances Act
        • Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters
        • Two Harvard professors, Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert
        • CIA
  • 14. Ayahuasca
    • Other names: Psilohuasca, ‘Shroom-a-huasca
    • Name origin : Ayahuasca means “spirit vine” or “vine of the souls” in indigenous languages of South America. Ayahuasca is also called Yage or Cipo in Colombia and Brazil respectively
    • History of drug: Used for healing purposes by Amerindians of the Amazon
  • 15. Preparation
    • Ayahuasca is made from boiling the stem of the ayahuasca vine, Bansteriopis caapi, with other plants
    • The plants that most often accompany the ayahuasca vine in the mixture are called the three campanions:
    • Chacruna (Psychotria viridis)
    • Sameruca (Pychotria carthaginensis)
    • Chalipanga (Diplopterys cabrerana)
  • 16. Chemistry
    • Ayahuasca is often used as an antidepressant
    • MAOIs in it reduce the clearing of serotonin from the synaptic cleft and allow DMT to travel to neurons
    • MAOI causes more serotonin to bind to serotonin receptors on the dendrites of neurons
    • Causes elation and the opposite effects of depression.
  • 17. Effects
    • Ayahuasca can also be smoked, inhaled, or injected to avoid the digestive tract
    • Parenterally administered ayahuasca acts quickly, but produces a short, brief effect
    • Ayahuasca drink is taken orally and passes through digestive tract
    • May take up to several hours to cause an effect, but lasts for longer periods of time
    • Can cause dizziness, vomiting, and nausea
  • 18. Legality
    • it is legal to possess ayahuasca vine, but it is illegal to have DMT or other plants that contain DMT, such as the chacruna plant
    • under Chapter 13 of the Controlled Substances Act, DMT is classified as a Schedule I drug
    • the Drug Enforcement Administration has found that DMT has a high potential for abuse and there is no medical use of DMT in treatments in the U.S
    • DMT lacks the accepted safety requirements for use under medical supervision.
  • 19. Bufotenine
  • 20. Bufotenine
    • Also called 5-HO-DMT
    • Weak hallucogenic tryptamine drug
    • Comes from natural sources but can be prepared synthetically
    • poisonous alkaloid similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin
    • does not easily cross the blood-brain barrier
    • secreted from glands found on the skin and backs of toads
    • constricts blood vessels, which causes a rise in blood pressure levels.
  • 21. History
    • Austrian chemist Handovsky first isolated Bufotenine from toad skin at the University of Prague during World War I
    • In 1934, Heinrich Wieland confirmed the structure of it in his lab in Munich
    • In 1936, Toshio Hoshino reported the synthesis of bufotenine and was the first to recreate it in a lab
  • 22. Legality
    • Bufotenine is classified as a Schedule I hallucinogen
    • Illegal to manufacture, buy, distribute, or possess bufotenine without a DEA license
    • Bufotenine cannot be obtained by prescription, either
  • 23. Bufotenine In Fairytales
    • The Frog Prince , The Princess & The Frog
  • 24. Peyote Peyote
    • Cactus in Southwestern US and Mexico
    • “ The Sacred Plant” “The Key to the Door of Illusion” “The Cube that Turns You On, Man”
  • 25. Peyote Effects
    • When Chewed or Drunken as Tea 
      • 10-12 hours of deep introspection
      • Visual and auidtory affects
      • Swirls of color
      • Time alteration
    • Bitter; often causes nausea and vomiting
  • 26. Peyote Religion
    • For thousands of years, has been used by Native American and Atzecan tribes
    • Integrated into their ceremonies and religious practices and beliefs
    • Used as a healing remedy
      • “ Sacred Medicine”
      • Combat physical, spiritual and social ills
  • 27. Peyote Stirs Contoversy in Supreme Court
    • When lawmakers tried to outlaw peyote, they received opposition
    • Claimed banning the drug was a violation of the First Amendement
      • Right to Religion
    •  Peyote is legal in
    • some states to
    • certified members of
    • Peyote Religion
  • 28. Peyote and Mescaline
    • Mescaline=the main component of peyote
      • A psychoactive alkaloid
      • Can be produced synthetically in labs
  • 29. Psilocybin: The Drug
    • Schedule I drugs
    • contain psilocin and psilocybin
    • These compounds are psychedelics and cause an effect similar to that of LSD
    • Psilocybin
      • tryptamine and an alkaloid
      • posphate ester of psilocyn and the more chemically stable of the two compounds
      • less potent than psilocin due to higher molecular weight
  • 30. Amanita Muscaria
    • Psychedelic chemical include Muscarine and Muscaria, an active alkaloid and Ibotanic acid
    • Symptoms:nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and bronchospasm
    • With larger doses: acrimation, hypotension and shock.
    • brain damage
    • Legal everywhere