SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                    I                 Apeejay College of Engineering      Department...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                             II                           CERTIFICATEThis is to cert...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                               III                         ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would li...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                             IV                             ABSTRACTThis thesis pres...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                          V                            DECLARATIONI hereby declare t...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                             A                                 Table of Contents1 IN...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                           B                    II Organizational Structure         ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                   C                    I Introduction              ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                  D                                   b) Detection C...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                 E      3.4 Spectrum Management and monitoring inter...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                 F                     (a) Measurement receiver     ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                 G6 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz)……………………………………………………………………………………………61      6.1...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                           A                               List of FiguresFIGURE 1: ITUSOURCE – www....
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                           BFIGURE 8: Instrument used in mobile monitoringSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.c...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT             CFIGURE 15: LG 309SOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………48FIGU...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                          DFIGURE 22: VHF/UHF Receivers (30 MHz-3 GHz)SOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                          E                        List of IllustrationsILLUSTRATION 1SOURCE – www.i...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                          F                               List of TablesTABLE 1: Spectrum Allocation...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        11 INTRODUCTION1.1 ITU (International Teleco...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       2                                      Illust...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                     31. Radiocommunications:-ITUs Radiocommunicatio...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                          4whether you are interested in entering or...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      5b) History behind DoT and DoP:-The Indian Pos...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      6                              Figure 2 Variou...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       7Telecommunications, and four part-time membe...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                  8       Telecom Commission       Wireless Monitori...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      9       Up gradation and promotion of philatel...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                               10(D) Information and BroadcastingI. Ministry of Info...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                11(V) Public Sector Units (PSU)         National Fil...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        122. Department of Telecommunication WPC and...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                           13Telecommunication. Development of Telec...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        14   •   Formulation and implement of nation...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         15administration, monitoring and enforcemen...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                          16This is in the interest of vital nationa...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         17   III Spectrum, User & WMO:-1) SPECTRUMA...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                           18                               Figure 4...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        19•   With a view to fulfilling the purposes...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                  203) Spectrum Allocated:-Table 1 Spectrum Allocati...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                   21   IV Organizational Structure:-                    Figure 5 Or...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       22V Need for monitoring cited via example:-It...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         23Reason:-This problem occurs mainly due to...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                 24.VII Parameters to be checked during monitoring:-...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      25Example:-Examples of emission are as follows...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      26NOTE:-     WORKING AT WMO:Target Strategy:-T...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                          27IX Types of Monitoring:-   1. Net Monito...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        282. Band /Frequency scanning Monitoring:-Co...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        29a) Activation Parameters for scanning:Mode...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         30 b) Detection Conditions:-    Detection ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                 31o DemodulationIt depends on frequency band. E.g. ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       324. Mobile Monitoring:-The mobile monitoring...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         334.1.3 Drivers CabinIt has air conditionin...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                            34   RN2134:Range: 20 MHz – 500MHzIt is ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                         35   RN1034:Range: 300 MHz – 3000MHzThis bi...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                          36   AEA192It is a two channel antenna swi...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                          37    Industrial computer:It runs on WIN N...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                38                    Figure 9 Electronic Compass   Software used is...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                    393 ESMERALDA:-                                 ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                     40• Antennas perfectly adapted to each configur...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                  413.2 TOTAL COMPLIANCE WITH ITU RECOMMENDATIONS   ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                     423.4 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING INTERA...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                              433.5 AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION:ESMERALDA offers a complet...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                            44■ Spectrum occupancy analyzer                      Fig...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       45■ Audio recorder■ Wide Band digital RF sign...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                        46This configuration may be completed by mon...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                 473.8 A COMPLETE SOFTWARE SUITE:3.8.1 LG 309: opera...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       48   ■ ITU measurements operation   ■ Graphic...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      49                                      Figure...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                           50 Frequency/Azimuth view:This view may ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       513.9 A MODULAR CONFIGURATION:ESMERALDA, (sta...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                 52                    Figure 17 Modular ConfigurationApeejay Colleg...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                           534 HF Receiver (10 KHz – 30 MHz) :-4.1 I...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      544.2 Software and Methodology of latest techn...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      55II Using Yagi AntennaDirection finding often...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                     56                                Figure 20 Dir...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      57Emissions based:-   1. A1A Emission – Morse ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       585 VHF/UHF Receiver (30 MHz-3 GHz) :-5.1 Int...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                   59 Basic Instrument used:    Rohde and Schwarz M...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                      60 Memory scanning can be done i.e. scanning ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       616 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz) :-6.1 ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                       62                        Figure 23 Spectrum ...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                    63                      Figure 24 Spectrum Analy...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                                             64STEP:It refers to the step size an i....
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                               65NOTE: Basic difference in Esmeralda and Spectrum A...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                                               VI                           CONCLUSIONThe most signi...
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT                        VII                            REFERENCES      Communication Systems by Sanj...
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WMO Summer Training Report 2011

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Training Report at Wireless Monitoring Organization India.
Aug 2011

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Transcript of "WMO Summer Training Report 2011"

  1. 1. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT I Apeejay College of Engineering Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Summer Training ReportSubmitted by:Name-Surname : Varun ChopraRoll Number : 083115Name and Location of Company : Wireless Monitoring Organization (WMO) Village - Ghitorni, IMS Campus, MG Road, New Delhi - 110062Duration of Training : Six WeeksApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  2. 2. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT II CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that VARUN CHOPRA student of Bachelor ofTechnology, Electronics and Communication Engineering, 3rd Year,(APEEJAY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (SOHNA, GURGAON) hassuccessfully completed his 6 weeks industrial Training at WirelessMonitoring Organization (WMO), Village - Ghitorni, IMS Campus, MGRoad, New Delhi – 110062. He has completed the whole training as per thetraining Report submitted by him. The matter embodied in this thesis isoriginal and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree. Training In charge: Mr. Vishal Singh Yadav Officer In charge, WMO Village - Ghitorni, IMS Campus, MG Road, New Delhi - 110062Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  3. 3. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to thank Mr. Vishal Singh Yadav, my guide for the training, forproviding me with the opportunities of studying, learning and gainingpractical experience in various fields during the period of training. Hisinvaluable suggestions not only helped me to reach the successfulcompletion of the tasks assigned, but also made me learn a lot. I would liketo give special thanks to Mr. Pranaya Subbah for helping me throughoutwith his wise suggestions, innovative ideas and whole-hearted help. I wantto thank Mrs. Anita Shani, Mr. Ajit Singh and all others in the departmentwho helped me during my work here. And finally I would like to thank theHR my institute, College of Engineering, for giving me the opportunity tohave a precious and rewarding experience of training in the prestigiousorganization of Wireless Monitoring. With profound respect and gratitude, Itake the opportunity to convey my thanks for permitting me to complete mytraining here. VARUN CHOPRA Apeejay College Of Engineering Sohna, GurgaonApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  4. 4. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT IV ABSTRACTThis thesis presents about WMO (Wireless Monitoring Organization) andthe technologies used in monitoring. They allocate global radio spectrumand satellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks andtechnologies seamlessly interconnect,This report describes the summer training experience in the WirelessMonitoring Organization at Ghitorni, New Delhi. I worked on Esmeraldasoftware, Spectrum Analyzer, HF and VHF receivers along with variousantennas.In addition, I came across the wireless monitoring concept. In this report Idescribe major components used in WMO and work done on them. VARUN CHOPRA Apeejay College Of Engineering Sohna, GurgaonApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  5. 5. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT V DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best ofmy knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published orwritten by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has beenaccepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university orother institute of higher except where due acknowledgement has been madein the text. Signature : Name : Varun Chopra Roll No. : 083115 Date :Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  6. 6. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT A Table of Contents1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………..1 1.1 ITU ………………………………………………………………………………..……1 a) Introduction ………………………………………………………………………..……1 b) Sectors of ITU ………………………………………………………………………..……2 1. Radiocommunications ………………………………………………………………..……3 2. Standardization ………………………………………………………………..……3 3. Development ………………………………………………………………..……3 C) History of ITU ………………………………………………………………………..……4 1.2 Telecommunication in India ………………………………………………………………………………..……4 a) Ministry of Communication and Information Technology ………………………………………………………………………..……4 b) History behind DoT and DoP ………………………………………………………………………..……5 c) The Telecom Commission ………………………………………………………………………..……6 I Introduction ………………………………………………………………..……6Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  7. 7. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT B II Organizational Structure ………………………………………………………………..…… III Functions of Telecom Commission ………………………………………………………………..……7 d) Organizational Structure ………………………………………………………………………..……7 (A) Telecommunication ………………………………………………………………..……8 (B) Postal Sector: Department of Posts ………………………………………………………………..……8 (C) Information Technology ………………………………………………………………..……9 (D) Information and Broadcasting ……………………………………………………………………10 e) National Radio Regulatory Authority since 1952 ……………………………………………………………………………112 Department of Telecommunications (WPC and WMO)……………………………………………………………………………………………12 2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………12 a) WPC (Wireless Planning & Coordination) ……………………………………………………………………………12 I Introduction ……………………………………………………………………12 II Functionalities of WPC ……………………………………………………………………13 b) WMO (Wireless Monitoring Organization) ……………………………………………………………………………14Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  8. 8. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT C I Introduction ……………………………………………………………………14 II Functionalities of WMO ……………………………………………………………………16 III Spectrum, User & WMO ……………………………………………………………………17 1) Spectrum ……………………………………………………………17 2) Relationship ……………………………………………………………18 3) Spectrum Allocated ……………………………………………………………20 IV Organizational Structure ……………………………………………………………………21 V Need for monitoring cited via Example ……………………………………………………………………22 VI Purpose of monitoring ……………………………………………………………………23 VII Parameters to be checked during monitoring ……………………………………………………………………24 VIII Steps for Monitoring ……………………………………………………………………25 IX Types of Monitoring ……………………………………………………………………27 1. Net Monitoring ……………………………………………………………27 2. Band Monitoring or Frequency Scanning ……………………………………………………………28 a) Activation Parameters for scanning: ……………………………………………………29Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  9. 9. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT D b) Detection Conditions: ……………………………………………………29 3. Specific or Fixed Frequency Monitoring ……………………………………………………………30 3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………30 3.2 Parameters ……………………………………………………30 4. Mobile Monitoring ……………………………………………………………32 4.1 Broad Architecture of MMS ……………………………………………………32 4.2 Receiver Chain ……………………………………………………33 4.2.1 Antennas ……………………………………………33 4.2.2 Antennas Switches ……………………………………………35 4.2.3 Equipment Rack ……………………………………………363 ESMERALDA……………………………………………………………………………………………39 3.1 Integrated station for spectrum monitoring ……………………………………………………………………………………39 3.2 Total Compliance with ITU Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………41 3.3 Mastering the Radioelectrical Spectrum ……………………………………………………………………………………41Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  10. 10. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT E 3.4 Spectrum Management and monitoring interactivity ……………………………………………………………………………………42 3.5 An Efficient Solution ……………………………………………………………………………………43 3.6 A Unique Solution ……………………………………………………………………………………43 3.7 A Multipurpose Architecture ……………………………………………………………………………………45 (A) Fixed HF / VHF / UHF Stations ……………………………………………………………………45 (B) Mobile and / or semi fixed HF / VHF / UHF Stations ……………………………………………………………………46 (C) Transportable VHF / UHF Stations ……………………………………………………………………46 3.8 A Complete Software Suite ……………………………………………………………………………………47 3.8.1 LG 309: operation software for digital receivers ……………………………………………………………………………47 (a) Design ……………………………………………………………………47 (b) Features ……………………………………………………………………47 3.8.2 LG 111: operation software for direction finders ……………………………………………………………………………45 (a) Features ……………………………………………………………………48 (b) Result Windows ……………………………………………………………………49 3.9 A Modular Configuration ……………………………………………………………………………………51Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  11. 11. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT F (a) Measurement receiver ……………………………………………………………………51 (b) Two channel radio direction finding ……………………………………………………………………514 HF Receivers (10 KHz – 30 MHz)……………………………………………………………………………………………53 4.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………53 4.2 Software and Methodology of latest technology HF Receivers ……………………………………………………………………………………54 a) Esmeralda LG 309 software ……………………………………………………………………………54 b) Direction finder / Locating unidentified Transmitter ……………………………………………………………………………54 I Triangulation Method ……………………………………………………………………54 II Using Yagi Antenna ……………………………………………………………………55 III Using Loop Aerial Antenna ……………………………………………………………………55 4.3 Examples ……………………………………………………………………………………565 VHF/UHF Receivers (30 MHz-3 GHz)……………………………………………………………………………………………58 5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………58 5.2 Features ……………………………………………………………………………………59 5.3 Examples ……………………………………………………………………………………60Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  12. 12. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT G6 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz)……………………………………………………………………………………………61 6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………61 6.2 Features ……………………………………………………………………………………62 6.3 Examples ……………………………………………………………………………………63Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  13. 13. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT A List of FiguresFIGURE 1: ITUSOURCE – www.itu.int……………………………………………………………………………………………..1FIGURE 2: Various mobile operatorsSOURCE – telecomtalk.info……………………………………………………………………………………………..3FIGURE 3: Electromagnetic SpectrumSOURCE – kollewin.com……………………………………………………………………………………………21FIGURE 4: Spectrum of Visible LightSOURCE – loke.as.arizona.edu……………………………………………………………………………………………21FIGURE 5: Organizational StructureSOURCE – WMO……………………………………………………………………………………………21FIGURE 6: BandwidthSOURCE – Self drawn……………………………………………………………………………………………22FIGURE 7: Cellular NetworksSOURCE – www.wikipedia.com……………………………………………………………………………………………27Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  14. 14. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT BFIGURE 8: Instrument used in mobile monitoringSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………32FIGURE 9: Electronic CompassSOURCE – www.wikipedia.com……………………………………………………………………………………………38FIGURE 10: EsmeraldaSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………39FIGURE 11: Esmeralda Hardware SetupSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………40FIGURE 12: ITU RecommendationsSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………41FIGURE 13: Mobile Monitoring by EsmeraldaSOURCE – WMO……………………………………………………………………………………………44FIGURE 14: LG 309SOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………47Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  15. 15. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT CFIGURE 15: LG 309SOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………48FIGURE 16: LG 111SOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………49FIGURE 17: Modular ConfigurationSOURCE – www.thalesgroup.com……………………………………………………………………………………………52FIGURE 18: HF ReceiversSOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………53FIGURE 19: Triangulation MethodSOURCE – Self……………………………………………………………………………………………54FIGURE 20: Direction FinderSOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………56FIGURE 21: Primitive HF ReceiverSOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………57Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  16. 16. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT DFIGURE 22: VHF/UHF Receivers (30 MHz-3 GHz)SOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………60FIGURE 23: Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz)SOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………61FIGURE 24: Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz)SOURCE – www.rohde-schwarz.com……………………………………………………………………………………………62FIGURE 25: Spectrum Analyzer SoftwareSOURCE – www.spectrumanalyzerpro.com……………………………………………………………………………………………64Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  17. 17. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT E List of IllustrationsILLUSTRATION 1SOURCE – www.itu.int……………………………………………………………………………………………..1ILLUSTRATION 2SOURCE – www.itu.int……………………………………………………………………………………………..3ILLUSTRATION 3SOURCE – www.itu.int……………………………………………………………………………………………..3Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  18. 18. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT F List of TablesTABLE 1: Spectrum AllocationSOURCE – WMO……………………………………………………………………………………………20TABLE 2: Target ReportSOURCE – WMO……………………………………………………………………………………………22Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  19. 19. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 11 INTRODUCTION1.1 ITU (International Telecommunication Union):- Figure 1 ITUa) IntroductionITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communicationtechnologies – ICTs.We allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standardsthat ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improveaccess to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide.ITU is committed to connecting all worlds people – wherever they live and whatevertheir means. Through our work, we protect and support everyones fundamental right tocommunicate.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  20. 20. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 2 Illustration 1Today, ICTs underpin everything we do. They help manage and control emergencyservices, water supplies, power networks and food distribution chains. They supporthealth care, education, government services, financial markets, transportation systemsand environmental management. And they allow people to communicate with colleagues,friends and family anytime, and almost anywhere.With the help of our membership, ITU brings the benefits of modern communicationtechnologies to people everywhere in an efficient, safe, easy and affordable manner.ITU membership reads like a Who’s Who of the ICT sector. We’re unique among UNagencies in having both public and private sector membership. So in addition to our 192Member States, ITU membership includes ICT regulators, leading academic institutionsand some 700 private companies.In an increasingly interconnected world, ITU is the single global organization embracingall players in this dynamic and fast-growing sector.b) Sectors of ITUITU has three main areas of activity organized in ‘Sectors’ which work throughconferences and meetings.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  21. 21. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 31. Radiocommunications:-ITUs Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) coordinates this vast and growing range ofradiocommunication services, as well as the international management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits. Illustration 22. Standardization:-ITU standards (called Recommendations) are fundamental to the operation of today’sICT networks. Without ITU standards you couldn’t make a telephone call or surf theInternet. For Internet access, transport protocols, voice and video compression, homenetworking. Illustration 33. Development:-ITUs Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) has a programme to offer –Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  22. 22. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 4whether you are interested in entering or expanding your presence in emerging markets,demonstrating global ICT leadership, learning how to put good policy into practicec) History of ITU:-ITU was founded in Paris in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union. It took itspresent name in 1934, and in 1947 became a specialized agency of the United Nations.Although its first area of expertise was the telegraph, the work of ITU now covers thewhole ICT sector, from digital broadcasting to the Internet, and from mobile technologiesto 3D TV.1.2 Telecommunication in India:-a) Ministry of Communication and Information Technology:-The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Government of India, isthe apex body for overseeing telecommunications in the country. It is headed by a UnionMinister, who is assisted by a Minister of State and a well-established organizational baseto effectively discharge the onerous duties, functions and responsibilities of his office.As per the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961, there are at presentthree departments under the Ministry, viz., o The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), o The Department of Posts (DoP) and o The Department of Information Technology (DIT).The Rules also lay down the distribution of subjects amongst these three departments.The initial Order prescribing the Rules is produced in the box below.It was signed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of independent India.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  23. 23. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 5b) History behind DoT and DoP:-The Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department was managed by the P&T Board headed byits Chairman, who was also the Director General of Posts and Telegraphs (DGP&T) andthe Secretary, Ministry of Communications.With effect from 31st December 1984, the P&T department was divided into twoindependent departments, viz., o The Department of Posts, and the o Department of Telecommunications (DoT),Both headed by respective Secretaries.Major policy and operational decisions were to be taken by the respective Boards havingfunctional Members. MTNL and VSNLIn 1986, the Overseas Communications Service was converted into Videsh SancharNigam Ltd. (VSNL), and the two key operative units of DoT – Delhi Telephones andBombay Telephones – into Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL).Both VSNL and MTNL were established under the Indian Companies Act of 1956. InApril 1989, the DoT superstructure was further modified by upgrading the TelecomBoard to the level of Telecom Commission, with the Secretary, DoT, functioning as theChairman of the Telecom Commission.In March 1999 the government announced the new National Telecom Policy, calledNTP-99. As a part of the continuing process of opening up of the sector, and in pursuanceof NTP-99, the Department of Telecom Services (DTS) and Department of TelecomOperations (DTO) were carved out from DoT in October 1999 for providingtelecommunications services in the country.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  24. 24. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 6 Figure 2 Various mobile operatorsc) The Telecom Commission:-I IntroductionThe Telecom Commission was set up by the Government of India on April 11, 1989 withlarge administrative and financial powers to effectively deal with multifarious problemsconcerning growth of telecommunications. It replaced the erstwhile Telecom Board andhad a much broader mandate. A copy of the gazette notification setting up theCommission is reproduced in Annexure B at the end of this chapter.II Organizational StructureThe Commission continues to exist to date and comprises of a chairman, four full timemembers that are ex officio secretaries to the Government of India in the Department ofApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  25. 25. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 7Telecommunications, and four part-time members who are secretaries to the Governmentof India in other departments.The part-time members are the Secretary (Information Technology), Secretary (Finance),Secretary (Planning Commission) and Secretary (Industrial Policy and Promotion).The Secretary, Department of Telecommunications, as the chief executive officer of theDepartment heads the Commission as its chairman.III Functions of Telecom CommissionThe major functions of Telecom Commission include:o Formulation of telecommunications policy,o Licensing of telecommunications services,o Assignment, monitoring and control of wireless spectrum,o Administrative control of telecom public sector units (PSU), research,o Development and standardization of telecommunications equipment and techniques,o Cooperation with various international telecommunications bodies.NOTE:-The financial powers of the Telecom Commission, its Chairman, and its Members aregiven at the end of this chapter in Annexure C, D and E respectively.d) Organizational Structure(A) TelecommunicationI. Department of Telecom Department of Telecommunications ( DOT )Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  26. 26. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 8 Telecom Commission Wireless Monitoring Organization ( WMO ) Wireless Planning & Co-ordination Wing(WPC)II. Regulatory Bodies Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) Telecom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)III PSU Providing Telecom Services Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. ( BSNL ) Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. ( MTNL )IV Development and Manufacturing of Telecom Equipment Indian Telephone Industries (ITI) Telecom Engineering Centre (TEC) Centre for Development of Telemetric (C-DOT)(B) Postal Sector: Department of Posts Expansion of Postal Network Computerization of post offices (installation of MPCM), Accounts and Administrative offices and Software Development. Computerization and networking of Mail Offices Up gradation of Customer Care Centre Modernization & up gradation of VSAT system Modernization of operative / working systems (improving ergonomics) AMPC Mechanization / up gradation of mail movement Modernization / up gradation of premium productsApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  27. 27. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 9 Up gradation and promotion of philately Training Construction of buildings Modernization of circle stamp depots Computerization of international mail processing National data centre Research and development / studies / surveys Establishment of express parcel post centre e-Post e-Bill Post New products and services including development of financial products and services.(C) Information TechnologyI. Department of Information Technology Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC). Department of Electronics Accredited Course on Computer (DDEACC). Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering & Research (SAMEER). Centre for Material for Electronics (CMET). Education & Research Network (ERNET) India, Software Technology Park of India (STPI). Technology Development Council (TDC). Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL). National Informatics Centre.II. Strengthening of IT infrastructure in States / UT E-governance Community Information Centre (CIC).Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  28. 28. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 10(D) Information and BroadcastingI. Ministry of Information & BroadcastingII Prasar Bharati Corporation All India Radio DoordarshanIII. Information Sector Press Information Bureau (PIB). Publications Division Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity (DAVP) Song and Drama Division Directorate of Field Publicity Photo Division Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI) Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC) Press Council of India (PCI)IV. Film Sector Films Division National Film Archives of India (NFAI) Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute, Kolkata Film and Television Institute of India, Pune (FTTI, Pune). Children Film Society of India National Film Development Corporation, Ltd. Directorate of Film Festivals Central Board of Film CertificationApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  29. 29. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 11(V) Public Sector Units (PSU) National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Ltd. (BECIL)e) National Radio Regulatory Authority since 1952 Radio Frequency Allocations for all types of radio usages To ensure sharing of Radio Frequency Spectrum (RFS)Mechanism:  National Frequency Allocation Plan/Specific Authorization  Licensing of Private Radio Systems  Coordinated clearance of citing of Fixed Radio Installations  License Fee, Spectrum Fee  Adherence to International Radio Regulations as a part of  Global sharing of RFS and Satellite Orbit Nodal Agency interacting with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and he Asia Pacific Tele community (APT) Wireless Monitoring Organization (WMO), field unit for verification by Monitoring & Inspection of Authorized Radio StationApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  30. 30. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 122. Department of Telecommunication WPC and WMO2.1 Introduction WPC and WMO stand for: WPC  (Wireless Planning & Coordination) and WMO  (Wireless Monitoring Organization) These are defined under the Telecommunication Department in the ministry along with DoT and Telecom Commission. It works on some guidelines defined by ITU (International Telecommunication Union). Limit no. of frequency & spectrum to provide satisfactory services. Responsible for Technological Advancement Frequency for radio services etc. Establishment In a manner not causing harmful interference to radio services and communication.a) WPC (Wireless Planning & Coordination):- I Introduction:-Telecommunication is recognized as a key factor in economic, commercial, social andcultural activity. Radio Communication is one of the key elements in the world ofApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  31. 31. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 13Telecommunication. Development of Telecommunication infrastructure cannot bevisualized without utilizing techniques of radio communication in one form or other.Wireless Planning & Coordination (WPC Wing) has an important role to play in theTelecommunication Sector.The Wireless Planning & Coordination (WPC Wing) was created in the Ministry ofcommunications in 1952 as an independent, non-user agency to bring about orderlyutilization of the radio frequency spectrum in the country as well as to participate in thework of International Telecommunication Union (ITU). II Functionalities of WPC :- • Ensuring proper assignment and protection to India’s recent and planned requirements of satellite orbit positions in International forum. • Orderly assignment of radio frequency for all users in the country. • Protection of National radio users against interference from other countries as per the provisions of international radio regulations of the ITU. • Formulation of long term national frequency allocation plans (NFAP) and policies. • Piloting India’s proposals to take care of present and long terms interests in international radio conferences and meetings convened by ITU from time to time . • Enforcement of the provisions of Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 and rules there under so for as they relate to Wireless usage. • Investigation with ITU for International investigations on specific cases by way of participation in International monitoring campaigns.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  32. 32. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 14 • Formulation and implement of national Acts/ rules in so for as its functions are concerned. • Conduct of examinations for pilots, Radio officers, navigators on board ship and Aircraft as per International standards. • Issue of equipment type approvals (ETA). • Grant of license to Wireless stations (except receivers for broadcast reception). • To clear sites for wireless installations.(SACFA) • Licensing: It issues license on bound conditions that are to be followed strictly. These conditions are formulated keeping in mind  Error free transmission  Interference  Infringement  Bandwidth Requirement  Power rating of antenna  Antenna length  Number of transmitters and receivers  Tolerance of each frequency is defined etcb) WMO (Wireless Monitoring Organization):- I Introduction:-Wireless Monitoring Organization (WMO), also setup in 1952, is responsible forspectrum engineering, planning and allocation; frequency coordination and assignment,Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  33. 33. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 15administration, monitoring and enforcement of wireless licenses and is essentially theeyes and ears of the Wireless Planning & Co-ordination (WPC) Wing in the Ministry ofCommunication & IT.WPC is divided into major sections likeo Licensing and Regulation (LR),o New Technology Group (NTG) ando Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocation (SACFA).The last named makes recommendations on major frequency allocation issues,Formulation of the National Frequency Allocation Plan (NFAP), and various issuesrelated to International Telecom Union (ITU).It also sorts out problems referred to the Committee by various wireless users, and givessite clearance of important wireless installations in the country.The Wireless Monitoring Organization is the field organization of the WPC Wing. Itprovides essential inspection and other technical support for spectrum management witha view ofo Ensuring interference-free operation of all wireless networks,o Ensuring adherence to assigned technical parameters ando Licensing and also fulfilling the international obligations.Recently the WPC has decentralized some of its licensing functions by creating five fieldoffices called the Regional Licensing Offices, with headquarters at Chennai, Delhi,Kolkata, Shillong and Mumbai.It’s primary task is to monitor the entire radio frequency spectrum with a view to providethe requisite technical data and logistic support to the WPC Wing in the enforcement ofthe National and International Radio Regulatory and statutory provisions for efficientmanagement of Radio Frequency Spectrum (RFS) and Geo-Stationary Satellite Orbit(GSO).Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  34. 34. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 16This is in the interest of vital national service which, though not revenue bearing, yieldsconsiderable indirect benefits through promoting the efficient utilization of the radiofrequency spectrum and the geostationary satellite orbit.Effective and efficient spectrum management is the key element for ensuring the co-existence of various radio communication networks, without causing interference to eachother. Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing (WPC Wing), Department ofTelecommunications, of the Ministry of Communications & IT is the nodal agency forthe management of radio frequency spectrum, which is a limited natural resource, so thatvarious radio communication networks can co-exists & function in an interference-freeradio environment.It is essential that radio frequency spectrum is used in the most effective and efficientmanner by all radio communication users across the country, without causing interferenceto each. II Functionalities Of WMO :- • Interference resolution • Enforcement of licensing conditions • Spectrum surveillance and Inspection • Aid to spectrum planning • Channel loading Assistance • Assistance to national users • Radio Regulation Board’s (ITU) monitoring campaign • Assistance to foreign Administrations • Unwanted/ spurious emissions • Field strength measurements. • Emission bandwidth measurements. • Recording of spectrum occupancy. • Radio direction finding • Identification of unauthorized station.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  35. 35. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 17 III Spectrum, User & WMO:-1) SPECTRUMA spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific setof values but can vary infinitely within a continuumThe word saw its first scientific use within the field of optics to describe the rainbow ofcolors in visible light when separated using a prism; it has since been applied by analogyto many fields other than optics.Thus, one might talk about the spectrum of political opinion, or the spectrum ofactivity of a drug, or the autism spectrum. In these uses, values within a spectrum maynot be associated with precisely quantifiable numbers or definitions. Such uses imply abroad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single titlefor ease of discussion. Figure 3 Electromagnetic SpectrumApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  36. 36. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 18 Figure 4 Spectrum of Visible Light2) Relationship:The relationship between the spectrum, the spectrum-user and the WMO is bestunderstood with the facts below but first let us know about spectrum. Spectrum, like other natural resources, is characterized by quantity and quality. Whereas the WPC Wing, the national nodal agency for the spectrum and related matters, is solely responsible for the quantitative aspect of the spectrum, it is the WMO which ensures the quality of spectrum in India. From a regulatory standpoint, radio network is borne in WPC Wing, lives its entire life in WMO, and then dies in WPC Wing. The purpose of the WMO, on behalf of the Indian Administration, also derives from the Preamble of the Radio Regulations of the ITU. The Preamble contains, inter alia, the following :Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  37. 37. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 19• With a view to fulfilling the purposes of the International Telecommunication Union set out in Article 1 of the Constitution, these Regulations have the following objectives: To facilitate equitable access to and rational use of the natural resources of the radio- frequency spectrum and the geostationary-satellite orbit; To ensure the availability and protection from harmful interference of frequencies provided for distress and safety purposes; To assist in the prevention and resolution of cases of harmful interference between the radio services of different administrations; To facilitate the efficient and effective operation of all radio communication services; To provide for and, where necessary, regulate new applications of radio communication technology.Note:-WMO basically keeps check on the licensee that the specifications are same as defined inthe license. Amateur band License is required for this band. This proves to be very helpful in case of some disaster conditions when all means of communication is disrupted.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  38. 38. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 203) Spectrum Allocated:-Table 1 Spectrum AllocationRadio Access  9 – 14 KHzMobile (Distress Calling)  495 – 505 KHzBroadcasting  535 – 1605.5 KHzMaritime mobile  2065.0 – 2107.0 KHz 2170.0 - 2178.5 KHz 2190.5 – 2194.5 KhzFixed, Mobile broadcasting  610 – 806 KHzMobile, fixed broadcasting  890 – 960 KHzMobile satellite  942 – 960 KHzRadio Location  1350 – 1400 KHzMobile, fixed space operations and research  1710 – 1930 KHzAmateur band  People who research professionallyISM (Industrial scientific Band)  Vacant for research/studyApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  39. 39. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 21 IV Organizational Structure:- Figure 5 Organizational StructureApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  40. 40. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 22V Need for monitoring cited via example:-It is needed for efficient radio communication.Communication can also be classified as o Communication in which public is involved E.g. Mobile Network, Radio Broadcasting etc o Communication inn which public is not involved E.g. Aircraft landing etc.In both the cases the monitoring is needed as any problem in any of them cannot benegotiated.Example:-Problem:-In Tata CDMA noise occurs due to interference due to cable operator i.e. in the CDMAband. Table 2 Target ReportSite ID LOCATION Latitude Longitudexxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxBasic Instrument used:Rohde and Schwarz Miniport Receiver EB200 and Gunn Antenna.Source:-Channel with Video Signal at 836.5 MHz and Audio Signal at 839.250 MHz. Thisinterferes with the CDMA band allocated to the Tata.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  41. 41. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 23Reason:-This problem occurs mainly due to booster or amplifier and also from improperinsulation.The cable operators are permitted to transmit information in the cables only and not in theouter space.Basically it originates from the leakage of current from the cables into the spaceinterfering with the frequencies allocated causing problem.Signal Strength: -Here the channel refers to the interfering channel of cable operator in CDMA Band.Channel OFF  - (2 to 4) dbChannel ON  + 22 dbSolution:-Proper insulation is required i.e. either by covering the booster or amplifier or by tapingthe stray wires.An alternative approach can be used and the channel can be closed.VI Purpose of monitoring:- Occupancy / Vacancy of the band monitored. Error free transmission. To ensure there should be no unwanted/ spurious emissions.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  42. 42. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 24.VII Parameters to be checked during monitoring:-  SS ( Signal Strength)  Frequency  Occupied Bandwidth Bandwidth measurement method is standardized by ITU as shown below in the diagram i.e. measured 26 db below the peak value. Figure 6 Bandwidth  Emission Type M – Modulation Technique Type S – Signal Nature Type I – InformationApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  43. 43. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 25Example:-Examples of emission are as follows:F3E  F - Frequency Modulation  3 – Single channel analog information  E - BroadcastingA3E  A - Amplitude Modulation  3 – Single channel analog information  E - Broadcasting6KA3E  6 KHz BW6KSA3E  6 KHz BW Single sidebandNote: -In broadcasting always 3 is used i.e. single channel analog information.VIII Steps for Monitoring:-Following are the steps for monitoring :- 1. Go close to the original transmitter. 2. Check noise. 3. Trace Noise. 4. Correction of the noise.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  44. 44. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 26NOTE:- WORKING AT WMO:Target Strategy:-Target strategy is employed i.e. each employee is given targets from MoT in such awaythat each frequency allotted is checked periodically.Reports:The reports are formulated and enclose information about following: Licensed Instruments These are the instruments which are covered under the license. Unlicensed Instruments This includes the instruments which are applied for the license but awaits permission from WPC. Non Authorized Instruments These are the instruments which are used without any license and prone a problem for licensed customer.Example:-FM frequency allocated to Radio Mirchi is 98.3 MHz and bandwidth of 180 KHz.Low power transmitter and receiver are used when low range is required.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  45. 45. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 27IX Types of Monitoring:- 1. Net Monitoring:- It gives information about country and area of mobile. It uses ARFCN Absolute radio-frequency channel number, BTS ID Base Transceiver Station Identification Number, CC Country Code and LAC Local Area Code. In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Figure 7 Cellular NetworkThe group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequenciesare not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference.We get to know about the area of the mobile network usage BTS ID and approximatelocation can be found out.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  46. 46. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 282. Band /Frequency scanning Monitoring:-Conducting a search for signals over a band or range of frequencies by means of amanually or automatically tuned receiver.Frequency scanning may be used to enable radar to transmit on a clear frequency, i.e., ano-interference frequency, by searching a frequency band and then tuning the system to aclear portion of that band.Following parameters are involved: Sub-range Number Minimum frequency Maximum frequency Name Detection threshold Scanning step/Detection filter Scanning type Validity AntennaNote:The tuning rate, i.e., the frequency change rate, may be fixed or variable, or it may beperformed mechanically at low speed or electronically at high speed.Memory scanning:-It is same as frequency scanning as far as parameters are concerned. The only differencelies in its modes and the fact that the channels are stored in memory and can be accessedeasily whenever required. There are parameters and modes predefined by ITU. These arediscussed briefly here.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  47. 47. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 29a) Activation Parameters for scanning:Modes supported:- o Manual mode: Memory scanning is interrupted as soon as level fulfilling the detection conditions is detected; the scanning is resumed at the operator request. o Infinite stay time mode: Memory scanning is interrupted as soon as level fulfilling the detection conditions is detected; the scanning is resumed at the hold time defined by the operator. o Semi automatic mode: Memory scanning is interrupted as soon as level fulfilling the detection conditions is detected; the scanning is resumed at the dwell time defined by the operator. o Rated mode: Memory scanning is interrupted on each screened channel; the scanning is resumed at the dwell time defined by the operator. o Automatic mode: This mode is quicker to acquire and display level data. Operator cannot intervene in this mode. Dwell time:- It is used when monitoring is in the rated or semi automatic mode. Hold time:- It is used when monitoring is in the Infinite stay time mode. Antenna:- It is selected by antenna switching unit controlled directly via PC.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  48. 48. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 30 b) Detection Conditions:-  Detection on a minimum level. MIN THRESHOLD value is used.  Detection on a threshold range. Between MIN THRESHOLD and MAX THRESHOLD  S/N correction In semi automatic mode only3. Specific/Fixed frequency Monitoring:-3.1 IntroductionIn this mode, the receiver is set to a frequency. The user can modify the parameters toimprove listening or to change the frequency.3.2 ParametersParameters which can be altered are:o Tuning frequencyo Squelch and squelch thresholdIt is used to deactivate the audio outputs when the signal level is lower than the squelchthreshold.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  49. 49. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 31o DemodulationIt depends on frequency band. E.g. 88.0 MHz to 108.0 MHz is allotted to FM.o RF HeadIt depends on the band and therefore the frequency enteredo Beat frequency oscillatorSettings authorized for special emissions like A1A etc.o IF FilterListening filter depending upon the bandApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  50. 50. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 324. Mobile Monitoring:-The mobile monitoring system has been constructed on a Swaraj Mazda vehicle. Thevehicle has been divided into various isolated sections to achieve the monitoringobjectives.Figure 8 Instrument used in mobile monitoring4.1 Broad Architecture of MMS (Mobile Monitoring System) :-4.1.1 Operators CabinIt houses GPS receiver. Antenna switches, UPS, air conditioning unit, a mast forinstalling antenna and storage compartment for storing various antennas.4.1.2 Diesel Generator CabinIt houses a mast and a 7.5 KVA diesel generator.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  51. 51. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 334.1.3 Drivers CabinIt has air conditioning unit and also a LCD screen connected with operators cabin LCD.4.2 Receiver Chain4.2.1 Antennas ANT184A:Range: 20 Hz – 3 GHzIt is a direction finder antenna housed on the top of the mast. Only used when vehicle isstationary i.e. the mast is lowered while moving.It consists of two concentric arrays with five pentagonal structure dipoles.The direction finder principle works on interferometry principle i.e.The difference in phase of incident wave is result of the difference in the path of wave.This difference in path depend upon two parameterso Distance between the antenna, ando Incidence angle of incoming waveNOTE:Movement of mast is based on the same principle as hydraulic lift.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  52. 52. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 34 RN2134:Range: 20 MHz – 500MHzIt is a passive directional cross log periodic antenna (vertical as well as horizontalpolarization). It has 64 elements which have to be served manually to a fish – bonestructure. This fish bone structure , in turn has to be attached to the rear mast each timemonitoring has to be carried out. RN2135:Range: 20 MHz – 500MHzIt is also a passive directional cross log periodic antenna (vertical as well as horizontalpolarization).The difference between RN2134 and RN2135 is that RN2135 is encased in a fibercylinder to protect against humidity, dust, and damage. A reflector has been added in thefront of the antenna to increase its gain also a LNA is attached for both H/Vpolarizations. RN4202:Range: 20 MHz – 500MHzIt is a horizontally polarized Omni-directional passive antenna. RN4301:Range: 500 MHz – 3 GHzIt is a horizontally polarized Omni-directional passive antenna.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  53. 53. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 35 RN1034:Range: 300 MHz – 3000MHzThis bi-conical antenna is a vertically polarized Omni-directional passive antenna. RN1029:Range: 300 MHz – 3000MHzIt is a vertically polarized Omni-directional passive antenna. RN4206-9F:Range: 9 KHz – 30 MHz (VLF/LF/HF/VHF)20 MHz – 3000 MHz (VHF/UHF)This is a VLF/LF/HF/VHF active vertically polarized Omni directional antenna. GPS Antenna:This antenna is connected to the GPS receiver and is not used for monitoring. 4.2.2 Antenna SwitchesAntenna switches and its description:Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  54. 54. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 36 AEA192It is a two channel antenna switching unit connected to the base of direction finderantenna. It enables to select one of the antenna sub ranges and then to switch a dipolebase to a receiver.It generates a test signal to test the whole direction finding equipment.Switching unit is broken down according to the operation of the sub assemblies:o The 20/700 MHz selectoro The 700/3000 MHz selectoro The amplification output selectoro The test oscillator AEA192This unit is housed in the equipment rack and designed to accommodate switchingmodules. The switching unit is particularly suited to receiving applications requiringeither remote or manual selection.4.2.3 Equipment Rack REC 108:It is a two to three channel multi – range receiver used by the Direction Finder andmonitoring receiver.When used as Direction Finder receivers, it receives signals from antennas, filters themand changes them into the acquisition frequencies used by the radio direction finders.When used as monitoring receiver, it ensures reception ad measurements as per ITUstandards.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  55. 55. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 37 Industrial computer:It runs on WIN NT (sp6) Operating System and has all the s/w necessary to acquire,display and demodulate data. Its major elements are:o Qsharc Caraibe and Qsharc Biac:It is a signal processing board. It performs direction finding processing such as spectrumanalysis and retrieval of the transmissions required by the Direction Finderfunctionalities. Cal Unit:It’s an antenna Control and Power supply unit. It processes antenna signal sent to aDirection Finder Receiver. Its main tasks are:o To receive VHF/UHF signal intended for the Direction Finder Receiver.o To Power the antenna switching unit and the active antenna, ando To Receiver control signal from the Direction Finder Receiver and send them back to the antenna and switching unit GPS Receiver:It uses constellation of 24 satellites and determines the approx. position(longitude/latitude and altitude) on earth. Electronic Compass:It has an outdoor unit connected to PC. It informs the Direction Finder of the angleformed by the reference axis of the antenna and true North direction.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  56. 56. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 38 Figure 9 Electronic Compass Software used is Esmeralda - LG 309 and LG 111.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  57. 57. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 393 ESMERALDA:- Figure 10 Esmeralda3.1 Integrated station for spectrum monitoring:-• A unique solution for automatic spectrum monitoring (9 KHz – 3 GHz)• Compliant with to the latest ITU recommendations and Spectrum Monitoring Handbook, edition 2002• Automatic spectrum monitoring missions• Reliable and accurate technical measurements and radio finding• Multipurpose and modular: autonomous station or network remotely controlled stationsApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  58. 58. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 40• Antennas perfectly adapted to each configuration• Signal analysis and transmissions identification Figure 11 Esmeralda Hardware SetupApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  59. 59. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 413.2 TOTAL COMPLIANCE WITH ITU RECOMMENDATIONS Figure 12 ITU Recommendations3.3 ESMERALDA: MASTERING THE RADIOELECTRICAL SPECTRUMBorn of THALES Communications expertise as designer, integrator and manufacturer ofequipment and Radioelectrical Spectrum Management and Monitoring systems,ESMERALDA is the solution to the challenge of controlling radioelectricaltransmissions, classical as well as modern (TDMA, CDMA, OFDM, frequency hoppers),no longer detectable by classical measurement tools.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  60. 60. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 423.4 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING INTERACTIVITY■ Preparation of automated spectrum monitoring missions and processing of results,linked with any existing spectrum management administrative and technical database,■ Execution of automated spectrum monitoring missions■ Direction finding and location by triangulation, from monitoring or management centre or from the ESMERALDA stations upon execution of automated missionsApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  61. 61. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 433.5 AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION:ESMERALDA offers a complete range of automated missions for optimum effectivenessof spectrum monitoring systems,■ Systematic control of transmitters■ Occupancy rate by transmitters■ Occupancy rate by frequency■ Specific frequency surveillance■ Search for unknown transmitters■ Channel analysis (manual mission)■ Television measurements■ Field measurements along the route (mobile station)3.6 A UNIQUE SOLUTION■ Interceptor/ fast direction finder■ High performance digital receiver■ Spectrum analyzerApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  62. 62. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 44■ Spectrum occupancy analyzer Figure 13 Mobile Monitoring by Esmeralda■ Real time decoder for data transmissions■ Frequency meter■ Field strength analyzer■ Modulation analyzer■ Signal vector analyzer■ Wide band interference analyzerApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  63. 63. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 45■ Audio recorder■ Wide Band digital RF signal■ TV demodulation and display■ Edition of reports3.7 A MULTIPURPOSE ARCHITECTUREThanks to its compact and modular structure, ESMERALDA is adapted to everynecessary configuration of aspectrum monitoring system: a dedicated antenna for each configuration, identicalfunctional capacities. Fixed HF / VHF / UHF Stations:Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  64. 64. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 46This configuration may be completed by monitoring antennas (omnidirectional ordirectional) for horizontally polarized transmissions. B) Mobile and / or semi fixed HF / VHF / UHF Stations:ESMERALDA can be integrated in a wide range of vehicle (4 wheel drive, vans, etc.)including GPS receiver, magnetic compass as well as numerous options: remoteexploitation from the passenger front seat for homing application, alternator integratedinto the vehicle engine or independent power supply, additional air conditioning, etc. C) Transportable VHF / UHF Stations:Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  65. 65. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 473.8 A COMPLETE SOFTWARE SUITE:3.8.1 LG 309: operation software for digital receiversa) Design It is designed to control and operate a station which consists of:  A digital receiver  An associated antenna network  A calibration generator  Antenna switches connected to the equipment.b) Features Features: ■ Reception/ listening-in ■ Fixed frequency monitoring ■ Supports Frequency and Memory scanning Figure 14 LG 309 ■ Transmissions demodulation / filteringApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  66. 66. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 48 ■ ITU measurements operation ■ Graphical and textual displays to take full advantage of the richness of acquired and measured data ■ Automatic spectrum monitoring missions ■ Real time decoding of data transmissions Figure 15 LG 3093.8.2 LG 111: operation software for direction findersa) Features Features: ■ Local operation of radio direction finders ■ Homing for mobile stations ■ Single Station Location (SSL) for direction finders in HF range ■ Graphical and textual displays to take full advantage of the richness of acquired and measured data ■ Remote operationApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  67. 67. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 49 Figure 16 LG 111b) Result Windows Widely used result windows and its description: Numeric Result Window:It displays the direction finding data, information contained in this window: Azimuth Elevation Frequency Power level Duration Number of measurement Quality markApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  68. 68. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 50 Frequency/Azimuth view:This view may be accessed in fixed frequency and frequency scanning modes and is usedto display direction finding results in Cartesian form i.e.o Azimuth on Y axis, ando Frequency on X axis. Amplitude Spectrum view:This view represents spectrum of the signal received in the elementary acquisition range. Frequency Histogram view:It represents histograms that are elaborated according to the frequencies o which directionfinding results are computed. It allows quick look at the frequencies. Homing view:It is used in a moving vehicle. It is in fact a histogram polar view that highlights the leveland direction changes of the signal listed.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  69. 69. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 513.9 A MODULAR CONFIGURATION:ESMERALDA, (standard configuration) integrates a measurement receiver coupled toa radio direction finder:♦ A) Measurement receiver:Digital technology with numerous filters and demodulators♦ B) Two channel radio direction findingIt ensures a high stability of measures, thanks to the automatic compensation of drifts ofthe two channels and an entirely digital process.High measurement precision, guaranteed by systematic calibration, fixed configurationsas well as for mobile configurations:Note:Announced performances are field proven.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  70. 70. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 52 Figure 17 Modular ConfigurationApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  71. 71. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 534 HF Receiver (10 KHz – 30 MHz) :-4.1 Introduction Threshold voltage can be set along with it the signal strength can be displayed in either dbuV or dbmv Frequency and bandwidth are set. Latest HF Receiver based on Esmeralda software shows the spectrum and also operations like frequency scanning and memory scanning can be performed accurately.Basic Instrument used: Rohde and Schwarz VLF – HF Emfanger Receiver EK070 Figure 18 HF ReceiverApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  72. 72. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 544.2 Software and Methodology of latest technology HF Receivers -a) Esmeralda LG 309 softwareLatest technology HF Receiver serving Monitoring Purposes (Spectrum/Bandwidthparameters) already discussed before.b) Direction finder / Locating unidentified TransmitterIt is used for finding out the signal direction i.e. North, South etc.Direction finding (DF) refers to the establishment of the direction from which a receivedsignal was transmitted. This can refer to radio or other forms of wireless communication.I Triangulation MethodBy combining the direction information from two or more suitably spaced receivers (or asingle mobile receiver), the source of a transmission may be located in spacevia triangulation. A B C Figure 19 Triangulation Method Its location is found out by approximation i.e. by taking various readings andapproximating its location as shown in figure above.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  73. 73. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 55II Using Yagi AntennaDirection finding often requires an antenna that is directional (more sensitive in certaindirections than in others). Many antenna designs exhibit this property. For example,a Yagi antenna has quite pronounced directionality, so the source of a transmission canbe determined simply by pointing it in the direction where the maximum signal level isobtained. However, to establish direction to great accuracy requires much moresophisticated techniques.II Using Loop Aerial AntennaA simple form of directional antenna is the loop aerial. This consists of an open loopof wire on an insulating former, or a metal ring that forms the antenna elements itself,where the diameter of the loop is a tenth of a wavelength or smaller at the targetfrequency.Such an antenna will be least sensitive to signals that are normal to its faceand most responsive to those meeting edge-on, this due to the antenna sensing thedifference between the voltages induced either side of it at any instant because of thephase output of the transmitting beacon.Turning the loop face on will not induce any current flow: think of the radio waveslipping through the loop. Simply turning the antenna to obtain minimum signal willestablish two possible directions from which the signal could be emanating.The NULL is used, as small angular deflections of the loop aerial near its null positionsproduce larger changes in current than similar angular changes near the loops maxpositions. For this reason, a null position of the loop aerial is used.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  74. 74. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 56 Figure 20 Direction FinderNOTE :- The Receiver is portable and hence the readings can be taken easily. The location output is displayed as latitude and longitude when two antennas are used and their delta mean is calculated.4.3 Examples:-Wave Based:- 1. Medium Wave :- 819.0 Khz Delhi 2. Short Wave :- 4860.0 Khz DelhiApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  75. 75. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 57Emissions based:- 1. A1A Emission – Morse code 2. A3 - Emission – LSB 3. A3 + Emission – USB Figure 21 Primitive HF ReceiverExternal Service Frequency Schedule:- Thai AM  17740.00 Khz Tamil AM  13795.00 Khz Russian AM  15140.00 Khz Persian AM  17845.00 Khz Arabic AM  17965.00 KhzNOTE:-CW takes only 300 Hz bandwidth but still is not widely used as it is time consuming.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  76. 76. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 585 VHF/UHF Receiver (30 MHz-3 GHz) :-5.1 IntroductionThe device driver allows the Rohde & Schwarz EB200 Miniport Receiver to be used with Radio Control. The VFO mode (i.e. the "CW/Fixed" mode), the up- and download of memory channels and the device-internal scan and search function (M-SCAN and F-SCAN) are supportedIn addition, care has been taken during device driver development to fully supportthe concurrent control feature of the EB200, which allows simultaneous control of theradio device, e.g. by the user via the radio devices front panel and Radio Control, or bymore than one application.To achieve this aim, the device driver handles the events sent by the EB200 and forwardsstate and value changes to Radio Control which can then react accordingly.For example, when the user enters a new frequency or starts the scanner directly on theradio device, Radio Control immediately reacts by displaying the newly enteredfrequency, or by switching into scan modeApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  77. 77. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 59 Basic Instrument used: Rohde and Schwarz Miniport Receiver EB200 Figure 22 VHF/UHF Receivers (30 MHz-3 GHz)5.2 Features:- These receivers available are portable in nature. It includes features like squelching, attenuation and level set etc. Squelching  Muting of Noise Signal Level Set  Peak level, avg. level, etc Bandwidth range varies from 0.15Khz to 150 KHz and can is used for AM, FM, CW, USB, LSB, Pulse modulation techniques. AFC circuits are used. Frequency scanning can be done i.e. scanning of frequency channels between givenfrequency range.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  78. 78. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 60 Memory scanning can be done i.e. scanning of frequency channels between given frequency range and storing them in memory and recalling them whenever required. Latest UHF/VHF Receiver based on Esmeralda software shows the spectrum and also operations like frequency scanning and memory scanning can be performed accurately. Same software is used i.e. Esmeralda but the difference comes in their range.5.3 Example:-Scanning between 88.0 MHz and 108.0 MHz will give channels like Radio City, RadioMirchi etcScanning of Maritime Distress and Calling band between 495 MHz to 505.5 MHz.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  79. 79. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 616 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz) :-6.1 IntroductionA spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency withinthe full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to measure the power ofthe spectrum of known and unknown signalsThe input signal a spectrum analyzer measures is electrical, however, spectralcompositions of other signals, such as acoustic pressure waves and optical light waves,can be considered through the use of an appropriate transducer.By analyzing the spectra of electrical signalso Dominant frequency,o power,o distortion,o harmonics,o bandwidth, andOther spectral components of a signal can be observed that are not easily detectablein time domain waveforms.These parameters are useful in the characterization of electronic devices, such as wirelesstransmitters. The display of a spectrum analyzer has frequency on the horizontal axis andthe amplitude displayed on the vertical axis. To the casual observer, a spectrum analyzerlooks like an oscilloscope and, in fact, some lab instruments can function either as anoscilloscope or a spectrum analyzer.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  80. 80. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 62 Figure 23 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz) Basic Instrument used: E4470B Spectrum Analyzer6.2 Features These receivers available are portable in nature. It is used for viewing the signals present in a band. Say we take Maritime distress and calling i.e. (495 – 505) MHz and can keep check by viewing the spectrum. Alignment cable is used to align the spectrum analyzer to the antenna. Provision of RBW (Resolution Bandwidth) for better visualizing as required. It basically filters bandwidth set from energy plot Attenuation and Amplification values can also be altered.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  81. 81. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 63 Figure 24 Spectrum Analyzer (500 Hz - 3 GHz)6.3 ExampleAs seen in the diagram below the spectrum analyzers software are available likeEsmeralda which shows the entire spectrum. Hence monitoring becomes easy for anygiven channel.Let us take Maritime Distress and calling for example:-RangeIt is defined in the range 495 MHz - 505.5 MHzParametersWe define the parameters involved likeUPPER AND LOWER FREQUENCY VALUEWe set the upper and lower bandwidth as 505.5 MHz and 495.0 MHz respectively.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  82. 82. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 64STEP:It refers to the step size an i.e. interval after which channel is searched or signal isprocessed.Other parameters are similar to the previous ones like emission etc..Then by watching at the spectrum we can easily identify channels in this bandcorresponding to the peaks. Figure 25 Spectrum Analyzer SoftwareApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  83. 83. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 65NOTE: Basic difference in Esmeralda and Spectrum Analyzer  Esmeralda is defined in time domain whereas Spectrum Analyzer is defined in frequency domain.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  84. 84. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT VI CONCLUSIONThe most significant part of my training is that I was able to experiencevariety of work done at WMO. They allocate global radio spectrum andsatellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks andtechnologies seamlessly interconnect. Monitoring is done 24X7 round theclock and its necessity is understood. I worked on Esmeralda software,Spectrum Analyzer, HF and VHF receivers along with various antennas.I came across the wireless monitoring concept. In this report I describemajor components used in WMO and work done on them.Apeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra
  85. 85. SUMMER TRAINING REPORT VII REFERENCES Communication Systems by Sanjay Sharma Communication Systems by Singh & Sapre www.itu.int telecomtalk.info kollewin.com loke.as.arizona.edu www.wikipedia.com www.thalesgroup.com www.rohde-schwarz.comApeejay College of Engineering Varun Chopra

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