Cognition From Sensory Perception to Memory & Learning
Sensation & Perception
Different modes of interaction are processed in parallel by different sensory systems
The receptors in each system analyze and deconstruct stimulus information
Each sensory system then represents this information in specific pathways
This constant flux of information is edited in a continuum of perceptions
Perception & Cognition
The appearance of perceptions as direct and precise is an illusion
Perception is the result of a myriad of connections
Connections can be altered by learning and activity
The goal of cognitive neural science is the study of the internal representation of mental events
How we “know” what we know
History of Cognitive Science
Hermann Ebbinghaus - 1885
1 st studies of mental processing
who pioneered in the development of experimental methods for the measurement of rote learning and memory.
Ivan Pavlov - 1926
Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist.
Demonstrated classical conditioning
Demonstrated that specific areas in the cerebral cortex are concerned with specific reflexes
Mechanistic theory of human behavior
Conditioning or conditional learning
pairing a neutral stimulus with one that elicits a particular reflex.
An unconditional stimulus (US)
one that normally elicits the response
Unconditional response (UR)
The response to the stimulus
Neutral stimulus (NS)
A stimulus that does not normally produce the response which can be coupled with the US
The response normally associated with the US, now evoked by the NS
The meat is used the US. The bell ringing is the NS The conditioning process involves presenting the NS & the US at the same time (contiguously) and repeating this many times. The more repetitions, the stronger the conditioning.
Once conditioning has been established, the dog is presented with ringing of the bell without the meat. If the conditional response has been established the ringing bell will elicit salivation almost as if the meat had been presented.
Built on Pavlov
Major Types of Conditioning
The US (meat) and the CS (bell) are presented at the same time.
The CS is presented before the US (meat).
While the two stimuli are not simultaneous, there is always some point in time when both are occurring.
The CS stops before the US is presented.
J.B. Watson –1925
focused on observable aspects of behavior (response to controlled stimuli)
ignored constructive brain processes such as thinking, planning, memory,etc.
led to behaviorism
“ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors." (1930)
Cognitive Psychology & Neurology
A response to behaviorism began in the 1960’s
Perception shapes behavior
Perception itself is a constructive process
It depends not only on the information of the stimulus, but also the mental structure of the receiver = internal representation