CONSERVATION OF WATER
Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities
to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water
environment and to meet current and future human demand.
Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how
much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase
pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and
Some researchers have suggested that water conservation efforts
should be primarily directed at farmers, in light of the fact that crop
irrigation accounts for 70% of the world's fresh water use. The
agricultural sector of most countries is important both economically
and politically, and water subsidies are common. Conservation
advocates have urged removal of all subsidies to force farmers to grow
more water-efficient crops and adopt less wasteful irrigation
What is watershed management?
Watersheds can be defined as geo-hydrological unit
draining to a common point by a system of
drains.All lands on earth are a part of one
watershed or another.Watershed is thus the land
and water area,which contributes runoff to a
For example,the watershed of a lake would include
not only the streams entering that lake but also the
land area that drains into those streams and
eventually the lake.
• It is a type of water harvesting system.
• It can be defined as a system of collection and
concentration of rain water and its runoff and
its productive use for:a)Irrigation of annual crops,pastures and trees.
b)Domestic and livestock consumption.
Need For Rainwater Harvesting
• Major parts of our country have been facing continous
failure of monsoon and concequent deficit of rainfall over
the last few years.
• Also,due to ever increasing population of India,the use of
groundwater has increased drastically leading to constant
depletion of groundwater level causing the wells and tube
wells to dry up.
• In some place,excessive heat waves during summer create
a situation similar to drought.
• It is imperative to take adequate measures to meet the
drinking water needs of the people in the country besides
irrigation anddomestic needs.
• Out of 8760 hours in a year,most of the rain in India falls in
just 100 hours.
MOVEMENTS IN DELHI
REALATED TO WATER
WATER MOVEMENTS IN DELHI
Delhi lies next to the desert of Rajasthan and close
to the foothills of the Himalayas. The desert gives
Delhi its dry climate, while the Himalayas act as a
cloud barrier and lead to the 611.8 mm of annual
rainfall in Delhi.
Growth in private and industrial consumption has
put pressure on resources such as water. While
private groundwater extraction is illegal, it is
rampant in the city. Both private and government
companies are running bottled water plants using
WHAT WERE THE PROBLEMS?
Large dams such as Tehri have been controversial, and
several peoples’ movements have challenged their benefits
on a national and international level. According to The
Indian National Trust For Art and Cultural Heritage, 100,000
people were displaced by the Tehri dam.
There is an increase in population which results in higher
consumption of water.
Delhi is an old city with a rich history of water
management. But Delhi’s river is dead, and water
governance is corrupt and inaccessible. Those with less are
subjected to longer queues for water; children skip school
and women face severe safety and sanitation issues. Thus,
the task facing Delhi’s civil society and the government is
HOW CAN THEY BE SOLVED?
The Delhi government has attempted privatization of the city’s
water supply since 2005. While a fierce peoples’ campaign
defeated privatization efforts in 2005, the Delhi Jal Board has
recently handed over parts of its water distribution and
monitoring duties in South Delhi (the neighborhoods of Malviya
Nagar and Vasant Vihar) to a private company affiliated with the
Tata Group. A clerk with the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) explained that
while the decision to privatize has been announced recently, the
DJB has been raising water tariffs gradually over the years to
prepare for handing distribution operations to Tata, as DJB did in
2012.The campaign to stop the privatization of water in Delhi in
2005 was initiated by Parivartan, an NGO run by Arvind Kejrival
(who is currently bringing a new party into India’s politics). The
movement was large, with Resident Welfare Associations playing
a big part in the process.