Cannabinoids Jonny A.

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Cannabinoids Jonny A.

  1. 2. MARIJUANA <ul><li>The History </li></ul><ul><li>The Use </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>The Implications </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Jonny A. </li></ul><ul><li>Matt M. </li></ul><ul><li>Greg P. </li></ul><ul><li>Nate M. </li></ul>
  2. 3. HISTORY <ul><li>Cannabis is indigenous to South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The use of Cannabis can be dated as far back as 3,000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence has shown that it’s also been used by Ancient Hindus, and even Assyrians </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis has been used for religious and medicinal purposes for thousands of years </li></ul>Cannabis from Vienna Dioscorides
  3. 4. NAMES <ul><li>Pot </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Jane </li></ul><ul><li>Ganja </li></ul><ul><li>Dope </li></ul><ul><li>Weed </li></ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul><ul><li>Hash </li></ul><ul><li>420 </li></ul><ul><li>And many more </li></ul>
  4. 5. CANNABIS <ul><li>Cannabis Sativa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A flowering herb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leaves are serrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are wind pollinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is in the same category as hops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The plant has many uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fiber is used to make hemp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The marijuana we all know is the dried flowers of the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resin is used to make hashish </li></ul></ul>Different varieties of Cannabis
  5. 6. HASHISH <ul><li>Resinous material of the Cannabis plant </li></ul><ul><li>Appears in many solid forms such as bricks and sheets and hard cakes </li></ul><ul><li>It is ingested much the same way as Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>It can be eaten alone as well </li></ul>
  6. 7. THC <ul><li>Full Name: tetrahydrocannabinol </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as an agonist for endocannabinoid receptors </li></ul><ul><li>The major psychoactive substance in Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>THC binds with the endocannabinoid receptors in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>These receptors are prevalent in parts of the brain that affect memory, thought, concentration, time and depth, and coordinated movement. </li></ul><ul><li>All these components contribute to the euphoria we call a “high” </li></ul>
  7. 8. ADVANCES IN CANNABINOID RESEARCH <ul><li>Cannabinoids are compounds isolated from C. sativa with psychoactive properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 9 -THC isolated in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabinoids are lipophilic and were first thought to disrupt membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabinoid receptor CB 1 R identified in 1990. CBRs are G-Protein Coupled Receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocannabinoids identified in 1992 </li></ul></ul> 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol Anandamide – Binds to CB 1 R
  8. 9. Endocannabiniods: 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) and AEA (anandamide) are synthesized in post-synaptic cells and are not released from vesicles Ca 2+ Ca 2+ degradation degradation AEA 2-AG biosynthesis biosynthesis 2 nd Messenger CB 1 R GPCR G G Post-synaptic Pre-synaptic Modified Figure from R.D. Hosking and J.P. Zajicek. 2008. Therapeutic potential Of cannabis in pain medicine. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 101:59-68.
  9. 10. Endocannabinoids: Involved in retrograde signaling – bind to CB receptors (CBRs), which are G protein coupled receptors Ca 2+ Ca 2+ degradation degradation AEA 2-AG biosynthesis biosynthesis 2 nd Messenger CB 1 R GPCR G G Post-synaptic Pre-synaptic
  10. 11. Cannabinoid binding to CB 1 R inhibits Ca 2+ channels in pre-synaptic cell Ca 2+ Ca 2+ degradation degradation AEA 2-AG biosynthesis biosynthesis 2 nd Messenger CB 1 R GPCR G G Post-synaptic Pre-synaptic
  11. 12. DEGRADATION OF ENDOCANNABINOIDS Ca 2+ Ca 2+ degradation degradation AEA 2-AG biosynthesis biosynthesis 2 nd Messenger CB 1 R GPCR G G Post-synaptic Pre-synaptic
  12. 13. THERAPEUTIC TARGETS IN ENDOCANNABINERGIC NEURONS Ca 2+ Ca 2+ degradation degradation AEA 2-AG biosynthesis biosynthesis 2 nd Messenger CB 1 R GPCR G G Post-synaptic Pre-synaptic
  13. 14. EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA <ul><li>Short Term Risks and Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired memory, learning, and coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased appetite (commonly called the “munchies”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety/paranoia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood-shot eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Possible) Long Term Risks and Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory problems (cough, phlegm, bronchitis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propensity for mental illnesses (schizophrenia, depression, suicidal contemplation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear whether marijuana causes mental illnesses or exacerbates those already in existence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of motivation and interest in social exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological (but not physical) addiction </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. DISTORED PERCEPTIONS <ul><li>The THC binds with the receptors in the Cerebral Cortex. The Cerebral Cortex controls the motor skills, sensory perception, and problem solving. As THC affects the Cerebral Cortex, it impairs perceptions and judgment. </li></ul>
  15. 16. IMPAIRED LEARNING <ul><li>The THC binds with the receptors in the Cerebral Cortex. The Cerebral Cortex controls the motor skills, sensory perception, and problem solving. As THC affects the Cerebral Cortex, it impairs the ability to learn. </li></ul>2 + 2 = 5
  16. 17. MUNCHIES <ul><li>The THC acts with the Hypothalamus which affects the way the hormones are regulated. </li></ul><ul><li>The hormones alter levels of hunger and therefore make the user hungrier. </li></ul>American Dad: Clip
  17. 18. ANXIETY AND PARANOIA <ul><li>THC acts with the Limbic system the most since the Limbic system contains many endocannabinoid receptors. The THC interferes with the normal way of communication. Since Marijuana is illegal, paranoia can be exacerbated. </li></ul>
  18. 19. INCREASED HEARTRATE <ul><li>Due to paranoia and anxiety. The heart tends to race in a stressful situations. This could lead to a panic attack. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Altered Sense of Time <ul><li>The cerebellum controls fine motor skills, balance, and an internal timing system. Marijuana interferes with these functions, making the execution of fine motor skills and the correct perception of time more difficult. As a result, a person under the influence may have a hard time tying their shoe, and what seems like an hour in actuality is only five minutes. </li></ul>
  20. 21. BLOODSHOT EYES <ul><li>Marijuana decreases pressure in the eye and increases blood flow. When the eyeball expands due to decreased pressure and the arteries appear more prominent due to increased blood flow, a “bloodshot” occurs. </li></ul>
  21. 22. EUPHORIA <ul><li>The combination of all these sensations leads to the proverbial “high” users of marijuana experience. </li></ul>
  22. 23. MEDICAL MARIJUANA <ul><li>Used to ease the discomfort as a result of Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Also used to stimulate hunger in AIDS patients </li></ul><ul><li>It is claimed that Marijuana also helps with many other sicknesses (such as MS and Epilepsy) but it’s not proven </li></ul>
  23. 24. MARINOL <ul><li>Synthetic THC </li></ul><ul><li>Created to ensure a proper amount of THC delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking Marijuana also has harmful side products (carcinogenic smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>FDA approved </li></ul><ul><li>Comes in a pill form </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have naturally occurring cannabanoids </li></ul>
  24. 25. LEGAL ISSUES <ul><li>Federal Bureau of Narcotics (1930) </li></ul><ul><li>The 1936 Geneva Trafficking Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory sentencing (1952, 1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory sentencing and three-strikes </li></ul><ul><li>United States vs.. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzales vs.. Raich (2005) </li></ul>
  25. 26. SOCIAL ISSUES <ul><li>Many teens experiment with the drug because of its availability and perceived harmlessness compared to other, “hard” drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Drug dealing </li></ul><ul><li>Drug dealing in high schools </li></ul><ul><li>The general acceptance of the drug among the public </li></ul><ul><li>Employee drug testing </li></ul>
  26. 27. ECONOMIC ISSUES <ul><li>California Taxation of Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>National Taxation of Marijuana </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Dealing </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Importation </li></ul>
  27. 28. MARIJUANA AND RELIGION <ul><li>Rastafarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Healing of a Nation” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quotes from the Bible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genesis 1:29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genesis 1:11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genesis 3:18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proverbs 15:17 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psalms 104:14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of these passages reference a nourishing “herb” made by God </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. ADVANCES IN CANNABINOID RESEARCH <ul><li>Cannabinoids are compounds isolated from C. sativa with psychoactive properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 9 -THC isolated in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabinoids are lipophilic and were first thought to disrupt membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabinoid receptor CB 1 R identified in 1990. CBRs are G-Protein Coupled Receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocannabinoids identified in 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects nocirecptors (pain) but no systematic studies in people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed as antiemetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New CBR agonists without psychoactive properties would be desirable </li></ul></ul> 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol Anandamide – Binds to CB 1 R

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