Homeostasis and steady state

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  • 1. Homeostasis and Steady State
  • 2. Introduction The body is a biological control system that maintains a constant internal environment at rest and during periods of stress. Understanding the importance of homeostasis in exercise physiology is critical for endurance training and heavy exercise. If the body is not able to meet demands during physical activity the subject will find itself short of breath and cease activity. This is due to the lack of oxygen to the muscle and significant amounts of carbon dioxide produced. This is why the individual should consider it as motivation for prolonging low intensity exercise which will ease heart rate and improve oxygen intake.
  • 3. Purpose Students are to understand what happens internally when an outside force causes the body to be under physical stress in an individual who may or may not seem of optimum health. The subjects in the lab are to be examined based on sex, age, height, weight, and body fat percentage. By measuring the heart rate at rest and at the end of the test, we can determine if the body is in healthy condition (optimal body composition zone) or border line risk of any cardiovascular disease (unhealthy zone).
  • 4. Warning!! It is extremely important for the group to be constantly monitoring the subject’s heart rate response while performing the test. Subjects tested may feel dizziness, light-headedness, and nausea after test is complete. It is important for the subject to not be left alone after the completion of the test. Monitor heart rate after the test to ensure the subject is safe.
  • 5. Equipment Stadiometer Weight Scale Sphygmomanometer Stethoscope BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis) Heart Rate Monitor Bicycle ergometer
  • 6. Important Notice! Before getting anything started each person needs to get their gender, age, standing height, weight, resting and exercise heart rate along with blood pressure measurement. Divide the class into groups.
  • 7. Steps Standing Height  This should be taken by having the person bare-footed and standing up straight with their back and heels together against the wall stadiometer.  The hands are on the hips, the head held in the horizontal plane and the nose directed straight forward. In other words their partner will observe them to the looking straight ahead with the child tilted up.  After a full inhalation, the measurement bar is placed gently on the subject’s head and the height will be recorded. The reading is done in centimeters rounded to the nearest tenth.  Standing height should be done twice and then calculated to determine the mean average.
  • 8. Steps Weight  The body weight is measured in kilograms using a scale.  The subject being weighed should be dressed appropriately with light clothes and barefooted. Light clothing should be worn, typically a pair of shorts and t- shirt.  The subject then steps off the scale before a second measure is taken. The average of the two separate weight measurements will be calculated.
  • 9. Steps BIA (bioelectrical impedance analysis)  Body fat percentage will be measured by using the BIA.  Turn on the device and follow the prompts displayed on the device.  Enter age, height, weight, and if athletic or normal. Normal: subject doesn’t engage in regular physical activity (30 minutes a day).  Stand shoulder width apart.  Hold the device straight out in front of your chest.  Grip on to the handles tightly and hold.  Reading will take a couple of seconds to analyze and it will give you two
  • 10. Steps Blood Pressure  To take the blood pressure, have the student sit down and have the left arm (closer to the heart) just rest on the table.  Place the cuff on the arm about 2 fingers above the antecubidal space (where the arm bends).  Place the stethoscope on the brachial artery.  Raise the cuff pressure rapidly to about 160 mmHg (millimeters of Mercury).  Slowly release the pressure in the cuff.  Pay attention to the first sharp release of blood known as the Korotkoff sound, once heard read the number on the manometer and write it as the systolic pressure.  The continued release of pressure from the cuff will allow more blood flow meaning the Korotkoff sound will slowly diminish.  The last sound you hear will be recorded as the diastolic pressure.
  • 11. Steps Obtaining Resting Heart Rate (RHR)  To obtain the resting heart rate, have one person wear a heart rate monitor.  The heart rate monitor should be placed against bare skin right under the pectoral region and the receiving watch on the left hand.  Student should sit down and relax while another student is taking his/her heart rate every 20 seconds for 4 minutes.  It is advised for girls to wear a sport-
  • 12. Steps (Performing Test) One person from the group will be on the bike ergo meter performing the test (heart rate monitor should be in place), adjust the seat if necessary.
  • 13. Performing Test Student is in place. Another student from the group will take the initial exercise blood pressure. After 4 minutes the final exercise blood pressure. Once the student starts pedaling the third person in the group should start the time and record the initial exercise heart rate. Take heart rate every 20 seconds until it reaches 240 seconds. Pedaling speed should reach 60 RPM with a resistance of 1.5 kp, and should maintain that constant speed throughout the test.
  • 14. Performing Test
  • 15. Conclusion You have successfully followed the instructions provided and realized how physical activity can impact the body. The normal blood pressure for adults is 120/80, and as mentioned previously the first number will always be the systolic pressure followed by the diastolic pressure when the Korotkoff sounds disappears. Take into consideration that this numbers depend on but not limited to the individual’s age, height, weight, and physical activity. A healthy person will have a blood pressure of 115/75. This is due to good health nutrition and daily moderate exercise. So have fun and enjoy participating in activities and get yourself a heart rate monitor to track your level of fitness and see how hard your heart is working to