Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ppt3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ppt3

68
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
68
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • WATER AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE
  • SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER.
  • Transcript

    • 1. NAME: DIPTY AGARWAL CLASS: 10 SECTION: B ROLL NUMBER:11 REGISTRATION NUMBER: B114084140067 SUBJECT: SCIENCE
    • 2. WATER RECYCLING
    • 3. INTRODUCTION Reclaimed water or recycled water is former wastewater that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used is sustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers. The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface water such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aesthetics
    • 4. How Can Water Recycling Benefit Us? Water recycling provides enormous environmental benefits. It also provides an additional source of water for various purposes. This a list of some benefits that water recycling can present. •Water recycling decreases the extraction of water form sources that may be dwindling and may stop being viable as habitats for valuable and endangered wildlife. •Recycling wastewater can decrease the discharge of effluents that may damage and pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive bodies of water. •Recycled water can be used to create new wetlands or to enhance and improve the quality of existing ones. •Water recycling can reduce and prevent pollution by leaving damaging pollutants at the treatment plant.
    • 5. LIMITATIONS With mounting water issues, municipalities are under stress to provide water (potable and non-potable) to industrial, commercial, and residential segments. Though wastewater recycling and reuse is an option to meet water requirements, some factors are limiting its use, such as: • High price sensitivity towards advanced wastewater treatment systems • Negative perception about wastewater recycling • Lack of technological awareness and skilled manpower • Fragmented nature of the market • Weak enforcement of regulations and policies
    • 6. Why recycle water? Increasing population means that the demand for water is increasing. To ensure that we have enough water to meet our present and future needs, we need to conserve water and expand the use of recycled water.
    • 7. NAME: DIPTY AGARWAL CLASS: 10 SECTION: B ROLL NUMBER:11 REGISTRATION NUMBER: B114084140067 SUBJECT: SCIENCE
    • 8. HARDNESS OF WATER
    • 9. INTRODUCTION Hard water is any water containing an appreciable quantity of dissolved minerals. Soft water is treated water in which the only cation (positively charged ion) is sodium. The minerals in water give it a characteristic taste. Some natural mineral waters are highly sought for their flavor and the health benefits they may confer. Soft water, on the other hand, may taste salty and may not be suitable for drinking.
    • 10. Water's hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations are cations (positively charged metal complexes) with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. These ions enter a water supply by leaching from minerals within an aquifer. Commoncalcium-containing minerals are calcite and gypsum. A common magnesium mineral is dolomite (which also contains calcium). Rainwater and distilled water are soft, because they contain fewions.[2] The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving/formation of calcium carbonate scale: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ⇋ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Calcium carbonate scale formed in water-heating systems is called limescale.
    • 11. SOFTENING It is often desirable to soften hard water. Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. For this reason, water softening is often unnecessary. Where softening is practiced, it is often recommended to soften only the water sent to domestic hot water systems so as to prevent or delay inefficiencies and damage due to scale formation in water heaters. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by twice the number of monocations such as sodium or potassiumions.
    • 12. NAME: DIPTY AGARWAL CLASS: 10 SECTION: B ROLL NUMBER:11 REGISTRATION NUMBER: B114084140067 SUBJECT: SCIENCE
    • 13. WATER AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE
    • 14. WATER AS AN ENERGY RESOURCE
    • 15. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power is the only form of energy which derives directly from the relative motions of the Earth–Moon system, and to a lesser extent from the Earth– Sun system. The tidal forces produced by the Moon and Sun, in combination with Earth’s rotation, are responsible for the generation of the tides.. Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, crossflow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Because the Earth’s tides are caused by the tidal forces due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun, and the Earth’s rotation, tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy source.
    • 16. HOW TIDE GENERATES: Tidal energy is generated by the relative motion of the water which interact via gravity. Periodic changes of water levels, and associated tidal currents, are due to the gravitational attrac tion by the Sun and Moon. The magnitude of the tide at a location is the result of the changing positio ns of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth, the effects of Earth rotation, and the local shape of the sea floor and coastlines. Because the Earth’s tides are caused by the tidal forces due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and Sun, and the Earth’s rotation, tidal power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable energy source. A tidal generator uses this phenomenon to generate electricity. The stronger the tide, either in water level height or tidal current velocities, the greater the potential for tidal electricity generation.. Location Historically, tidal mills were usually built on inlets branching off tidal estuaries. An estuary is a wide part of a river where it meets the sea. It creates a unique environment because both freshwater and saltwater are present. Tidal estuaries are characterized by narrow, shallow channels with a relatively constant width and depth. Tides are greatly amplified in these areas of smaller volume, which causes the tide to travel up the river.
    • 17. WAVE ENERGY Wave energy is produced when electricity generators are placed on the surface of the ocean. The energy provided is most often used in desalination plants, power plants and water pumps. Energy output is determined by wave height, wave speed, wavelength, and water density. To date there are only a handful of experimental wave generator plants in operation around the world. Wave energy is a renewable energy resource created by large storms hundreds of kilometres offshore that generate and transmit huge amounts of energy which travels great distances (via swell) and mixes with local influences (seas) to arrive at our shores. It is a genuinely renewable energy source and distinct from tidal energy. Wave energy is generally considered to be the most concentrated and least variable form of renewable energy. It is the high power density of wave energy that suggests it has the capacity to become the lowest cost renewable energy source. The World Energy Council has estimated that approximately 2 terawatts (2 million megawatts), about double current world electricity production, could be produced from the oceans via wave power. It is estimated that 1 million gigawatt hours of wave energy hits Australian shores annually and that 25% of the UK's current power usage could be supplied by harvesting its wave resource.
    • 18. HYDROELECTRIC POWER Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,[1] and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itaipu Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[1] The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.[1] However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife.[1] Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
    • 19. NAME: DIPTY AGARWAL CLASS: 10 SECTION: B ROLL NUMBER:11 REGISTRATION NUMBER: B114084140067 SUBJECT: SOCIAL SCIENCE
    • 20. SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER.
    • 21. SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER.
    • 22. INTRODUCTION Groundwater The importance of groundwater for the existence of human society cannot be overemphasized. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. Besides, it is an important source of water for the agricultural and the industrial sector. Water utilization projections for 2000 put the groundwater usage at about 50%. Being an important and integral part of the hydrological cycle, its availability depends on the rainfall and recharge conditions. Till recently it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity in many parts of the world. The situation is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination. India is heading towards a freshwater crisis mainly due to improper management of water resources and environmental degradation, which has lead to a lack of access to safe water supply to millions of people. This freshwater crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity depending mainly on the time of the year
    • 23. The National Water Policy (1987) states that water is a prime natural resource, basic human need, and precious national asset. It gives special attention to drinking water for both humans and animals over its other uses. The policy calls for controls on the exploitation of groundwater through regulation and an integrated and coordinated development of surface- and groundwater. The central government has identified strategies for meeting drinking water needs and microwatershed management and conducted pilot projects in different regions in the country. Even so, India is facing a freshwater crisis. •Groundwater crisis is not the result of natural factors; it has been caused by human actions. During the past two decades, the water level in several parts of the country has been falling rapidly due to an increase in extraction. •The number of wells drilled for irrigation of both food and cash crops have rapidly and indiscriminately increased. •India's rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles has also increased the domestic need for water. The water requirement for the industry also shows an overall increase. •Intense competition among users — agriculture, industry, and domestic sectors — is driving the groundwater table lower.
    • 24. NAME: DIPTY AGARWAL CLASS: 10 SECTION: B ROLL NUMBER:11 REGISTRATION NUMBER: B114084140067 SUBJECT: SOCIAL SCIENCE
    • 25. CONSERVATION OF WATER
    • 26. WHAT IS WATER CONSERVATION? Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. AIMS OF CONSERVATION - Revive traditional structures as well as create new infrastructure for water conservation - Increase the groundwater recharge in the watershed area - Increase water use efficiency in agriculture and domestic sectors by ensuring the adoption of water management techniques - Conserve fertile soil through soil and moisture conservation
    • 27. RAINWATER HARVESTING In urban areas, the construction of houses, footpaths and roads has left little exposed earth for water to soak in. In parts of the rural areas of India, floodwater quickly flows to the rivers, which then dry up soon after the rains stop. If this water can be held back, it can seep into the ground and recharge the groundwater supply. This has become a very popular method of conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Not only does this recharging arrest groundwater depletion, it also raises the declining water table and can help augment water supply. Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharging are becoming very important issues. It is essential to stop the decline in groundwater levels, arrest sea-water ingress, i.e. prevent sea-water from moving landward, and conserve surface water run-off during the rainy season.
    • 28. WATER CONSERVATION The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits¾this includes each one of us. Conserve water because it is the right thing to do. We can follow some of the simple things that have been listed below and contribute to water conservation. •Try to do one thing each day that will result in saving water. Don't worry if the savings are minimal¾every drop counts! You can make a difference. •Remember to use only the amount you actually need. •Form a group of water-conscious people and encourage your friends and neighbours to be part of this group. Promote water conservation in community newsletters and on bulletin boards. Encourage your friends, neighbours and co-workers to also contribute. •Encourage your family to keep looking for new ways to conserve water in and around your home.
    • 29. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT NARMADA BACHAO MOVEMENT
    • 30. NARMADA BACHAO MOVEMENT Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers , environmentalists,and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA.
    • 31. CAMPAIGNS.. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities(notably Bollywood actor Amir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. History of the dam project post-1947,investigations were carried out to evaluate mechanisms for using water from the Narmada River, which flows into the Arabian Sea after passing through the states of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Due to inter-state difference in implementing schemes and sharing of water,the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes.
    • 32. REASONS FOR THE ANDOLAN In 1985, after hearing about the Sardar Sarovar Dam, Medha Patkar and her colleagues visited project site and noticed that the project work being shelved due to an order by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The reasons for this was citedas “non-fulfillment of basic environmental conditions and lack of completion of crucial studies and plans.”What she noticed was thata the people who were going to be affected given no information but for the offer of rehabilitation. Due to this, the villagers had many questions from why their permission was not taken to whether a good assessment on ensuring destruction was taken. The World Bank, the financing agency for this project, came into the picture, Patkar approached the Ministry of Environment to seek clarifications. She realized, after seeking answers from the ministry, that the project was not sanctioned ata ll and wondered as to how funds were even sanctioned by the World Bank. After several studies, they realized that the officials had overlooked the post-project problems.
    • 33. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN