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Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
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Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing
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Philip kotler -_principles_of_marketing

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  • 1. Acquisitions Editor: Julia Helms Icy Development Editor: Andrew Goss Permissions Manager: Sara Jillings Production Editor: Ian Stoneham Manufacturing Manager: Richard Lamprecht Marketing Manager: Scott Dustan Original eighth edition en titled Principles of Marketing published by Prentice Hall Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River New Jersey, USA Copyright © 1999 by Prentice Hall Inc. First European Edition published 1996 Second European Edition published 1999 by Prentice Hal! Europe Authorised for sale only in Europe, the Middle East and Africa Copyright © Prentice Hall Europe 1996,1999All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission, in writing, from the publisher. Text and cover design: Design Deluxe, Rath, Avon Typeset in lOpt Caslon 224 Book by Goodfellow and Egan, Cambridge Printed and bound in Italy by Rotolito Lombards, Milan British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-13-262254-8 1 2 3 4 5 0,3 02 01 00 99
  • 2. ContentsPreface xiii .Summary 32Guided Tour xx Key Terms 33About the Autfmrf; xxii Discussing the Issues 33 Applying the Concepts 34 References 34 Part One Case 1 Amphitrion: Your Ultimate Host in Marketing and the Greece 36 Marketing Process 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 1 Marketing and Society; Social Responsibility Marketing in a Changing World: and Marketing Ethics 39 Satisfying Hitman Needs 4 Chapter Objectives 39 Chapter Objectives 4 Preview Case Brown & Williamson Tobacco: Preview Case Nike 4 Keeping Smokers Addicted 39 Introduction 7 Introduction 42 What is Marketing? 9 Social Criticisms of Marketing 43 Needs, Wants and Demands 10 Marketings Impact on Individual Consumers 43 Products and Services 11 Marketings Impact on Society as a Whole 52 Value, Satisfaction and Quality 11 Marketings Impact on Other Businesses 54 Exchange, Transactions and Relationships 12 Citizen and Public Actions to Regulate Markets 14 Marketing 55 Marketing 15 Consumerism 55 Marketing Management 16 Environmentalism 57 Demand Management 16 Public Actions to Regulate Marketing 58 Marketing Management Philosophies 17 Business Actions Towards Socially Responsible The Production Concept 17 Marketing 60 The Product Concept 18 Enlightened Marketing 61 The Selling Concept 18 Marketing Ethics 64 The Marketing Concept J9 Principles for Public Policy Towards Marketing 68 The Societal Marketing Concept 22 The Principle of Consumer and Producer Marketing Challenges into the Next Century 24 Freedom 68 Growth of Non-Prof it Marketing 24 The Principle of Curbing Potential Harm 68 The Information Technology Boom 26 The Principle of Meeting Basie Needs 70 Rapid Globalization 28 The Principle of Economic Efficiency 71 The Changing World Economy 30 The Principle of Innovation 71 The Call for More Ethics and Social The Principle of Consumer Education and Responsibility 31 Information 72 The New Marketing Landscape 31 The Principle of Consumer Protection 72
  • 3. Contents * viiSum mar;7 72 Key Terms 124Key Terms 73 Discussing the Issues 124Discussing the Issues 73 Applying the Concepts 124Applying the Concepts 74 References 125References 75 Cuse 3 Look Out Lipton, Here Comes Oolong! )26Case 2 Nestle: Singled Out Again and Again 76 Overview Case One KitKat: Have a Break .. 131Chapter 3 Part TwoStrategic Marketing Planning 81 The Marketing Setting 140Chapter Objectives 81Preview Case Levis Strategic Marketing and Planning 81 Chapter 4Introduction 84 The Marketing Environment 142Strategic Planning 85 Overview of Planning 85 Chapter Objectives 142 The Planning Process 86 Preview Case Unilever: Power? 142The Strategic Plan 87 The Mission 87 Introduction 146 From Mission to Strategic Objectives 90 The Companys Mieroenvironment 146 Strategic Audit 91 The Company 146 SWOT Analysis 94 Suppliers 147 The Business Portfolio 96 Marketing Intermediaries 147 Developing Growth Strategies 102 Customers 148Marketing Within Strategic Planning 102 Competitors 149 Planning Functional Strategies 102 Publics 149 Marketings Role in Strategic Planning 103 The Companys Macroenvironment 151 Marketing and the Other Business Functions 104 Demographic Environment 151 Conflict Between Departments 104 Economic Environment 158The Marketing Process 105 Natural Environment 162 Marketing Strategy 106 Technological Environment 165 Marketing Strategies for Competitive Political Environment 167 Advantage 109 Cultural Environment 169 Developing the Marketing Mix 109 Responding to the Marketing Environment 173The Marketing Plan 111 Summary 173 Executive Summary 1 1 1 Key Terms 174 Marketing Audit 1 1 1 Discussing the Issues 174 SWOT Analysis 112 Objectives and Issxies 113 Applying the Concepts 175 Marketing Strategy 113 References 175 Marketing Mix 113 Case 4 Shiseido: Rethinking the Future 177 Action Programmes 113 Budgets 113 Controls I ] 5 Chapter 5 Implementation 115 The Global Marketplace 181Marketing Organization 116Marketing Control 1.18 Chapter Objectives 181 Implementing Marketing 119 Preview Case McDonalds: Breaking into theSummary 122 South African Market 181
  • 4. viii • Contents Introduction 184 Cultural Factors 230 Risks in International Marketing 186 Social Factors 235 High Foreign Country Debt 186 Personal Factors 238 Exchange Rate Volatility 186 Psychological Factors 243 Foreign Government Entry Requirements 186 Consumer Decision Process 250 Costs of Marketing Mix Adaptation 187 Types of Buying Decision Behaviour 251 Other Problems 187 Complex Buying Behaviour 251 Analysis of International Market Opportunity 187 Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behaviour 252 Deciding Whether or Not to Go Abroad 187 Habitual Buying Behaviour 252 Understanding the Global Environment 189 Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviour 253 Deciding which Markets to Enter 201 The Buyer Decision Process 253 Defining International Marketing Objectives and Need Recognition 254 Policies 201 Information Search 254 Establishing Market Entry Mode 203 Evaluation of Alternatives 255 Exporting 203 Purchase Decision 258 Joint Venturing 204 Postpurcbase Behaviour 258 Direct Investment 207 The Buyer Decision Process for New Products 260 Allocating Necessary Resources 208 Stages in the Adoption Process 260 Individual Differences in Innovativeness 261 Developing a Strategic Marketing Plan 209 Role of Personal Influence 262 Standardization or Adaptation for International Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Markets? 209 Adoption 263 Product 212 Promotion 2.13 Consumer Behaviour Across International Borders Price 214 263 Distribution Channels 215 Summary 264 Organizing an Operational Team and Key Terms 265 Implementing a Marketing Strategy 216 Discussing the Issues 265 Export Department 216 Applying the Concepts 266 International Division 216 Global Organization 217 References 266 Evaluation and Control of Operations 218 Case 6 Bic Versus Gillette: The Disposable Wars 268 Summary 218 Key Terms 220 Diseussing the Issues 220 Chapter 7 Applying the Concepts 221 Business Markets and Business References 221 Buyer Behaviour 273 Case 5 Procter & Gamble: Going Global in Cosmetics 222 Chapter Objectives 273 Preview Case Selling Business Jets: The Ultimate Chapter 6 Executive Toy 273 Consumer Buyer Behaviour 227 Introduction 276 Business Markets 277 Chapter Objectives 227 Characteristics of Business Markets 277 Preview Case Sheba: The Pets St Valentines Day A Model of Business Buyer Behaviour 282 227 Business Buyer Behaviour 282 Introduction 229 What Buying Decisions Do Business Buyers Make? 283 Models of Consumer Behaviour 229 Who Participates in the Business Buying Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behaviour 230 Process? 284
  • 5. Contents IX What arc the Main Influences on Business Discussing the Issues 357 Buyers? 286 Applying the Goncepts 357 How Do Business Buyers Make their Buying References 357 Decisions? 292 Case 8 Act I: Feeling Out the Appliance ControlsInstitutional and Government Markets 295 Market 359 Institutional Markets 296 Government Markets 296 Overview Case Two Ballygowan Springs into New Age Kisqua 363Summary 300Key Terms 300Discussing the Issues 301Applying the Goncepts 301 Part ThreeReferences 301Case 7 Troll-AEG 303 Core Strategy 374ChapterSMarket Information and Chapter 9Marketing Kesearch 313 Market Segmentation and Targeting 376Chapter Objectives 313 Chapter Objectives 376Preview Case Qantas: Taking Off in Tomorrows Preview Case Procter Ik Gamble: How Many is Market 313 Too Many? 376Introduction 316 Introduction 379The Marketing Information System 317 Market Segmentation 379 Levels of Market Segmentation 379Developing Information 317 Segmenting Consumer Markets 385 Internal Records 318 Segmenting Business Markets 401 Marketing Intelligence 318 Segmenting International Markets 403 Marketing Research 320 Multivariate Segmentation 404 The Marketing Research Process 320 Developing Market Segments 408 Demand Estimation 335 Requirements for Effective Segmentation 409Defining the Market 338 Market Targeting 412Measuring Current Market Demand 340 Evaluating Market Segments 412 Estimating Total Market Demand 340 Segment Strategy 414 Estimating Area and Market Demand 342 Summary 417 Estimating Actual Sales and Market Shares 344 Key Terms 418Forecasting Future Demand 344 Survey of Buyers Intentions 345 Discussing the Issues 418 Composite of Sales Force Opinions 346 Applying the Concepts 419 Expert Opinion 346 References 419 Test-Market Method 347 Case 9 Coffee-Mate 420 Time-Scries Analysis 347 Leading Indicators 350 Statistical Demand Analysis 350 Chapter W Information Analysis 351 Positioning 431Distributing Information 351International Studies 354 Chapter Objectives 431Summary 355 Preview Case Castrol: Liquid Engineering 431Key Terms 356 Introduction 434
  • 6. ContentsDifferentiation 434 Chapter 12 Differentiating Markets 438 Creating Competitive Advantages 50,JWhat is Market Positioning? 443Perceptual Mapping 446 Chapter Objectives 503Positioning Strategies 448 Preview Case Federal Express: Losing a PacketChoosing and Implementing a Positioning in Europe 503 Strategy 455 Introduction 506 Selecting the Right Competitive Advantages 455 Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Competitor Analysis 506 Identifying the Companys Competitors 507 Position 461 Determining Competitors Objectives 508Summary 462 Identifying Competitors Strategies 509Key Terms 463 Assessing Competitors Strengths andDiscussing the Issues 463 Weaknesses 510 Estimating Competitors Reaction Patterns 510Applying the Concepts 463 Selecting Competitors to Attack and Avoid 511References 464 Designing the Competitive IntelligenceCase 10 Schott: Positioning for Success 465 System 515 Competitive Strategics 5.15 Competitive Positions 516Chapter 11 Competitive Moves 519Building Customer Relationships: Customer Market-Leader Strategies 520 Market-Challenger Strategies 529Satisfaction, Quality, Value and Service 467 Market-Follower Strategics 532 Market-Nieher Strategies 534Chapter Objectives 467 Balancing Customer and CompetitorPreview Case Rubbermaid: Want to Buy an Orientations 538 Expensive Rubber Dustpan? 467 Summary 539Introduction 471 Key Terms 540Satisfying Customer Needs 471 Discussing the Issues 540Defining Customer Value and Satisfaction 472 Applying the Concepts 541 Customer Value 472 Customer Satisfaction 475 References 541Delivering Customer Value and Satisfaction 480 Case 12 BMW: Putting the Brrrrum Back in Value Chain 480 Bruni 543 Value Delivery System 481 Overview Case Three Cadburys Timeout: ChocRetaining Customers 482 Around the Clock 549 The Cost of Lost Customers 482 The Need for Customer Retention 483 Relationship Marketing 483 When to Use Relationship Marketing 488 Part Four The Ultimate Test; Customer Profitability 489 Product 556Implementing Total Quality Marketing 491Summary 495Key Terms 496Discussing the Issues 496 Chapter 13Applying the Concepts 497 Brands, Products., PackagingReferences 497 and Services 558Case 11 Feinschmeckcr Sauce: Pricey n Spicy 498 Chapter Objectives 558
  • 7. Contents XIPreview Case Revlon 558 Growth Stage 630Introduction 560 Maturity Stage 630 Decline Stage 633What is a Product? 561 Summary 635Product Classifications 562 Consumer Products 563 Key Terms 636 Industrial Products 565 Discussing the issues 636Individual Product Decisions 566 Applying the Concepts 636 Product Attributes 566 References 637 Branding 570 Case 14 The Swatchmobile: Any Colour Packaging Decisions 583 Combination, Including Black 638 Labelling Decisions 585 Pro duct-Support Services Decisions 585Product Line Decisions 588 Chapter 15 Product Line-Length Decisions 588 Marketing Services 643Product-Mix Decisions 591International Product Decisions 593 Chapter Objectives 643Summary 593 Preview Case Lufthansa: Listening toKey Terms 595 Customers 643Discussing the Issues 595 Introduction 645Applying the Concepts 595 Nature and Characteristics of a Service 646References 596 Defining Services 646Case 13 Colgate: One Squeeze Too Many? 597 Types of Service 646 Service Characteristics 647 Marketing Strategies for Service Firms 654Chapter 14 Managing Differentiation 655Product Development and Managing Service Quality 657Life-Cycle Strategies 601 Managing Productivity 661 _ International Services Marketing 661Chapter Objectives 601 Summary 665Preview Case Aerostinctures Ramble 601 Key Terms 666Introduction 603 Discussing the Issues 666Innovation and New-Product Development 603 Applying the Concepts 666 Risks and Returns in Innovation 604 References 667 Why Do New Products Fail? 604 Case 15 Tibigarden: Is there Life after What Governs New-Product Success? 605 EuroDisney? 668New-Product Development Process 606 Overview Case Four Mattel: Getting it Right is New-Product Strategy 607 No Childs Play 673 Idea Generation 607 Idea Screening 611 Concept Development and Testing 612 Marketing Strategy Development 613 Business Analysis 614 Part Five Product Development 615 Price 676 Test Marketing 616 Commercialization 622 Speeding Up New-Product Development 623 Organization for Innovation 625 Product Life-Cycle Strategies 626 Chapter 16 Introduction Stage 629 Pricing Considerations and Approaches 678
  • 8. ContentsChapter Objectives 678 Applying the Concepts 742Preview Case The Times: For a Change 678 References 742Introduction 681 Case 17 Amaizer: It Tastes Awful, but WereFactors to Consider when Setting Prices 682 Working on It 743 Internal Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions 682 Overview Case Five Stena Sealink versus Le External Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions 690 Shuttle, Eurostar and the Rest 745General Pricing Approaches 697 Cost-Based Pricing 699 Value-Based Pricing 702 Competition-Based Pricing 704 Part SixSummary 706 Promotion 752Key Terms 707Discussing the Issues 707Applying the Concepts 708 Chapter 18References 708 Integrated Marketing CoinmunicationCase 16 Proton MPi: Malaysian Styling, Japanese Strategy 754 Engineering and European Pricing 709 Chapter Objectives 754Chapter 17 Preview Case British Home Stores 754Pricing Strategies 717 Introduction 756 A View of the Communication Process 758Chapter Objectives 717 Steps in Developing Effective Communication 759Preview Case Mobile Phones: Even More Mobile Identifying the Target Audience 759 Customers 717 Determining the Communication Objectives 760Introduction 719 Designing a Message 762New-Product Pricing Strategies 719 Choosing Media 768 Market-Skimming Pricing 720 Collecting Feedback 770 Market-Penetration Pricing 721 Setting the Total Promotion Budget and Mix 770Product-Mix Pricing Strategies 722 Setting the Total Promotion Budget 770 Product Line Pricing 722 Setting the Promotion Mix 772 Optional-Product Pricing 723 The Changing Face of Marketing Captive-Product Pricing 723 Communications 779 By-Product Pricing 724 The Changing Communications Product-Bundle Pricing 724 Environment 779Price-Adjustment Strategies 725 Integrated Marketing Communications 780 Discount and Allowance Pricing 725 Socially Responsible Marketing Segmented Pricing 727 Communication 781 Psychological Pricing 727 Summary 783 Promotional Pricing 728 Key Terms 784 Value Pricing 729 Geographical Pricing 731 Discussing the Issues 784 International Pricing 733 Applying the Concepts 785Price Changes 734 References 785 Initiating Price Changes 734 Case 18 Absolut Vodka: Responding to Price Changes 737 Absolutely Successful 786Summary 740Key Terms 741Discussing the Issues 741
  • 9. Contents •Chapter 19 The Nature of Personal Selling 846Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales The Role of the Sales Force 847Promotion and Public Relations 791 Managing the Sales Force 848 Setting Sales Force Objectives 848 Designing Sales Force Strategy and Structure 849Chapter Objectives 791 Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople 853Preview Case Promotions Medley! 791 Training Salespeople 855Introduction 793 Supervising Salespeople 856 Evaluating Salespeople 861Advertising 793 Principles of Personal Selling 864Important Decisions in Advertising 793 The Personal Selling Process 864 Setting Objectives 793 Steps in the Selling Process 864 Setting the Advertising Budget 796 Relationship Marketing 869 Advertising Strategy 797 Advertising Evaluation 808 Summary 872Organizing for Advertising 810 Key Terms 873International Advertising 811 Discussing the Issues 873 Standardization or Differentiation 812 Applying the Concepts 873 Centralization or Decentralization 814 References 874 Worldwide Advertising Media 815 Case 20 Britcraft Jet prop: Whose Sale is it Media Planning, Buying and Costs 816 Anyhow? 874 International Advertising Regulations 817 Overview Case Six Bang & Olufsen: Different bySales Promotion 818 Design 885 Reasons for Growth of Sales Promotion 819 Purpose of Saies Promotion 820 Setting Sales Promotion Objectives 821 Selecting Sales Promotion Tools 822 Part Seven Developing the Sales Promotion Programme 827 Pretesting and Implementing 829 Place 890 Evaluating the Results 830Public Relations 830 Important Public Relations Tools 832 Main Public Relations Decisions 832 Chapter 21Summary 836 Managing Marketing Channels 892Key Terms 837Discussing the Issues 837 Chapter Objectives 892Applying the Concepts 837 Preview Case Eeonomos 892References 838 Introduction 894Case 19 Diesel Jeans & Workwear: Were All The Nature of Distribution Channels 895 Different, But Arent We All Different in the Why are Marketing Intermediaries Used? 896 Same Way? 839 Marketing Channel Functions 896 Number of Channel Levels 897 Channels in the Service Sector 898Chapter 20 Channel Behaviour and Organization 899Personal Selling and Sales Management 843 Channel Behaviour 899 Channel Organization 900Chapter Objectives 843 Channel Design Decisions 907Preview Case IBM Restructures the Sales Force 843 Analyzing Customer Service Needs 907 Defining the Channel Objectives andIntroduction 845 Constraints 908The Role of Personal Selling 846 Identifying Major Alternatives 910
  • 10. xiv • Contents Evaluating the Main Alternatives 921 The Benefits of Direct Marketing 951 Designing International Distribution The Growth of Direct Marketing 951 Channels 921 Customer Databases and Direct Marketing 953 Channel Management Decisions 922 Forms of Direct Marketing 955 Selecting Channel Members 923 Face-to-Face Selling 955 Motivating Channel Members 923 Direct-Mail Marketing 957 Evaluating and Controlling Channel Catalogue Marketing 960 Members 924 Telemarketing 961 Physical Distribution and Logistics Direct-Response Television Marketing 962 Management 925 Online Marketing and Electronic Conimeree 964 Nature and Importance of Physical Distribution Rapid Growth of Online Marketing 965 and Marketing Logistics 925 The Online Consumer 967 Goals of the Logistics System 926 Major Logistics Functions 927 The Benefits of Online Marketing 969 Choosing Transportation Modes 931 Online Marketing Channels 970 International Logistics 932 The Promise and Challenges of Online Channel Trends 932 Marketing 975 Integrated Logistics Management 932 Integrated Direct Marketing 976 Retailing and Wholesaling Trends 936 Public Policy and Ethieal Issues in Direct Summary 940 Marketing 977 Key Terms 942 Irritation, Unfairness, Deception and Fraud 979 Discussing the Issues 942 Invasion of Privacy 979 Applying the Concepts 942 Summary 980 References 943 Key Terms 982 Case 21 Pieta Luxury Chocolates 944 Discussing the Issxies 982 Applying the Concepts 983 References 983 Chapter 22 Case 22 Virgin Direct - Personal Financial Direct and Online Marketing 947 Services 985 Overview Case Seven Freixenet Cava: bubbles Chapter Objectives 947 down a new way 989 Preview Case Dell Computer Corporation 947 Glossary 998 Introduction 950 Subject Index 1011 What is Direct Marketing? 950 Index of Companies 1028 Growth and Benefits of Direct Marketing 951 Copyright Acknowledgements 1032
  • 11. PrefaceMarkets are changing fast. New markets are emerging, trading blocks areextending and communications channels about products and selling them arechanging at a revolutionary pace. The signs of this change are everywhere in thistext. Many people will use Principles of Marketing alongside its associated CD-ROM, Interactive Marketing. An increasing number of references are now Web-site addresses that anyone can access from their PC. Yet amid this turmoil someissues remain the same. Products change continuously, but the great brands shinethrough like storm-swept lighthouses: Coca-Cola, Nokia, Sony, BMW, Saab andShell, to name but a few. Marketing is changing to meet the changing world. Marketing remains thebusiness activity that identifies an organizations customer needs and wants,determines which target markets it can serve best and designs appropriate prod-ucts, services and programmes to serve these markets. However, marketing ismuch more than an isolated business function - it is a philosophy that guides theentire organization. The goal of marketing is to create customer satisfaction prof-itably by building valued relationships with customers. The marketing peoplecannot accomplish this goal by themselves. They must work cJosely with otherpeople in their company and with other organizations in their value chain, toprovide superior value to customers. Thus, marketing calls upon everyone in theorganization to think customer and to do all that they can to help create anddeliver superior customer value and satisfaction. As Professor Stephen Burnettsays: In a truly great marketing organization, you cant tell whos in the marketingdepartment. Everyone in the organization has to make decisions based on theimpact on the consumer. Marketing is not solely advertising or selling. Real marketing is less about selling and more about knowing what to make! Organizations gain market leader- ship by understanding customer needs and finding solutions that delight through superior value, quality and service. No amount of advertising or selling can compensate for a lack of customer satisfaction. Marketing is also about applying that same process of need fulfilment to groups other than the final consumer. Paying customers are only one group of stakeholders in our society, so it is impor-tant to reach out to others sharing our world. Marketing is all around us. We are all customers now, notes the author PeterMullen, in every area of customer inter-relationship from the supply andconsrimption of education and health care to the queue in the Post Office and theride in an Inter-City express train, and in every financial transaction from thebuying of biscuits to the purchase of a shroud. Marketing is not only for manufac-turing companies, wholesalers and retailers, but for all kinds of individuals andorganizations. Lawyers, accountants and doctors use marketing to managedemand for their services. So do hospitals, museums and performing arts groups.No politician can get the needed votes, and no resort the needed tourists, withoutdeveloping and carrying out marketing plans. Principles of Marketing helpsstudents learn and apply the basic concepts and practices of modern marketingas used in a wide variety of settings: in product and service firms, consumer • XV •
  • 12. xvi • Preface and business markets, profit and non-profit organizations, domestic and global companies, and smail and large businesses. People in these organizations need to know how to define and segment markets and how to position themselves by developing need-satisfying products and services for their chosen target segments. They must know how to price their offerings attractively and affordably, and how to choose and manage the marketing channel that delivers these products and services to customers. They need to know how to advertise and promote their products and services, so that customers will know about and want them. All of these demand a broad range of skills to sense, serve and satisfy consumers. People need to understand marketing from the point of view of consumers and citizens. Someone is always trying to sell us something, so we need to recog- nize the methods they use. When they are seeking jobs, people have to market themselves. Many will start their careers within a sales force, in retailing, in advertising, in research or in one of the many other marketing areas.