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Dk4023fm

  1. 1. DK4023_half 7/22/05 3:36 PM Page 1 Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling Standard Handbook of Chains Second Edition © 2006 by American Chain Association
  2. 2. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books Founding Editor L. L. Faulkner Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute and Department of Mechanical Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 1. Spring Designer’s Handbook, Harold Carlson 2. Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan 3. Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills 4. Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman 5. Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and C. Poli 6. Centrifugal Pump Clinic, Igor J. Karassik 7. Computer-Aided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan 8. Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part A: Materials and Components; Part B: Processes and Design for Processes, edited by Edward Miller 9. Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr. 10. Vibrations of Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel 11. Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook, Mario Di Giovanni 12. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design, Alexander Blake 13. An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints, John H. Bickford 14. Optimal Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall 15. Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson 16. Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Lewis H. Bell 17. Gears and Their Vibration: A Basic Approach to Understanding Gear Noise, J. Derek Smith 18. Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and Applications Handbook, American Chain Association 19. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, edited by Philip A. Schweitzer 20. Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter Lynwander 21. Controlling In-Plant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and Calculations, John D. Constance 22. CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation, Charles S. Knox 23. Probabilistic Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall 24. Traction Drives: Selection and Application, Frederick W. Heilich III and Eugene E. Shube 25. Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and Chris E. Passerello 26. Mechanical Fastening of Plastics: An Engineering Handbook, Brayton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden 27. Lubrication in Practice: Second Edition, edited by W. S. Robertson 28. Principles of Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan 29. Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini 30. Engineering Documentation for CAD/CAM Applications, Charles S. Knox 31. Design Dimensioning with Computer Graphics Applications, Jerome C. Lange DK4023_series.qxd 8/15/05 8:52 AM Page 1 © 2006 by American Chain Association
  3. 3. DK4023_title 8/15/05 9:00 AM Page 1 AM E R I C A N C H A IN A S S O C I A T I O N Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling Standard Handbook of Chains Second Edition American Chain Association A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. Boca Raton London New York © 2006 by American Chain Association
  4. 4. Published in 2006 by CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2006 by American Chain Association CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-10: 1-57444-647-9 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-57444-647-0 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2005043944 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Standard handbook of chains : for power transmission and material handling / American Chain Association.--2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57444-647-9 1. Chain drive--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Chain conveyors--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. American Chain Association. TJ1051.S77 2005 621.8'59--dc22 2005043944 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of T&F Informa plc. DK4023_Discl.fm Page 1 Thursday, July 7, 2005 11:09 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  5. 5. Foreword The predecessor organization of today’s American Chain Association (ACA) was formed in the 1930s. While the routine function of collecting and correlating marketing data for distribution was important, their primary purpose was continued development of the American chain industry and its customers. This objective “to develop and promote standards of sound manufacturing and engineering practice, and through well-guided research, to foster improvements in the quality and utility of the industry’s products” was spelled out in the first pages of one of its early publications. This credo, as promulgated by the then Association of Roller and Silent Chain Manufacturers (ARSCM) soon led to a series of projects to build and operate chain test equipment in the laboratory. From those projects were developed the horsepower curves covering all basic sizes of standard roller drive chains. These were included in a hardbound chain design manual, published by ARSCM in 1955, and entitled Design Manual, Roller and Silent Chain Drives. That edition and its softbound successors, published in 1968 and 1975, have seen nearly 30,000 copies distributed by the association. The association soon expanded to include manufacturers of engineering steel chains and malleable chains, and the association name was changed to the American Sprocket Chain Manu- facturers Association (ASCMA) and then to the present American Chain Association (ACA). Laboratory projects were extended to engineering steel drive chains and horsepower ratings were developed for those chains. These tables and other data developed by the association were adopted by the then American Standards Association. This latter organization also went through name changes and is known today as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standards and tables developed by the ACA are revised and updated periodically and resubmitted to ANSI for adoption. The inclusion of other types of chain in the ACA program and the development of horsepower curves for engineering steel drive chains also entailed considerable standardization of sizes. It also led to the publication, in 1971, of another manual, Engineering Steel Chains, ACA Applications Handbook; a slightly revised version appeared in 1973. The roller and silent chain manual and engineering steel chain manual, published as separate handbooks, contain some duplicate information. The text of the combined manual was formed by an editorial blending of the various sections of the two original manuals, plus some additional material not appearing in those publications. Publication of the combined manual also represents a continuation of the objectives of the ACA to enhance the quality and utility of its products. The manual presents the information developed by the ACA and all its member companies. The authorship of the first combined manual in 1982 was a combined effort of the technical committee and other representatives of the member organizations of the ACA over a period of 25 years. The second edition is the fruit of an additional 20 years of research, testing, and analysis by the member companies of the ACA. New power ratings were developed for roller and silent chains. A new chapter on flat-top conveyor chains was developed and written. And new expanded infor- mation on installation, lubrication, and maintenance was included. Customary inch-pound units are used throughout the handbook. That is because all of the American National Standard chains and sprockets were originally designed using customary inch- pounds units. All calculations should be done using customary units. When all calculations are finished, the final results can be converted to SI units using the publication, SI-1, ASME Orientation and Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units. The ACA member organizations participating in the revised combined manual may be found on the ACA Web site: www.americanchainassn.org. DK4023_C000.fm Page v Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  6. 6. Preface The first edition of this handbook was a landmark publication. It served the chain industry very well for more than 20 years. It guided many engineers and technologists through their first chain drive or conveyor selection. But the first edition was beginning to show its age. It was growing out of date in several ways. It definitely was time for a major revision. All of the existing chapters were rewritten so they would be easier to read and understand. The new chapters were written with the same goal in mind. Many copies of this book will go to people who need to absorb the information quickly and put it to use at once. Chapter 3 was completely reorganized and extensively revised to include new information on chain design considerations. Much research has been done and data released since 1982. Quite a lot of it is published here for the first time. Chapter 5 has new increased power ratings for roller chains. It also has new information on selecting drives with a life of other than 15,000 hours. Chapter 7 has new increased power ratings for silent chains. All of the chapters on selecting chain drives were reorganized to make the selection steps similar. Chapters 9 and 10 were reorganized to make the selection steps similar for all chain conveyors. Chapter 12, on selecting flat-top chain conveyors, is all new. There was nothing on flat-top chains in the first edition. This is a major addition. The former chapter 12 has been divided into three separate chapters. Now, chapter 13 deals with chain lubrication, chapter 14 deals with installation, and chapter 15 deals with chain inspection and maintenance. Much thought and effort was put into this second edition. A major effort was made to make it as user friendly as possible. The goal was to make this handbook easily usable for maintenance and distribution personnel, as well as college students and professional engineers. Personally I am very honored that the ACA selected me to do the actual writing of the second edition of this handbook. But I owe a huge thanks to all of the past and present members of the ACA Technical Committee. The ACA Technical Committee, supported by the member companies of the ACA, originally developed all of the information for this handbook. We think the effort was worth it. We hope that you will too. John L. Wright Indianapolis, Indiana DK4023_C000.fm Page vii Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  7. 7. About the Author John Wright worked for Diamond Chain Co. for 32 years. He worked in several different positions in both product engineering and applications engineering. John was General Product Manager when he retired from Diamond Chain in 1996. At that time he was responsible for all of the technical information and assistance that Diamond Chain provided to customers and users. After retiring from Diamond Chain, John started his own technical consulting business. John now works with users on chain drive and conveyor problems. He trains plant engineering and maintenance personnel on selecting and caring for chain drives and conveyors. He also does some technical writing. Before writing the revision for Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling, John wrote several magazine articles and contributed a chapter on chain drives to a mechanical engi- neering handbook. From 1996 to 2004, John was chairman of the ACA Technical Committee and the ASME B29 Standards Committee for Chains, Attachments, and Sprockets for Power Transmission and Con- veying. At the same time, John was the ANSI delegate to the ISO for Chains and Sprockets for Power Transmission and Conveyors. While he was chairman of these committees, John led the effort to redevelop and revise several important chain standards. He also worked very hard to bring many ANSI standards into harmony with their related ISO standards. DK4023_C000.fm Page ix Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  8. 8. Contents Chapter 1 A Brief History of the Development of Chain............................................................1 Early Developments...........................................................................................................................1 Cog Chain ..........................................................................................................................................1 Cast Detachable Chain.......................................................................................................................1 Cast Pintle Chain ...............................................................................................................................2 Precision Roller Chain.......................................................................................................................4 Engineering Steel Chain ....................................................................................................................9 Silent Chain......................................................................................................................................10 Flat-Top Chain .................................................................................................................................12 Terminology .....................................................................................................................................13 Chapter 2 A Chain Overview: Uses and Advantages.................................................................17 General .............................................................................................................................................17 Types of Chain.................................................................................................................................17 Scope of Chains Covered.................................................................................................................17 Styles and Forms of Chains.............................................................................................................17 Straight and Offset Link Chains......................................................................................................18 Chains with and without Rollers .....................................................................................................19 Uses of Chain...................................................................................................................................20 Standard Chains and Their Uses .....................................................................................................20 The Advantages of Chains in Applications.....................................................................................38 Advantages of Roller Chains in Drives...........................................................................................38 Advantages of Silent Chain Drives .................................................................................................39 Advantages of Engineering Steel Chain for Drives........................................................................39 Advantages of Chains on Conveyors and Bucket Elevators...........................................................39 Advantages of Using Chain in Elevator Materials Handling .........................................................40 Chapter 3 Chain Design Considerations, Construction, and Components.................................41 Basic Chain Functions .....................................................................................................................41 General Chain Design Considerations.............................................................................................41 Roller Chain Design Considerations ...............................................................................................50 Leaf Chain Design Considerations..................................................................................................60 Silent Chain Design Considerations................................................................................................66 Engineering Steel Chain Design Considerations ............................................................................71 Flat-Top Chain Design Considerations............................................................................................79 Conclusion........................................................................................................................................84 Chapter 4 Sprockets.....................................................................................................................85 Types of Sprockets...........................................................................................................................85 Sprocket Tooth Forms....................................................................................................................100 Sprocket Wheel Design..................................................................................................................106 DK4023_C000.fm Page xi Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  9. 9. Silent Chain Sprocket Teeth ..........................................................................................................109 Engineering Steel Chain Sprocket Teeth.......................................................................................112 Flat-Top Chain Sprocket Teeth......................................................................................................117 Sprocket Hubs, Keys and Keyways, Setscrews, and Shafting Selection......................................120 Chapter 5 Roller Chain Drives..................................................................................................129 Typical Applications.......................................................................................................................129 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................129 General Roller Chain Drive Selection Guidelines ........................................................................129 Roller Chain Drive Selection Procedure .......................................................................................138 Sample Roller Chain Drive Selection............................................................................................167 Equations for Horsepower Ratings................................................................................................168 Vibration.........................................................................................................................................171 Acknowledgment............................................................................................................................175 Chapter 6 Engineering Steel Chain Drives...............................................................................177 Typical Applications.......................................................................................................................177 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................177 General Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection Guidelines .....................................................177 Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection Procedure.....................................................................183 Sample Engineering Steel Chain Drive Selection.........................................................................188 Basis of Horsepower Ratings ........................................................................................................193 Alternate Selection Method ...........................................................................................................198 Chapter 7 Silent Chain Drives ..................................................................................................201 General Guidelines for Silent Chain Drive Selection...................................................................201 Silent Chain Drive Selection Procedure........................................................................................208 Sample Silent Chain Drive Selection ............................................................................................217 Derivation of Silent Chain Power Ratings ....................................................................................218 Chapter 8 Tension Linkage Chains...........................................................................................219 Roller Chains as Tension Linkages ...............................................................................................219 Tension Linkages Using Leaf Chain .............................................................................................220 Dimensions and Arrangements of Leaf Chain ..............................................................................220 Tension Linkages Using Engineering Steel Chains ......................................................................223 Characteristics of Engineering Steel Chain Tension Linkages.....................................................225 Draw Bench Applications ..............................................................................................................228 Tension Linkage Chains for Dam and Lock Gates.......................................................................229 Other Applications .........................................................................................................................230 Catenary Tension and Chain Sag...................................................................................................231 Chapter 9 Engineering Steel Chain Conveyors ........................................................................233 Types of Engineering Steel Chain Conveyors...............................................................................233 Engineering Steel Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines.............................................................249 Engineering Steel Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure..............................................................256 DK4023_C000.fm Page xii Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  10. 10. Chapter 10 Roller Chain Conveyors ...........................................................................................267 Types of Roller Chain Conveyors..................................................................................................267 Roller Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines................................................................................267 Multiple-Strand Conveyers ............................................................................................................275 Roller Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure.................................................................................279 Precision Indexing..........................................................................................................................277 Environment ...................................................................................................................................279 Sample Roller Chain Conveyor Selection.....................................................................................288 Chapter 11 Chains for Bucket Elevators.....................................................................................293 Elevators Using Engineering Steel Chains....................................................................................293 Take-Ups ........................................................................................................................................303 Design and Selection of Chain and Bucket Elevators ..................................................................304 Selection Steps...............................................................................................................................307 Elevator Chain Selection Example ................................................................................................312 Roller Chain Equipped Bucket Elevators......................................................................................314 Pivoted Bucket or Pan Conveyors .................................................................................................314 Operation Practices ........................................................................................................................315 Chapter 12 Flat-Top Chain Conveyors........................................................................................319 Flat-Top Chain Conveyor Selection Guidelines............................................................................319 Flat-Top Conveyor Chain Selection Procedure.............................................................................329 Sample Flat-Top Chain Conveyor Selection .................................................................................339 Selection Software .........................................................................................................................341 Chapter 13 Chain Lubrication.....................................................................................................343 Purpose of Lubrication...................................................................................................................343 Lubricant Characteristics ...............................................................................................................343 Lubrication of Drive Chains ..........................................................................................................345 Lubrication Types for Chain Drives ..............................................................................................345 Chain Casings ................................................................................................................................347 Temperature Increase in a Chain Casing.......................................................................................350 Lubrication of Exposed Drive Chains...........................................................................................351 Lubrication of Conveyor, Bucket Elevator, and Tension Linkage Chains....................................351 High-Temperature Lubrication.......................................................................................................355 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................358 Chapter 14 Chain Installation......................................................................................................359 Safety Precautions..........................................................................................................................359 Chain Guarding..............................................................................................................................359 Installation Steps............................................................................................................................359 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................374 Chapter 15 Chain Inspection and Maintenance..........................................................................375 Safety Precautions..........................................................................................................................375 Inspection Program ........................................................................................................................375 DK4023_C000.fm Page xiii Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association
  11. 11. Inspection and Maintenance of Chain Drives ...............................................................................376 Inspection and Maintenance of Chain Conveyors and Bucket Elevators.....................................383 Inspection and Maintenance of Tension Linkage Chains .............................................................385 Replacing and Repairing Chains ...................................................................................................386 Protecting Idle Chains and Sprockets............................................................................................386 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................386 DK4023_C000.fm Page xiv Wednesday, October 12, 2005 10:55 AM © 2006 by American Chain Association

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