View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
INTRODUCTION• The trial was officially titled United Statesof America v. Karl Brandt et al., but ismore commonly referred to as the"Doctors Trial"; it began on December9, 1946.• The Doctors Trial lasted 140 days.
• The "doctors trial" was the first of the warcrimes trials; one of its outcomes was thefamous.• Nuremberg Code, a set of ethicalguidelines for human experimentation.
• The first tenet of the code is very clear:"The voluntary consent of the humansubject is absolutely essential."• Today, the Nuremberg Code is the mostimportant influence on U.S. law governinghuman medical research.
OBJECTIVES OF DOCTOR’STRIALThe trial was conducted for• Freezing,• Malaria,• LOST Gas,• Sulfonilamide,• Bone, Muscle and Nerve Regeneration• Bone Transplantation,• Sea-Water,• Epidemic Jaundice,• Sterilization. and• Typhus Experiments.
COURT DISCUSSION• On August19, 1947, the judgesdelivered their verdictin the "Doctors Trial"against KarlBrandt and severalothers. They alsodelivered their opinionon medicalexperimentation onhuman beings.
• Several of the accused had argued thattheir experiments differed little from pre-war ones.• But there was no law that differentiatedbetween legal and illegal experiments.
JUDGEMENTDAY• After hearing 85 witnessesand examining 1,471documents that werepresented, judgment waspronounced on August19, 1947 with sentencingfollowing on the next day.
• Of the 23 defendants, 7 were sentencedthe death by hanging (carried out atLandsberg Prison), 9 were given prisonterms, and 7 were found not guilty, wereinvolved in Nazi humanexperimentation and mass murder.• Joseph Mengele “Angel of death” , one ofthe leading Nazi doctors, had evadedcapture.
INDICTMENTS• COUNT ONE THE COMMON DESIGNOR CONSPIRACY• COUNT TWO WAR CRIMES• COUNT THREE CRIMES AGAINSTHUMANITY• COUNT FOUR MEMBERSHIP INCRIMINAL ORGANIZATION SS
DEFENDANTS GOT DEATH• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4Karl BrandtViktor Brack
• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4Rudolf BrandtKarl Gebhardt
• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4• Death• Charged for 1,2,3,4Waldemar HovenJoachimMrugowsky
DEFENDANTS GOTIMPRISONMENT• Hermann Becker-Freyseng• Wilhelm Beiglböck• Fritz Fischer• Karl Genzken
• Siegfried Handloser• Herta Oberheuser• Helmut Poppendick• Oskar Schröder• Gerhard Rose
DFENDANTS GOT ACQUIT• Adolf Pokorny• Hans WolfgangRomberg• Paul Rostock
• Kurt Blome• Siegfried Ruff• Konrad Schäfer• Georg AugustWeltz
PRINCIPLESNUREMBERG CODE 19471. The voluntary consent of the humansubject is absolutely essential.2. The experiment should be such as toyield fruitful results for the good ofsociety, unprocurable by other methodsor means of study, and not random andunnecessary in nature.
3. The experiment should be so designedand based on the results of animalexperimentation and a knowledge of thenatural history of the disease or otherproblem under study that the anticipatedresults will justify the performance of theexperiment.
4. The experiment should be so conductedas to avoid allunnecessary physical and mental sufferingand injury.5. No experiment should be conductedwhere there is a prior reason to believethat death or disabling injury will occur;except, perhaps, in those experimentswhere the experimental physicians alsoserve as subjects.
6. The degree of risk to be taken shouldnever exceed that determined bythe humanitarian importance of theproblem to be solved by the experiment.7. Proper preparations should be made andadequate facilities provided to protect theexperimental subject against even remotepossibilities of injury, disability, or death.
8. The experiment should be conducted onlyby scientifically qualified persons. Thehighest degree of skill and care should berequired through all stages of theexperiment of those who conduct orengage in the experiment.
9. During the course of the experiment thehuman subject should be at liberty to bringthe experiment to an end if he hasreached the physical or mental statewhere continuation of the experimentseems to him to be impossible.
10. During the course of the experiment thescientist in charge must be prepared toterminate the experiment at any stage, ifhe has probable cause to believe, in theexercise of the good faith, superior skilland careful judgment required of him thata continuation of the experiment is likely toresult in injury, disability, or death tothe experimental subject.
OTHER ATROCIUS TRIALS• In the Book Medical Apartheid documentsmany cases.1. In 1994, the Medical of South Carolina inCharleston was accused of enrolling poorblack women into narcotic-treatmentresearch without their knowledge.
2. The next year in Los Angeles, anexperimental measles vaccine was testedon children, mostly black andHispanic, without their parents consent.
3. In 1994 and 1995, New York City lawenforcement officials helped researcherscoerce black parents into enrolling theirboys into a study that sought to establish agenetic propensity for violence, againwithout their consent.