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Sarah Bloomer - Building a Strategic and Effective UX Team

Sarah Bloomer - Building a Strategic and Effective UX Team

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  • 1. BUILDING A STRATEGIC UX TEAM Insights from effective UX teams Sarah Bloomer Principal UX Singapore 27 June 2013 1SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 2. Our goals for today Part 1- Team • Your team • Where to locate your team Part 2 - Culture • The impact of company culture • Use the maturity model to plan Part 3 – UX Strategy • Align UX strategy with business goals 2SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 3. Who is Sarah? SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 3 • Usability Engineering • User Centered Design • User Experience Designer • UX Director • Coach & Mentor • Mom
  • 4. Who are you? Stand up if: • You are a UX team manager • You are a UX team of one • Your team is brand new (less than a year old) • Your team is more than a year old • Your team is global and spread across different countries 4SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 5. First let’s define organizations… Software Enterprise Creative Agency The software is the business Software to support the business Website or webapps to deliver services Work with software companies and enterprises to help them design user experiences 5SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 6. What you’re creating • Commercial software • GUI • Web app • Internal software • GUI • Web apps • Enterprise apps • Websites • eCommerce • Marketing • Informational Single platform Multi-platform 6SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 7. UX strategy drivers 7 What are you trying to achieve through your UX strategy? Influence how we do things Change the culture Improve a product or service Improve development efficiency Get people to think differently Better product design What are yours? SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 8. What is a UX Strategy? 8 UX Team Acceptance Product Vision Integrated CX strategy Business Goals Brand Strategy Market Share SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 9. What makes a UX team “Strategic”? 9 IMPACT EFFORT SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 10. Implementing a strategy is change 10 Skepticism Curiosity Acceptance Partnership The better accepted your team is the higher the UX capability Ehrlich & Rohn, 1994 www.useit.com/alertbox/process_maturity.html SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 11. The Big Stumbling Blocks • Wrong focus—no alignment to business goals • Team lacks direction or cohesion • Lack of communication • No champion or support • Being unaware of your corporate culture 11 UX teams and UX strategies fail when…. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 12. YOUR WORLD How corporate culture impacts UX 12SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 13. Culture will impact your approach Design centric • Creative approach to design • Tend to design for designers—visually oriented Engineering centric • Technology driven • Have always owned the user interface Sales & Marketing centric • Believe they know their customers • Feature driven, over usability or experience 13SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 14. How to learn about culture Interview • stakeholders • the teams you’ll work with • other teams about the teams you’ll work with Identify the key decision makers • Product managers? Lead engineers? • Who owns the design? • Where are potential allies? Look for initiatives on which you can have an impact for quick wins 14SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 15. Analyzing the culture 15 Engineering/ Development: Process: Design decisions: Performance: User Experience: Formal or informal? Requirements driven? Technology driven? Deadline/budget driven? Creates nice pictures? Critical to success? Communication: User research and feedback UX Vision Yes or no? Coordinated or fragmented? Shared and understood or not? Product Definition: Ownership: Design decisions: Product managers? Marketing? Engineering? User Experience Team? Feature driven? Competitor driven? SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 16. Increase acceptance by meeting half way • Engineers like: • Rules, standards and patterns • Deadlines • Designers like: • Wireframes with latitude to do their own thing • Opportunities to be innovative • Sales & Marketing like: • Feature lists • Research 16SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 17. Know your organizational culture "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization." Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin 2001. • Myths • Values • Barriers • Opportunities 17SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 18. Identify barriers and opportunities A barrier may prevent or undermine the adoption of UX • UX is new to the organization • No skilled people • Design research is under valued An opportunity may help with acceptance of user experience activities • New senior manager with previous UX experience • Initiative to reduce the calls to technical support • Developers don’t have time to design and code 18SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 19. Identify myths and values A myth is a belief held by your stakeholders • UI design is subjective and cannot be measured or engineered • If we design for ourselves, it’ll be fine A value is a belief that defines the culture through actions • Developers are rewarded for rescuing failing projects • Pleasing senior management is good regardless of solution • We’re a consensus driven organization—everyone gets a say in the design 19SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 20. Discussion Small groups: • Pick one barrier and one opportunity at your company from the list presented • Tally the similar barriers and opportunities • Discuss them with each other: why? Together: • What are the shared experiences? 20SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 21. Barriers • UX is new to the organisation • Not enough UX resources • Difficult to hire skilled UX people • Not enough time to do research or evaluation • Product management “owns” the user interface design • Big egos / lots of politics • Limited access to users • Lack of trust between Development and Product Management • Short sprints cause Development to change design to meet deadlines • Design research is under valued • [your own] SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 21
  • 22. Opportunities • Well accepted user experience team • Senior management willing to ‘champion’ usability • Other staff are interested in user experience (eg QA, tech writers) • Starting a new product • A company reorganization • New funding for more resources • A huge product failure • Initiative to reduce the calls to technical support • Developers don’t have time to design and code • [ your own ] SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 22
  • 23. BUSINESS GOALS AND UX Base your strategy on business goals 23SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 24. What are business goals? A goal should be • Action oriented • Completed within a target time frame • Specific and well defined • Achievable yet challenging. 24 Business goals reflect the strategy of an organisation, how to accomplish the mission. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 25. Corporate vision and goals 25SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 26. Mock company: Crabb e-Software The company, Crabb e-Software, has one product: TrainingNOW. Crabb e-Software were market leaders when they first introduced a SaaS product into training management TrainingNOW is an online web application. It is designed for training management, admin and sales for commercial training. Users can: • Set up courses: assign instructors, set up location and scheduling • Track enrolment: develop student/participant lists, log contact • Generate leads: draw names from the student/customer database • Track student participation: courses attended, grades (if relevant), goals SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 26
  • 27. Crabb e-Software’s business goals • Regain position as market leader in online training management software • Increase customer base by 15% • Bring the product up to date Experience Vision for TrainingNOW TrainingNOW will be market leader by providing a seamless training management experience. Our customers will feel confident that they have a complete and current picture of their training plan and strategy. The product will allow users to be highly productive by minimizing rework, presenting easy to read overviews, and creating intuitive workflows. Users will share data and keep each other current, from administrators to executives. It will have a professional, up to date tone and style. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 27
  • 28. TrainingNOW’s experience vision 28 Brand Promise: Seamless support of all aspects of training management Customer Research: Users are: Admin Managers Marketers Telesales Office workers Multi-tasking Not web savvy Frequent and infrequent users Experience Goals: Customer is confident that TN will streamline their training management TN is seen as up to date, fast and reliable Each user group feels productive and effective Business Goal: Increase customer base by 15% SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 29. Derive UX goals from business goals 29 Experience Goal Issues Business Objectives UX Goals Success Metrics Customer is confident that TN will streamline their training management • Users report that they often enter the same prospect multiple times, so they are called repeatedly. • Sales isn’t aware when a course is close to full • Courses underperform when registrants drop out late • Administrative staff are often interrupted and lose their work • Enable sales to sell the product based on productivity gains • Increase the number of customer reference sites • Reduce customer support calls • Improve admin staff efficiency • Enable information to be viewed in different ways in multiple locations in the organization • Create reports for management which reflect improvements • Create a kick-ass customer database • Customer contact logs are shared by all users • 10% reduced customer support calls • Increase time to proficiency from 2 months to 2 weeks • 20% increase in customer satisfaction TrainingNOW SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 30. Align your UX team with goals 30 TrainingNOW: business goals • Regain position as market leader in online training management software • Increase customer base by 15% • Bring the product up to date SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 Your task: • Pick 1 UX activity to address each goal • Think about who to partner with at Crabb e-Software Now add constraints: • Release a major update in 4 months • You have 1 UX practitioner, 1 tech writer and 3 product managers
  • 31. Establish specific metrics 31 Measure Benchmark Timing Ownership Productivity improvement Reduce task time by 20%. Track and time current process (usability and end-users) 1.Usability test during dev 2.6 months after launch Product Owners UX Team Customer satisfaction Reduce customer complaints by 10% Capture current survey results Monthly for 6 months Customer Service Sales Increase sales by 10% Capture current statistics for past year Every month for a year Sales Some companies like metrics, some don’t. For those who do, choose your metrics carefully. Don’t be afraid to go for non-measurable goals: our customers report that it’s fun. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 32. YOUR UX TEAM Fit your team into your culture 32SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 33. The UX Team ingredients Goals Company 33 Location Approach People SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 34. UX is unique in every organization Business goals / drivers Product(s) & Team Process What How Who When and and Constraints Company culture Build a team that meets the needs within given constraints SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 34
  • 35. UX has evolved 35 Interaction design: Navigation Layout Controls Style and tone: Visual treatment Language Interaction design Information architecture Development Visual design Writing/Editorial Deep customer knowledge: Ongoing research and feedback Evaluation User research Experience analysis Usability testing Analytics Technology: Opportunities/constraints Trends Technology Social networking, mobile etc. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 36. 36 Modeling the user experience practice: a unified story operational model capability model user research interaction design information architecture usability engineering visual design content writing front-end development process model UX meta model user- centered taxonomies / ontology knowledge in-flows & out-flows capability interaction touch points attitude & behavior model waterfall agile leadership logistics staffing sponsorship funding personas scenarios rich pictures storyboards Jennifer Fabrizi, 2013 SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 37. Make sure the team fits into the culture Create roles your culture will accept right away • Engineering: evaluation and needs analysis • Design: information architecture and evaluation • Sales & Marketing: research (by stealth) and evaluation Recognize myths and values, change from within Build allies and demonstrate complementary skills. • Engineering: collaborate in UI design • Design: clear hand-off from wireframes to visual design • Sales & Marketing: share customer research; prioritize feature lists. Invite to usability testing sessions 37SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 38. UX Practise Models SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 38 Center of Excellence Project Project Project Project Centralised All projects go through the same process
  • 39. A strategy looks to the future 39 An experience strategy: 1. Anticipates and accounts for future form factors, technology platforms, and user expectations 2. Promotes a perspective on the character of uniquely GE product experiences 3. Uses values and principles as guides to design and development. Case study: GE wanted to drive revenue and growth through user experience practices • UX Framework • UX Process • UX Principles (tied to brand promise) GE UX Center of Excellence http://archive.mxconference.com/2012/videos/building-ux-and-design- culture-at-ge/ SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 40. UX Practise models SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 40 Decentralised Project Project Project Project Work individually Sometimes research/evaluation is centralised UX manager
  • 41. UX Practise models SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 41 Project Guild model Project Project UX manager Project Project QA Engineer Engineer Product Owner QA Engineer Engineer Product Owner QA Engineer Engineer Product Owner UX manager QA Engineer Engineer Product Owner QA Engineer Engineer Product Owner Work individually Meet together weekly for one full day
  • 42. Focus your UX design efforts 42 Priority projects: UX team works directly on product team 2nd tier projects: UX team facilitates the product team’s work Provide UI standards and resources for self-serve 3rd tier projects: Educate and facilitate: Share the outcomes of priority projects Project Project Project Project Project SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 43. Where should your team live? 43 Pros Cons IT group Same ‘team’ as analyst/programmers Not seen to be allied with users Business Same ‘team’ as end users IT sees you as not in touch with their issues In-house Pros Cons Development Same ‘team’ as analyst/programmers Not seen to be allied with users Marketing Closer to the goals of the company Fosters better relationship with marketing Engineers see you as not in touch with their issues Product team Same ‘team’ as product owners Not seen to be as familiar with technical issues or product positioning Software company Locate yourself with the group who owns design decisions SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 44. UX MATURITY Evolving UX acceptance 44SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 45. Capability Maturity 45 http://johnnyholland.org/2010/04/planning-your-ux-strategy/ SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 46. A UX Strategy implements the vision 46 Business goals / drivers Product(s) & Team Process What How Who When and and Constraints addresses both what and how SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 47. Five tactics for teams big and small 47 Communicate Share, knowledge share, integrate Educate Enable others Adapt Change, try it out, improve Leverage Find allies and opportunities Facilitate Help others, integrate SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 48. Show and include 48 Users Business Analysts Product Owners Stakeholders Product Team Users End users Developers (participatory) Stakeholders (observers) Definition workshop Field research User story mapping (Agile) Process mapping Brainstorming Sketchboarding Collaborative paper prototyping Design studio Group collaborative walkthroughs Participatory paper prototyping Usability testing 5-9 participants 2-9 participants 1-2 participants Group of 5-10 Discovery & Analysis Envision & Design Evaluate & Refine SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 49. Collaborate to communicate 49SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 50. Create “foundation teams” 50 Build relationships within your organization through Communities of Practice. Promote cross-functional collaboration. Cross-functional teams drive ongoing research, design and evaluation. Customer research Customer facing experience Product Strategy Branding Marketing UX Team Product Strategy Personas Field studies Analytics Sales Stores Customer service Tech support Training Personas Stories Customer feedback Voice of the Customer Sales Marketing UX Team Tech Support Product Development Design research Usability test results Tech support issues Release plans SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 51. Create UX Design Goals 51 Kronos Innovative Our products are modern and unique in both visual appearance and behavior. We lead the industry in leveraging the latest advances in technology. Easy to learn Like your favorite consumer products, minimal training is needed to get started. Fast & Responsive Speed matters. We balance ease-of-use with powerful features that optimize task completion with minimal time and clicks. Engaging & Playful Solve complex problems with enjoyable interactions that are an extension of customers’ everyday experiences. Smart & Powerful Make better decisions. Our products harness the power of technology and industry experience to deliver insights when and how a user needs them. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 52. 7 Evaluation Guidelines 52 User Objectives and Actions Layout & Visual Treatment Orientation Language & Terminology Feedback Forgiveness Navigation SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 At Kronos,we aligned UX goals with design principles and taught product management how to critique against the goals.
  • 53. Focus your message to the audience 53 Increase sales Lowers support and training costs Reduces IT development costs Increases product quality Increases user acceptance Increases productivity; fewer errors by end users Decreases staff turnover Fewer late design changes Potential re-use Shortens overall development cycle Meet goals of a sprint Increases product quality Decreases maintenance cost and effort Greater satisfaction; less fatigue Reduces training time and effort Less time spent seeking support and help Less learning required Fewer errors; faster error recovery Fosters focus on the tasks instead of the technology Senior managers look at the bottom line of any investment or development. How UX improves my costs? IT managers are measured on ability to meet budgets and deadlines How UX helps me make my deadline and stay within budget? Users want better and more appropriate tools & experiences How will this help me do my task better? Return on investment Performance goals Satisfaction and use Senior management IT management Users SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 In-house development
  • 54. Show the UX vision 54 • User narratives, tell stories • Conceptual prototypes • Comics and Storyboards • Kevin Cheng at kevnull.com • Sun Web Experience Design • Video • Knowledge Navigator (1987) • Mozilla Labs & Adaptive Path Aurora • Microsoft Silverlight Productivity Future Vision Knowledge Navigator: www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGYFEI6uLy0 Aurora: www.vimeo.com/1347289 Micros www.officelabs.com/Pages/Default.aspx SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 55. Talk it up all the time 55 Reduce your vision to 5 attributes that fit on one hand Modular for quick updates Supports multiple roles Easy to learn UI Enables collaboration Seamlessly integrated with other systems Describe the attributes during meetings and elevator conversations SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 56. 56 Group discussion: What is the first thing you’ll do when you get back to work? SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 57. Wrap up People Methods Location Vision Your UX Team Your world Culture UX Maturity Interaction Communicate Educate Facilitate Leverage Adapt 57SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013
  • 58. SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 58
  • 59. Sample values SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 59 • We need to ‘innovate’ and make cool technology • Pleasing senior management is good regardless of solution • The product managers are king • Developers are rewarded for ‘rescuing’ failing projects • Staff who don’t ‘rock the boat’ are safe in their jobs • Clever code solutions are applauded • Risk is dangerous
  • 60. Sample myths • UI standards can’t be implemented for all the diverse needs of the user groups • If I design for myself, it will work fine • UX conflicts with Agile • If developers are familiar with the interface guidelines and principles, they’ll design good user interfaces • UX specialists are not technical enough to grasp the requirements of systems development • Requirements are anti-agile • Users don’t know what they want SarahBloomer & Co | UX Singapore 2013 60
  • 61. SarahBloomer & Co 2013 P a g e | 1 References – Strategic UX Teams Books Cennydd Bowles and James Box. Undercover UX Design. New Riders. 2010. Arnie Lund. User Experience Management Essential Skills for Leading Effective UX Teams. Morgan Kaufman 2011 Daniel Pink. Drive The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Riverhead Books. 2011. John P Kotter. Leading Change. Paul Sherman. The User Experience Team Kit. ShermanUX.com/Files/UXKit/UX_Kit_Aug09.pdf Presentations Alcorn, Katrina. How to Manage a UX Team (without losing your mind!). March 2007/ iasummit.org/proceedings/2007/files/Katrina_alcorn-uxmanagers.pdf Kreitzberg, Charlie, Cognetics “How Can Usability Departments Become More Influential and Lead Organizational Change?” UPA 2005 http://www.upassoc.org/usability_resources/conference/2005/im_kreitzberg.html Greg Petroff. Building UX and Design Culture at GE. Adaptive Path MX 2012. http://archive.mxconference.com/2012/videos/building-ux-and-design-culture-at-ge/ Jennifer Fabrizi and Sarah Bloomer. Changing the UX Mindset - Transforming your UX team through Collaboration. February 2013. UXPA Boston. Kim Goodwin. UX Leadership. Interview with Gerry Gaffney, October 2011. http://infodesign.com.au/uxpod/uxleadership/ Kim Goodwin. Leading UX. http://www.slideshare.net/KimGoodwin/kim-goodwin-on-ux-leadership- 2011-04 Sarah Bloomer and Susan Wolfe. Building and Managing a successful UX Team. Tutorial. UPA 2011 Sarah Bloomer. Upgrading your UX Team. Virtual Seminar. April 2009. http://www.uie.com/events/virtual_seminars/upgrading/ Sarah Bloomer. Building Strategic & Effective UX Teams. Tutorial. UXPA Washington, DC. 2013 Joakim Sundén and Anders Ivarsson. Agile at Spotify. 2013. http://www.slideshare.net/JoakimSunden/agile-at-spotify Tim McCoy and Janice Fraser. Lean UX, Product Stewardship and Integrated Teams. 2011. http://www.slideshare.net/seriouslynow/lean-ux-product-stewardship-integrated-teams Articles Pabini Gabriel-Petit. Specialists Versus Generalists: A False Dichotomy? In UX Matters. 2009 http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2009/02/specialists-versus-generalists-a-false- dichotomy.php Michael Hawley. 5 Ways to be Persuasive in Your UX Work. In UX Matters. 2012. http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2011/11/5-ways-to-be-persuasive-in-your-ux-work.php Michael Hawley. Coaching Experience Designers. In UX Matters. March 20, 2012 http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2012/03/coaching-experience-designers.php
  • 62. SarahBloomer & Co 2013 P a g e | 2 Renato Feijó Planning your UX Strategy. In Johnny Holland. April 2011. http://johnnyholland.org/2010/04/planning-your-ux-strategy/ This article defines UX strategy as the whole customer experience. Leonard L. Berry, Lewis P. Carbone and Stephan H. Haeckel. Managing the Total Customer Experience. In MIT Sloane School of Management Magazine, 2002. Daniel Szuc, Paul Sherman and John S Rhodes. Selling UX. In UX Matters. 2008. http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2008/10/selling-ux.php Capability Maturity CMMI Institute, Carnegie Mellon. www.cmmiinstitue.com. Downloadable resources including CMMI models Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/?location=secondary- nav&source=652373 Nielsen, Jakob. Corporate Usability Maturity: Stages 1-4 Alertbox. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/maturity.html 2006 Nielsen, Jakob. Corporate Usability Maturity: Stages 5-8 Alertbox. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/process_maturity.html 2006 Rich Buttiglieri’s presentation to UXPA Boston on UX Maturity Models http://www.slideshare.net/UPABoston/ux-maturity-modelbuttiglieri. Rich includes other exemplars of UXMMs. Steve Psomas. The Five Competencies of UX Design. 2007. http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2007/11/the-five-competencies-of-user-experience-design.php Other research Sarah Bloomer & Susan Wolfe. Effective UX Teams. 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013. This survey has been sent to UX team managers worldwide to track how internal UX teams are structured, issues faced and solution. Yury Vetrov. How to Calculate the ROI of UX Using Metrics. UX Matters. 9 July 2012. http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2012/07/how-to-calculate-the-roi-of-ux-using-metrics.php IDSA site. GE User Experience Strategy and Capacity Building http://idsa.org/ge-user-experience- strategy-and-capacity-building Blogs Louis Rosenfeld. Blog: Oct 14, 2003: What Would MachIAvelli Do? http://www.louisrosenfeld.com/home/bloug_archive/000211.html 2003 Cameron Moll. Nine Patterns among Virtuoso UX Teams. May 2013. http://cameronmoll.tumblr.com/post/49513340428/nine-patterns-among-virtuoso-ux-teams Margaret Gould Stewart and Graham Jenkin. http://managinguxteams.com/ 2011 Discontinued blog about managing UX teams in start ups. Brandon Schauer. 7 (Video) Lessons for Managers of UX. 2012. http://adaptivepath.com/ideas/7- video-lessons-for-managers-of-ux Brandon Schauer. Just What is a UX Manager? 2012. http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/just-what-is- a-ux-manager