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Sl No.

CONTENT

1.

SCIENCE - (i) Chemistry
=> Hardness of water
(ii) Biology
=> Recycling of water
(iii) Physics
=> Wate...
Many industrial and domestic water users are
concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard
water requires more soap an...
Hard water can be a nuisance due to the mineral
buildup on plumbing fixtures and poor soap and
detergent performance. It o...
Treat hard water by adding a
water softener to laundry and
the dishwasher or by installing
an ion-exchange system to treat...
Hardness can be removed by the following methods:
=>By the use of soda
*Soda removes both temporary and permanent hardness...
Basically,the process of recycling is
collecting the used materials and process
them into new products to prevent waste of...
=>Water reuse in paper industry.
*Water can be recycled by means of membrane
filtration and membrane bio-reactors.
=>Water...
Water, like many substances, contains two kinds of energy. The
first kind of energy is called kinetic energy. This is ener...
Hydroelectric power is the electricity that is supplied by
generating energy from falling or streaming water. Hydroelectri...
There are several benefits to the use of hydropower. Hydropower
has a moderate to high amount of useful energy and fairly ...
Production of electricity from waves and tides is an option today.
About twice a day in high as well as low tides, water f...
“Sustainability "concerns the specification of a set of
actions to be taken by present persons that will not
diminish the ...
At present, the average per capita consumption of
people in the developing world is sustainable but
population numbers are...
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting
of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights act...
The Save the Narmada Movement (Narmada Bachao Andolan,
NBA) is the people's movement that has mobilised itself against
thi...
The decade-long struggle in the Narmada valley has resulted in
suspension of the work on the Sardar Sarovar dam project
th...
Water is a natural resource, fundamental to life, livelihood, food
security and sustainable development. It is also a scar...
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of
rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include...
Watershed management is the study of the relevant
characteristics of a watershed aimed at the
sustainable distribution of ...
=>The objective of “ Water Management In India-2013”
conference to help understand new policies, and updates on
National W...
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  1. 1. Sl No. CONTENT 1. SCIENCE - (i) Chemistry => Hardness of water (ii) Biology => Recycling of water (iii) Physics => Water as an energy 2. SOCIAL SCIENCE- (i) Economical Development => Sustainability of ground water (ii) Political Development =>Movement related to water (iii) Geography => Conservation of Water
  2. 2. Many industrial and domestic water users are concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in industrial equipment.Hardness comes from naturally occurring calcium and magnesium mineral salts, which are dissolved from the rocks through which rain water flows.
  3. 3. Hard water can be a nuisance due to the mineral buildup on plumbing fixtures and poor soap and detergent performance. It often causes aesthetic problems, such as: =>An alkali taste to the water that makes coffee taste bitter. =>Build-up of deposits on dishes, utensils and laundry basins. =>Difficulty in getting soap and detergent to foam. =>lowered efficiency of electric water heaters.
  4. 4. Treat hard water by adding a water softener to laundry and the dishwasher or by installing an ion-exchange system to treat all of your household water. Ion exchange can increase the sodium content of the water, which may pose health concerns for your household.
  5. 5. Hardness can be removed by the following methods: =>By the use of soda *Soda removes both temporary and permanent hardness. It is also inexpensive and easy to use. This makes it the ideal substance for softening water in the home. By the addition of slaked lime *Slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 is added to temporary hard water. Insoluble calcium carbonate precipitate out and no longer produce hardness. By boiling the hard water * On boiling, calcium/magnesium bicarbonate decomposes to give calcium/magnesium carbonate, which is insoluble in water. Therefore, it precipitates out.
  6. 6. Basically,the process of recycling is collecting the used materials and process them into new products to prevent waste of potentially used materials. Recyclable products include some kind of glass,paper, metal,plastic,textiles and electronics.
  7. 7. =>Water reuse in paper industry. *Water can be recycled by means of membrane filtration and membrane bio-reactors. =>Water reuse in poultry industry. *By means of filtration,cooling water can be recycled. =>Water dis-infection and reuse in greenhouse horticulture. *Water recycling and dis-infecting by means of heat treatment.
  8. 8. Water, like many substances, contains two kinds of energy. The first kind of energy is called kinetic energy. This is energy that is used during the execution of processes, such as movement. Because of kinetic energy water can flow and waves can exist. But water can also contain potential energy. This is energy that is stored in the water. Stored, but not used. This energy can become useful when water starts to flow. It will be transferred to kinetic energy and this will cause movement. When water flows or falls, energy can be generated. The generation of energy through water is usually carried out in large water power plants, with a number of process steps and the use of several devices, such as turbines and generators. The energy in water can be used to produce electricity.
  9. 9. Hydroelectric power is the electricity that is supplied by generating energy from falling or streaming water. Hydroelectric power is a so-called renewable energy source. This means that the source, which provides the energy, can be renewed. This is because, unlike non-renewable energy sources such as crude oil, we will not run out of water fully. It can be renewed after we have used it for energy generation.
  10. 10. There are several benefits to the use of hydropower. Hydropower has a moderate to high amount of useful energy and fairly low operating and maintenance costs. Hydroelectric power plants emit very little heat-trapping carbon dioxide and other air pollutants during operation. They have live spans of two to ten times those of coal and nuclear plants. The dams that are used in the power plants help prevent flooding and supply a regulated flow of irrigation water to the areas below the dam. However, there are some drawbacks to the use of hydroelectric power. A hydroelectric power plant takes up a lot of space and this may cause animal habitats to go lost. Large-scale projects can threaten recreational activities and disrupt the flows of rivers. Due to the presence of dams and reservoirs, fish may not be able to swim to sea and aquatic life may decrease in the area of the hydroelectric power plant.
  11. 11. Production of electricity from waves and tides is an option today. About twice a day in high as well as low tides, water flows in and out of coasts and estuaries. This water can spin turbines, in order to produce electricity. But analysts have been taking a closer look at this form of energy supply and they believe that tidal power can only make a tiny contribution to the world's energy supply, because of the few suitable sites, the high construction costs and the risk of equipment destruction by saltwater corrosion. However, there are a few areas with the right conditions to produce tidal power. France and Canada own the largest tidal energy facilities right now.
  12. 12. “Sustainability "concerns the specification of a set of actions to be taken by present persons that will not diminish the prospects of future persons to enjoy levels of consumption, wealth, utility or welfare comparable to those enjoyed by present person.
  13. 13. At present, the average per capita consumption of people in the developing world is sustainable but population numbers are increasing and individuals are aspiring to high-consumption Western lifestyles. The developed world population is only increasing slightly but consumption levels are unsustainable. The challenge for sustainability is to curb and manage Western consumption while raising the standard of living of the developing world without increasing its resource use and environmental impact. This must be done by using strategies and technology that break the link between, on the one hand, economic growth and on the other, environmental damage and resource depletion.
  14. 14. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities. Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991.
  15. 15. The Save the Narmada Movement (Narmada Bachao Andolan, NBA) is the people's movement that has mobilised itself against this development since the mid- and late-1980s. It has succeeded in generating a debate across the sub-continent which has encapsulated the conflict between two opposing styles of development: one massively destructive of people and the environment in the quest for large-scale industrialisation; the other consisting of replicable small-scale decentralised, democractic and ecologically sustainable options and activities harmoniously integrated with both local communities and nature. In place of the dams, NBA calls for an energy and water strategy, based on improving dry farming technology, watershed development, small dams, lift schemes for irrigation and drinking water, and improved efficiency and utilisation of existing dams.
  16. 16. The decade-long struggle in the Narmada valley has resulted in suspension of the work on the Sardar Sarovar dam project through the movement as well as the Supreme Court's intervention. NBA questioned and compelled the World Bank that supported the dam with a US$ 450 million loan to review the Sardar Sarovar project. NBA has also exposed fraud in the environment compliance reports and massive corruption in the rehabilitation leading to a judicial inquiry.There are more than 200,000 people in the submergence area of this single dam with the best of agriculture and horticulture and all community life going on with temples, mosques, trees, schools, dispensaries, Government buildings etc. NBA has also spread to other large dams in the valley, such as Indira Sagar, Maheshwar and Omkareshwar. For two of these dams, the High Court of Jabalpur stopped the filling of the reservoir until land based rehabilitation is done.
  17. 17. Water is a natural resource, fundamental to life, livelihood, food security and sustainable development. It is also a scarce resource. India has more than 17 percent of the world’s population, but has only 4% of world’s renewable water resources with 2.6% of world’s land area. As per present estimate, India receives on average annual precipitation of about 4000 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM), which is its basic water resource. Thus, the availability of water is limited but the demand of water is increasing rapidly due to growing population, rapid urbanization, rapid industrialization and economic development. In addition, there are inequities in distribution and lack of a unified perspective in planning, management and use of water resources. India’s Union ministry is coming up with revised national water policy for the Improvement of water use efficiency, urban and rural water supply and sanitation.Also to control pollution water has to be conserved.Let us look at a few methods to conserve water.
  18. 18. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation,etc. It is practiced in various parts of the world now.Excess water is now stored in underground rooms called tankas or elsewhere. Some of its advantages are: Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate and it may reduce your water bill. Promotes both water and energy conservation. No filtration system required for landscape irrigation. Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts and minerals from the soil.
  19. 19. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Environmental laws often dictate the planning and actions that agencies take to manage watersheds.
  20. 20. =>The objective of “ Water Management In India-2013” conference to help understand new policies, and updates on National Water policy, increasing water use efficiency by 20% bring policymakers and stakeholders on a single platform, understand existing and potential opportunities under and other possible solutions. =>Water Management In India 2013 Conference will bring platform for water treatment service providers for health safety through latest technologies. =>Besides this access to clean and fresh water by the people will be one of its major objective.
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