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  • 1. NAME-NIRALI MEHTA CLASS- X B ROLL.NO-22 REG.NOB114084140078 PROJECT- SCIENCE
  • 2. BIOLOGY PROJECT RECYCLING OF WATER
  • 3. RECYCLING OF WATER • Recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used insustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers . The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and ocRecycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and used insustainable landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers . The purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation, rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve aesthetics. One example of this is along Calera Creek in the City of Pacifica, CA. • The definition of reclaimed water, as defined by Levine and Asaneo, is "The end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended matter and pathogens.“ In more recent conventional use, the term refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way to conserve drinking water. This water is given to uses such as agriculture and sundry industry uses.
  • 4. HOW IS WATER RECYCLED? While various wastewater recycling technologies have the same ultimate goal – to give drillers a cost-effective means of reusing flowback and produced water – there is no clear consensus on how to achieve it. Some companies use chemicals, others use electrical pulses. Some see removal of solids as mandatory, some see it as costly and unnecessary. OriginOil uses a system called Electro Water Separation (EWS). EWS combines electrocoagulation – using electrical pulses to prompt organic material in water to coagulate, or clump together – and electrofloation, which makes clumped material float to the surface, where it can simply be raked off the top. The process leaves a solution that is not potable, but can be sent to disposal wells or as the first stage in a water-recycling program. “We get it to about 99% clean,” said company Chief Executive. These processes can remove additional materials, such as minerals that contribute to water hardness. A company called Pace has integrated OriginOil’s process with a nanofiltration process.
  • 5. USES OF RECYCLED WATER Recycled water can be used for almost any use, as long as it is treated to a level to make it fit for that intended purpose (i.e. fit-for-purpose) from a health and environmental perspective . However, the cost of treatment may make reclamation uneconomical for some uses. Australia now has more than 600 different recycled water schemes operating. The bulk of these schemes involve: • Urban and municipal environments • Households, golf courses and recreational parks. • Industry • Washing and cooling in power stations and mills. • Agriculture • Horticulture, forestry, pasture, flowers, viticulture and sugar cane. • Fire fighting • Groundwater recharge • Environmental flows and wetlands • It is now also possible for advanced treatment technology to produce safe drinking (potable) water. In several countries wastewater is recycled for potable reuse via groundwater
  • 6. RECYCLING OF WATER
  • 7. NAME-NIRALI MEHTA CLASS- X B ROLL.NO-22 REG.NOB114084140078 PROJECT-SCIENCE
  • 8. CHEMISTRY PROJECT HARDNESS OF WATER
  • 9. HARD WATER Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health,[1] but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
  • 10. EFFECTS OF HARD WATER • With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2C • Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate(CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4).[2] Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers. • In swimming pools, hard water is manifested by a turbid, or cloudy (milky), appearance to the water. Calcium and magnesium hydroxides are both soluble in water.
  • 11. HOW TO SOFTEN HARD WATER? Method 1 of 2: Soften Your Entire Household Water Supply • Determine that your water is hard. • Install a mechanical water softener that replaces calcium and magnesium with sodium if your water source is hard. • Install a magnetic water conditioner that alters calcium ions so they are unable to cause lime scale. Method 2 of 2: Soften Water Before Use • Boil your water before drinking it. • Soften water using washing soda or lime. • Add ammonia, borax, lye or washing-soda to the water at the same time you add the soap when doing laundry and other household cleaning. • Use a water filter pitcher that provides water softening for drinking water.These are available in many retail stores under many brand names. Some of these • Put a similar type of filter on your kitchen and bathroom sink faucets to provide softening for water dispensed through the tap.
  • 12. HARDNESS OF WATER

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