SCIENCE - (i) Chemistry
=> Hardness of water
=> Recycling of water
=> Water as an energy
SOCIAL SCIENCE- (i) Economical Development
=> Sustainability of ground water
(ii) Political Development
=>Movement related to water
=> Conservation of Water
Many industrial and domestic water users are
concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard
water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for
home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling
in industrial equipment.Hardness comes from naturally
occurring calcium and magnesium mineral salts, which
are dissolved from the rocks through which rain water
Hard water can be a nuisance due to the mineral
buildup on plumbing fixtures and poor soap and
detergent performance. It often causes aesthetic
problems, such as:
=>An alkali taste to the water that makes coffee taste
=>Build-up of deposits on dishes, utensils and laundry
=>Difficulty in getting soap and detergent to foam.
=>lowered efficiency of electric
Treat hard water by adding a
water softener to laundry and
the dishwasher or by installing
an ion-exchange system to treat
all of your household water. Ion
exchange can increase the
sodium content of the water,
which may pose health
concerns for your household.
Hardness can be removed by the following methods:
=>By the use of soda
*Soda removes both temporary and permanent hardness. It is also
inexpensive and easy to use. This makes it the ideal substance for
softening water in the home.
By the addition of slaked lime
*Slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 is added to temporary hard water.
Insoluble calcium carbonate precipitate out and no longer
By boiling the hard water
* On boiling, calcium/magnesium bicarbonate decomposes to
give calcium/magnesium carbonate, which is insoluble in water.
Therefore, it precipitates out.
Basically,the process of recycling is
collecting the used materials and process
them into new products to prevent waste of
potentially used materials. Recyclable
products include some kind of glass,paper,
metal,plastic,textiles and electronics.
=>Water reuse in paper industry.
*Water can be recycled by means of membrane
filtration and membrane bio-reactors.
=>Water reuse in poultry industry.
*By means of filtration,cooling water can be
=>Water dis-infection and reuse in greenhouse
*Water recycling and dis-infecting by means of
Water, like many substances, contains two kinds of energy. The
first kind of energy is called kinetic energy. This is energy that is
used during the execution of processes, such as movement.
Because of kinetic energy water can flow and waves can exist.
But water can also contain potential energy. This is energy that
is stored in the water. Stored, but not used. This energy can
become useful when water starts to flow. It will be transferred to
kinetic energy and this will cause movement. When water flows
or falls, energy can be generated. The generation of energy
through water is usually carried out in large water power
plants, with a number of process steps and the use of several
devices, such as turbines and generators. The energy in water
can be used to produce electricity.
Hydroelectric power is the electricity that is supplied by
generating energy from falling or streaming water. Hydroelectric
power is a so-called renewable energy source. This means that the
source, which provides the energy, can be renewed. This is
because, unlike non-renewable energy sources such as crude oil,
we will not run out of water fully. It can be renewed after we have
used it for energy generation.
There are several benefits to the use of hydropower. Hydropower
has a moderate to high amount of useful energy and fairly low
operating and maintenance costs. Hydroelectric power plants
emit very little heat-trapping carbon dioxide and other air
pollutants during operation. They have live spans of two to ten
times those of coal and nuclear plants.
The dams that are used in the power plants help prevent flooding
and supply a regulated flow of irrigation water to the areas below
However, there are some drawbacks to the use of hydroelectric
power. A hydroelectric power plant takes up a lot of space and
this may cause animal habitats to go lost. Large-scale projects can
threaten recreational activities and disrupt the flows of rivers. Due
to the presence of dams and reservoirs, fish may not be able to
swim to sea and aquatic life may decrease in the area of the
hydroelectric power plant.
Production of electricity from waves and tides is an option today.
About twice a day in high as well as low tides, water flows in and
out of coasts and estuaries. This water can spin turbines, in order
to produce electricity. But analysts have been taking a closer look
at this form of energy supply and they believe that tidal power
can only make a tiny contribution to the world's energy supply,
because of the few suitable sites, the high construction costs and
the risk of equipment destruction by saltwater corrosion.
However, there are a few areas with the right conditions to
produce tidal power. France and Canada own the largest tidal
energy facilities right now.
“Sustainability "concerns the specification of a set of
actions to be taken by present persons that will not
diminish the prospects of future persons to enjoy levels
of consumption, wealth, utility or welfare comparable to
those enjoyed by present person.
At present, the average per capita consumption of
people in the developing world is sustainable but
population numbers are increasing and individuals are
aspiring to high-consumption Western lifestyles. The
developed world population is only increasing slightly
but consumption levels are unsustainable. The challenge
for sustainability is to curb and manage Western
consumption while raising the standard of living of the
developing world without increasing its resource use
and environmental impact. This must be done by using
strategies and technology that break the link
between, on the one hand, economic growth and on the
other, environmental damage and resource depletion.
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting
of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists
against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada
river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat and Madhya
Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the
biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of
the movement. Their mode of campaign includes hunger
strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities.
Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha
Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in
The Save the Narmada Movement (Narmada Bachao Andolan,
NBA) is the people's movement that has mobilised itself against
this development since the mid- and late-1980s. It has succeeded
in generating a debate across the sub-continent which has
encapsulated the conflict between two opposing styles of
development: one massively destructive of people and the
environment in the quest for large-scale industrialisation; the
other consisting of replicable small-scale decentralised,
democractic and ecologically sustainable options and activities
harmoniously integrated with both local communities and nature.
In place of the dams, NBA calls for an energy and water strategy,
based on improving dry farming technology, watershed
development, small dams, lift schemes for irrigation and drinking
water, and improved efficiency and utilisation of existing dams.
The decade-long struggle in the Narmada valley has resulted in
suspension of the work on the Sardar Sarovar dam project
through the movement as well as the Supreme Court's
intervention. NBA questioned and compelled the World Bank that
supported the dam with a US$ 450 million loan to review the
Sardar Sarovar project. NBA has also exposed fraud in the
environment compliance reports and massive corruption in the
rehabilitation leading to a judicial inquiry.There are more than
200,000 people in the submergence area of this single dam with
the best of agriculture and horticulture and all community life
going on with temples, mosques, trees, schools, dispensaries,
Government buildings etc. NBA has also spread to other large
dams in the valley, such as Indira Sagar, Maheshwar and
Omkareshwar. For two of these dams, the High Court of Jabalpur
stopped the filling of the reservoir until land based rehabilitation
Water is a natural resource, fundamental to life, livelihood, food
security and sustainable development. It is also a scarce resource.
India has more than 17 percent of the world’s population, but has
only 4% of world’s renewable water resources with 2.6% of
world’s land area. As per present estimate, India receives on
average annual precipitation of about 4000 Billion Cubic Meter
(BCM), which is its basic water resource. Thus, the availability of
water is limited but the demand of water is increasing rapidly due
to growing population, rapid urbanization, rapid
industrialization and economic development. In addition, there
are inequities in distribution and lack of a unified perspective in
planning, management and use of water resources. India’s Union
ministry is coming up with revised national water policy for the
Improvement of water use efficiency, urban and rural water
supply and sanitation.Also to control pollution water has to be
conserved.Let us look at a few methods to conserve water.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of
rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include
water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation,etc.
It is practiced in various parts of the world now.Excess water is
now stored in underground rooms called tankas or elsewhere.
Some of its advantages are:
Home systems can be relatively simple to install and operate
and it may reduce your water bill.
Promotes both water and energy conservation.
No filtration system required for landscape irrigation.
Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation, with no
chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, and no dissolved salts
and minerals from the soil.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant
characteristics of a watershed aimed at the
sustainable distribution of its resources and the
process of creating and implementing
plans, programs, and projects to sustain and
enhance watershed functions that affect
the plant, animal, and human communities within
a watershed boundary. Environmental laws often
dictate the planning and actions that agencies take
to manage watersheds.
=>The objective of “ Water Management In India-2013”
conference to help understand new policies, and updates on
National Water policy, increasing water use efficiency by 20%
bring policymakers and stakeholders on a single platform,
understand existing and potential opportunities under and
other possible solutions.
=>Water Management In India 2013 Conference will
bring platform for water treatment service providers for health
safety through latest technologies.
=>Besides this access to clean and fresh water by the people will
be one of its major objective.